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Basic School Chemistry Revision Notes Links e.g. suitable for 14-16 GCSE level and US grade 9-10

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Doc Brown's detailed chemistry revision notes for schools and colleges

Suitable for AQA GCSE chemistry, Edexcel GCSE chemistry, OCR Gateway Science GCSE chemistry, OCR 21st Century Science GCSE chemistry, IGCSE  chemistry, O level chemistry, ~US grades 9 and 10 chemistry science courses or equivalent for ~14 to 16 year old and any English speaking college students of chemistry

MAKE SURE YOU KNOW WHETHER YOU ARE DOING SEPARATE GCSE CHEMISTRY OR COMBINED SCIENCES including chemistry

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Index of ALL MY GCSE Science course Help Links

other GCSE/IGCSE/O level science courses

GCSE Level Chemistry QUIZZES

Advanced UK A/AS level, IB and US grade 11-12 pre-university chemistry

A MORE DETAILED INDEX of my GCSE 9-1 CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES

Sub-index for this page - chemistry notes and quiz links grouped according to ...

Some important basics of CHEMISTRY and of what use is chemistry? including methods of separating mixtures

Chemical analysis - chemical tests used in school/college laboratories

Acids, Alkalis, pH scale, bases, neutralisation, salt preparations and tests for ions and gases

Water and aspects of aqueous chemistry

The Periodic Table, Periods, Groups and Series of Elements

Reversible reactions, chemical equilibrium, ammonia, nitric acid, fertilisers, pollution

Reactivity Series of Metals, Experiments and Corrosion

The Mining and Extraction of Metals - iron, copper, aluminium, recycling

More on aspects of industrial chemistry - applications of chemistry, chemical industry, life cycle assessments

Electrochemistry and Electrolysis Experiments, fuel cells

What controls the RATE (speed) of chemical reactions? Including collision theory and experimental procedures

Energy transfer changes in chemistry - exothermic and endothermic reactions

States of Matter - Gases, Liquids and Solids - Particle Models

Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding - ionic, covalent and metallic

Materials Science - Nanochemistry and Smart Materials

OIL and its useful products and an Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Earth Science - types of rocks and plate tectonics

Chemical Calculations - how to solve numerical problems in chemistry

Radioactivity, alpha, beta & gamma ionising radiations, nuclear power


Groups of associated notes and quiz links

Some important basics of CHEMISTRY and of what use is chemistry?

including methods of separating mixtures

Some important ideas and definitions in Chemistry, what is a chemical change-reaction?

See also Law of Conservation of Mass

Methods of Separating Mixtures

Distillation - Simple and Fractional Distillation 

Paper & thin layer chromatography (tlc) and gas chromatography (gc, glc)

Filtration, evaporation, crystallisation, drying and decantation

Separating funnel, magnet, solvent extraction, centrifuge

How to write and interpret chemical equations, work out formula and name compounds

Quizzes-Worksheets section 1. (opens in new window for convenience)

Types of Chemical Reactions or Chemical Processes and Quizzes-Worksheets section 1.

Uses of Chemicals - 220+ examples briefly described

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Chemical analysis - chemical tests used in school/college laboratories

Introduction to ANALYSIS, qualitative chemical Identification tests & qualitative chemical analysis & hazard symbols

Qualitative tests to identify organic molecule functional groups of homologous series

Tests for metal cations (positive ions), metal carbonates, ammonium ion

Tests for gases, water and non-metallic elements

Tests for anions (negative ions)

Summary of tests for GCSE of some common ions, including flame colours, spectra, element identification

Paper & thin layer chromatography (tlc) and gas chromatography (gc, glc)

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis

Methods of preparing and collecting gases revision notes

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Acids, Alkalis, pH scale, bases, neutralisation, salt preparations and tests for ions and gases

INDEX of pH scale, acids, alkalis, salts

Everyday examples of acid-alkali chemistry and hazard warning symbols

pH scale, indicators, ionic theory of acids, alkalis (bases) & neutralisation

Acid reactions with metals, oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and neutralisation reactions

Reactions of bases-alkalis like sodium hydroxide

Methods of making salts, summary of tests for common ions

Making a salt by neutralising a soluble acid with a soluble base (alkali) - neutralisation reaction

Preparing a salt by reacting an acid with a metal or with an insoluble base - oxide, hydroxide or carbonate

Preparing an insoluble salt by mixing solutions of two soluble compounds

Making a salt by directly combining its constituent elements

Changes in pH in a neutralisation - pH curves graphs

Important formulae, salt solubility and water of crystallisation

More on Acid-Base Theory of Weak and Strong Acids, examples explained

Volumetric titration analysis calculations, acid-alkali titrations (methods and diagrams of apparatus).

Summary of tests for some common ions and gases

Introduction to qualitative tests and chemical analysis

TESTS for Metal cations (positive ions), metal carbonates, ammonium ion, hydrogen ions (acids)

TESTS for Anions (negative ions) including hydroxide (alkalis)

TESTS for Gases, water and non–metallic elements

Quizzes-Worksheets section 12. (opens in new window for convenience)

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WATER and aspects of aqueous chemistry

INDEX of water notes

Water cycle, treatment including filtration and chlorination, pollution

Colloids - sols, foam and emulsions, section on paints and pigments

Hard and soft water - causes and treatment

Gas and salt solubility in water and solubility curves

Calculation of water of crystallisation

Electrolysis of water (dilute sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, certain salts)

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The Periodic Table, Periods, Groups and Series of Elements

Atomic Structure with reference to Periodic Table

The Periodic Table - overview and summary

and Quizzes-Worksheets section 3. (opens in new window for convenience)

Group 1 The Alkali Metals, physical & chemical properties, uses

and Quizzes-Worksheets section 4. (opens in new window for convenience)

Group 7 The Halogens, physical & chemical properties

See also Salt NaCl extraction, electrolysis products, uses of halogens

and Quizzes-Worksheets section 8. (opens in new window for convenience)

Group 0/8 Noble Gases and Quizzes-Worksheets section 7.

Transition Metals - chemistry, properties and uses

and Quizzes-Worksheets section 5. (opens in new window for convenience)

ELEMENT DATA - huge database

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Reversible  Reactions, Chemical equilibrium, ammonia, nitric acid and fertilisers

Sub-index

Reversible Reactions

Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia

The Uses of ammonia-nitric acid-fertilisers, making fertiliser salts

Fertilisers - environmental problems - eutrophication

The nitrogen cycle

Quizzes-Worksheets section 9. (opens in new window for convenience)

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Reactivity Series of Metals, experiments and Corrosion

The Reactivity Series of Metals

Corrosion - Rusting of Iron and Introduction to oxidation & reduction - redox reactions

Metal Reactivity Series Experiments-Observations and explanations

Quizzes-Worksheets section 14. (opens in new window for convenience)

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The Mining and Extraction of Metals

INDEX and introduction to the extraction of metals

Introduction to Metal Extraction

Extraction of Iron and Steel Making

Extraction of Aluminium and Sodium

Extraction and Purification of Copper

Extraction of Zinc, Titanium and Chromium

Economic & environmental Issues - emphasis on metal extraction

Quizzes-Worksheets section 13. (opens in new window for convenience)

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More on aspects of industrial chemistry - applications of chemistry, life cycle assessments

Limestone, lime - uses, thermal decomposition of carbonates, hydroxides and nitrates

Enzymes and Biotechnology

Contact Process, the importance of sulphuric acid

How can metals be made more useful? (alloys of Al, Fe, steel etc.)

The importance of titanium

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis

Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industry Economics, Sustainability & Life Cycle Assessment

Products of the Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industries & impact on us

The Principles & Practice of Chemical Production - Synthesising Molecules

See also

Economic & environmental Issues - emphasis on mining, metal extraction and recycling

Salt NaCl extraction, electrolysis products, uses of halogens

The chemistry and economics of the Haber Synthesis of ammonia

Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia

Introduction to Metal Extraction

Electrochemistry, electrolysis and applications

Introduction to 'Formulation Chemistry' e.g. cosmetics, shampoos, paints, pesticides etc.

Quizzes-Worksheets section 10. (opens in new window for convenience)

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Electrochemistry and Electrolysis, simple cells and batteries

INDEX Electrochemistry, electrolysis and applications

Introduction to electrolysis – electrolytes, non–electrolytes, electrode equations

Electrolysis of water (dilute sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, certain salts)

Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine)

See also Salt - NaCl - extraction - products uses of halogens

Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution

Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide (and other molten compounds) 

Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution

Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid

Summary of electrode equations and products

Summary of electrolysis products from various electrolytes

Simple cells (batteries)

Simple batteries and hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

See also

Extraction of Aluminium and Sodium

Extraction and Purification of Copper, electroplating

Electrolysis products calculations (negative cathode and positive anode products)

Quizzes-Worksheets section 21. (opens in new window for convenience)

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The RATE (speed) of chemical reactions, factors, collision theory and experimental procedures

Factors affecting the rates-speeds of chemical reactions GCSE revision study notes

What do we mean by the rate/speed of reaction? Examples, How do we measure rate? Experimental methods

Collision theory of chemical reactions and activation energy

Effect of changing concentration on rate

Effect of changing pressure on rate

Effect of changing particle size/surface area & stirring of a solid reactant on rate

Effect of changing temperature on rate

Effect of using a catalyst on rate

Light initiated reactions

More examples of graphs and their interpretation

Quizzes-Worksheets section 2. (opens in new window for convenience)

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Energy transfer changes in chemistry - exothermic and endothermic reactions

Sub-index of energy changes-transfers in chemical reactions notes

Heat changes in chemical/physical changes - exothermic and endothermic

Reversible reactions and energy changes

Activation energy and reaction profiles

Catalysts and activation energy

Introduction to bond energy/enthalpy calculations

Calorimeter methods of determining energy changes

Energy transfer calculations from calorimeter results

See also

The hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

Burning Fossil Fuels

Fuel uses of oil fractions, What makes a good fuel?

Combustion of hydrocarbons

Quizzes-Worksheets section 15. (opens in new window for convenience)

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States of Matter - Gases, Liquids and Solids - Particle Models

States of Matter Part 1 - particle theory - gas, liquid & solid GCSE study revision notes

States of Matter Part 2 - Gas Law Calculations, Ideal gases etc.

Quizzes-Worksheets section 16. (opens in new window for convenience)

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Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding - ionic, covalent and metallic

Atomic Structure including isotopes and Quizzes-Worksheets section 17.

INDEX of all Types of Chemical Bonding and Materials Science Notes

Introduction to Chemical Bonding

Ionic Bonding - compounds and properties

Covalent Bonding -small simple molecules and properties

Covalent Bonding - macromolecules and giant covalent structures

Metallic Bonding - structure and properties of metals

Quizzes-Worksheets section 18. (opens in new window for convenience)

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Materials Science - Nanochemistry and Smart Materials

A general survey of the properties and uses of a range of materials (natural & synthetic)

INDEX and introduction to NANOCHEMISTRY

General introduction to nanoscience and commonly used terms explained

NANOCHEMISTRY - an introduction and potential applications

Uses of Nanoparticles of titanium(IV) oxide, fat and silver

From fullerenes & bucky balls to carbon nanotubes

Graphene and Fluorographene

Cubic and hexagonal boron nitride BN

Problems, issues and implications associated with using nanomaterials

INDEX and introduction to SMART MATERIALS which obviously overlaps with nanomaterials

Chromogenic - thermochromic pigments, paints, photochromic, electrochromic & phosphorescent materials

Shape memory alloys e.g. Nitinol & uses and Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

Shape memory polymers, pH and temperature sensitive-responsive polymers, Self-healing materials

Lycra-Spandex

High performance polymers like Kevlar

Gore-Tex, Thinsulate and Teflon-PTFE

Piezoelectric effect (piezoelectric materials) & Photochromic materials

Carbon fibres

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OIL and its useful products and an Introduction to Organic Chemistry

INDEX Chemistry Oil & Organic Chemistry Pages

Fossil Fuels and Carbon Cycle

Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions, What makes a good fuel?

ALKANES - saturated hydrocarbons, physical and chemical properties - combustion

Pollution, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, climate change-global warming (3 relevant pages)

ALKENES - unsaturated hydrocarbons, physical and chemical properties

More on the uses of plastics, issues with using plastics, solutions and recycling methods

Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products

Addition polymers - plastics, structure, manufacture and uses e.g. PE, PP, PVC, PTFE, PS

More on the uses of plastics, issues with using plastics, solutions and recycling methods

Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of organic compounds?

Alcohols - Ethanol - manufacture, properties and reactions

Biofuels, biomass, biodiesel, comparison of alternative fuels

Carboxylic acids - chemistry and uses

Esters preparation - chemistry and uses - flavourings, perfumes, solvents etc.

More on Addition polymers & condensation polymers, comparing thermoplastics, thermosets, fibres and uses

Natural Molecules - carbohydrates - sugars - starch

Amino acids, proteins, enzymes & chromatography

Oils, fats, margarine and soaps

Vitamins, drugs-analgesic medicines & food additives

Ozone, CFC's and free radicals

Quizzes-Worksheets section 11.  (opens in new window for convenience)

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Earth Science - types of rocks and plate tectonics


Chemical Calculations - how to solve numerical problems in chemistry

INDEX  of Chemical Calculations for GCSE and AS (basic)

What is relative atomic mass? (Ar) and relative isotopic mass

Calculating relative formula/molecular mass (Mr) of a compound or element molecule

Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations

Composition by percentage (%) mass of elements in a compound

Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products (NOT using moles and brief mention of actual percent % yield and theoretical yield, atom economy and formula mass determination

Reacting masses, concentration of solution and volumetric titration calculations (NOT using moles)

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass).

Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law

Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

Volumetric titration analysis calculations, acid-alkali titrations (methods and diagrams of apparatus).

Electrolysis products calculations (negative cathode and positive anode products)

Other calculations

Explaining and calculating % purity of a product

Explaining and calculating % reaction yield, reasons why never 100%

Explaining and calculating atom economy

Dilution of solutions calculations

Water of crystallisation calculations

Calculation of how much of a reactant is needed?

Energy transfers in physical/chemical changes, activation energies and reaction profiles

Gas calculations involving PVT relationships, Boyle's and Charles Laws

Chemical calculation quizzes - with notes index  (opens in new window for convenience)

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Radioactivity, alpha, beta & gamma ionising radiations, nuclear power

LINKS for my revision pages for the GCSE 9-1 science-chemistry courses

MAKE SURE YOU KNOW WHETHER YOU ARE DOING SEPARATE SCIENCES OR COMBINED SCIENCES

AQA GCSE 9-1 Sciences-chemistry

AQA GCSE (Grade 9-1) CHEMISTRY 8462 CHEMISTRY 1st Paper (Topics 1-5)

AQA GCSE (Grade 9-1) Combined Science Trilogy Chemistry 8464  chemistry 1st Paper (Topics 8-12)

AQA GCSE (Grade 9-1) CHEMISTRY 8462 CHEMISTRY 2nd Paper (Topics 6-10)

AQA GCSE (Grade 9-1) Combined Science Trilogy Chemistry 8464 chemistry 2nd Paper (Topics 13-17)


Edexcel GCSE 9-1 Sciences-chemistry

Edexcel GCSE (Grade 9-1) CHEMISTRY 1st CHEMISTRY Paper 1 (Topics 1-5)

Edexcel GCSE (Grade 9-1) Combined Science Chemistry 1st chemistry Paper 1  (Topics 1-4)

Edexcel GCSE (Grade 9-1) CHEMISTRY 2nd CHEMISTRY Paper 2 (Topics 1, 6-9)

Edexcel GCSE (Grade 9-1) Combined Science Chemistry 2nd chemistry Paper 2 (Topics 1, 12-14)


OCR GCSE 9-1 Gateway Sciences-chemistry

OCR (Grade 9-1) GCSE Gateway CHEMISTRY A 1st gcse CHEMISTRY paper (Topics C1-3)

OCR (Grade 9-1) GCSE Gateway Comb. Science A chemistry 1st combined science chemistry paper (Top's C1-3)

OCR (Grade 9-1) GCSE Gateway CHEMISTRY A 2nd gcse CHEMISTRY paper (Topics C4-6)

OCR (Grade 9-1) GCSE Gateway Comb. Science A chemistry 2nd combined science chemistry paper (Top's C4-6)


OCR GCSE 9-1 21st Century Sciences-chemistry

OCR (Grade 9-1) GCSE 21st Century science CHEMISTRY B GCSE CHEMISTRY papers (Chapters C1-3)

OCR (Grade 9-1) GCSE 21st Century Comb. Science B combined science chemistry papers (Chapters C1-3)

OCR (Grade 9-1) GCSE 21st Century Science CHEMISTRY B GCSE CHEMISTRY papers (Chapters C4-6)

OCR (Grade 9-1) GCSE 21st Century Comb. Science B combined science chemistry papers (Chapters C4-6)


Learning objectives and learning outcomes for selected syllabus specification exam requirements

AQA GCSE 9-1 level chemistry revision notes and quizzes

Edexcel GCSE 9-1 level chemistry revision notes and quizzes

OCR Gateway Science GCSE 9-1 level chemistry revision notes and quizzes

OCR Twenty First Century Science GCSE 9-1 level chemistry revision notes and quizzes

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My last GCSE Science-Chemistry-Physics class Set 10DE1 Whitby Community College 2002-2003

Good memories of GCSE chemistry and physics teaching at Whitby Community College (1978-2003)

(now Caedmon College, Whitby, North Yorkshire, England)

Year 12 AS Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 12 January 2002

Year 12 AS Advanced Level Salters Chemistry Students at Whitby Community College Year 12 January 2002

My last GCSE Science-Chemistry-Physics class Set 10DE1 Whitby Community College 2002-2003

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