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Index of my School Physics Revision Notes

Doc Brown's GCSE Physics Revision Study Notes

Suitable for GCSE physics, IGCSE physics, O level physics, ~US grades 9 and 10 physics science courses or equivalent for pupils aged ~14 to 16 year old and any English speaking college students of school physics

I've written GCSE physics revision notes for AQA GCSE physics, Edexcel GCSE physics, OCR (gateway science physics and 21st Century Science physics) exam board specifications. To add all formulae needed

AND links to the GCSE science/physics pages summarising what you need to know for any GCSE science/physics paper specification (exam paper link section)

Index of ALL GCSE Sciences Help Links

Sub-index for this page

Energy - types, sources, uses  *  Heat - conduction, convection, radiation, specific heat

Electricity and magnetism  *  States of matter - properties of gases, liquids, solids

Waves - electromagnetic radiation, lenses, optics, sound, astronomy and stars

Atomic structure and radioactivity  *  Forces - types, examples, calculations

Motion - Newton's Laws, applications and calculations

Appendix 1 Units  *  Appendix 2 Numbers !!!

Help links for GCSE Combined Science and Physics courses



Energy resources, energy transfers, work done & electrical power supply

Types of energy & stores - examples compared/explained, calculations of mechanical work done & power

Chemical energy stores  * Elastic potential energy stores and calculations 

Electrical & electrostatic energy stores  *  Gravitational potential energy and calculations 

Kinetic energy stores and calculations  *  Nuclear energy store

Thermal energy stores  *  Light energy  * Sound energy  * Magnetic energy stores

Conservation of energy, energy transfers-conversions, efficiency - calculations and Sankey diagrams

See also Methods of reducing heat transfer eg in a house, insulating properties of materials

Energy resources: uses, survey, trends, comparing renewables, non-renewables, generating electricity

Renewable energy (1) Wind power and solar power, advantages and disadvantages

Renewable energy (2) Hydroelectric power and geothermal power, advantages and disadvantages

Renewable energy (3) Wave power and tidal barrage power, advantages and disadvantages

See also Renewable energy - biomass - biofuels & alternative fuels, hydrogen, biogas, biodiesel

Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

Absorption & emission of radiation - temperature & surface factors including global warming

The Usefulness of Electricity

and The 'National Grid' power supply, mention of small scale supplies, transformers

energy pages 5 & 6 spare



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Heat Transfer: Explaining physical changes & physical properties using particle models

Much of this is to do with thermal energy ('heat') transfers from one store to another

Introduction to heat transfer - conduction (and thermal conductivity), convection and radiation

Specific heat capacity: how to determine it, use of data, calculations and thermal energy stores

Energy transfer and efficiency - calculations and Sankey diagrams

More on reducing heat transfer eg in a house and investigating insulating properties of materials

Particle theory models: gases, liquid, solid, internal energy, heat transfer in state changes, latent heat

The density of materials (including measurements) and the particle model of matter

See also

Absorption & emission of radiation by materials - temperature & surface factors including global warming

and Global warming, climate change, reducing our carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning



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Electricity and magnetism revision notes index

1. Usefulness of electricity, safety, energy transfer, cost & power calculations, P = IV = I2R, E = Pt, E=IVt

2. Electrical circuits and how to draw them, circuit symbols, parallel circuits and series circuits explained

3. Ohm's Law, experimental investigations of resistance, I-V graphs, calculations V = IR, Q = It, E = QV

4. Circuit devices and how are they used? (e.g. thermistor, LDR, diode), relevant graphs

5. More on series and parallel circuits, circuit diagrams, measurements and calculations

6. The 'National Grid' power supply, environmental issues, use of transformers

7. Comparison of methods of generating electricity  (= energy 1 page)

8. Static electricity and electric fields, uses and dangers of static electricity

9. Magnetism - magnetic materials - temporary (induced) and permanent magnets - uses

10. Electromagnetism, solenoid coils, uses of electromagnets

11. Motor effect of an electric current, electric motor, loudspeaker, Fleming's left-hand rule, F = BIL

12. Generator effect, applications e.g. generators generating electricity and microphone



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States of matter, state changes and gas laws revision notes index

Particle models of gasesliquidssolids, explaining properties, state changes (GCSE chemistry notes)

Particle theory models, internal energy, heat transfer in state changes and latent heat and particle motion in gases and gas pressure (written more from a GCSE 'physics' point of view)

P-V-T pressure-volume-temperature gas laws and calculations (revision notes for physicists or chemists!)

The density of materials and the particle model of matter



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WAVES - electromagnetic radiation, sound, optics-lenses, light & astronomy

General introduction to the types and properties of waves, ripple tank expts, how to do wave calculations

Illuminated & self-luminous objects, reflection, visible light, ray box experiments, ray diagrams, mirror uses

Refraction and diffraction, the visible light spectrum, prism investigations, ray diagrams explained

Electromagnetic spectrum, sources, types, properties, uses (including medical) and dangers

Absorption & emission of radiation by materials - temperature & surface factors including global warming

See also Global warming, climate change, reducing our carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

Optics - types of lenses (convex, concave, uses), experiments and ray diagrams, correction of eye defects

The visible spectrum of colour, light filters and explaining the colour of objects

Sound waves, properties explained, speed measure, uses of sound, ultrasound, infrasound, earthquakes

The Structure of the Earth, crust, mantle, core and earthquake waves (seismic wave analysis)

Astronomy - solar system, stars, galaxies and use of telescopes and satellites

The life cycle of stars - mainly worked out from emitted electromagnetic radiation

Cosmology - the Big Bang Theory of the Universe, the red-shift & microwave background radiation



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Atomic structure, radioactivity, ionising radiation - properties and uses

Atomic structure, history, definitions, examples and explanations including isotopes

1. Atomic structure and fundamental particle knowledge needed to understand radioactivity

2. What is Radioactivity? Why does it happen? Three types of atomic-nuclear-ionising radiation

3. Detection of radioactivity, its measurement and radiation dose units, ionising radiation sources - radioactive materials, background radiation

4. Alpha, beta & gamma radiation - properties of 3 types of radioactive nuclear emission & symbols ,dangers of radioactive emissions - health and safety issues and ionising radiation

5. Uses of radioactive isotopes emitting alpha, beta (+/) or gamma radiation in industry and medicine

6. The half-life of a radioisotope - how long does material remain radioactive? implications!, uses of decay data and half-life values - archaeological radiocarbon dating, dating ancient rocks

7. What actually happens to the nucleus in alpha and beta radioactive decay and why? nuclear equations!, the production of radioisotopes - artificial sources of radioactive-isotopes, cyclotron

8. Nuclear fusion reactions and the formation of 'heavy elements' by bombardment techniques

9. Nuclear Fission Reactions, nuclear power as an energy resource



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Forces

1. What are contact forces & non-contact forces?, scalar & vector quantities, free body force diagrams

2. Mass and the effect of gravity force on it - weight, (mention of work done, GPE and circular motion)

3. Calculating resultant forces using vector diagrams, also includes work done calculations

4. Elasticity and energy stored in a spring, experimental investigations and calculations

5. Turning forces & moments - spanners to wheelbarrows, levers, gears & equilibrium situations

6. Pressure P = F/A calculations for standing solids, pressure in fluids and hydraulic systems

7. Pressure & upthrust in fluids, why objects float/sink? Variation of atmospheric pressure with height



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Motion and associated forces (including Newton's Laws of Motion)

1. Speed and velocity - the relationship between distance and time, distance-time graphs

2. Acceleration, velocity-time graph interpretation and calculations, problem solving

3. Acceleration, friction, drag effects and terminal velocity experiments

4. Newton's First, Second and Third Laws of Motion, inertia and F = ma calculations

5. Reaction times, stopping distances, safety aspects. calculations including F = ma

6. Elastic and non-elastic collisions, momentum calculations and Newton's 2nd law of motion



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Appendix 1 - UNITS

Most GCSE physics courses will expect you to know and be able to use the following units

Be able to recall and use the following SI units:

metre, unit symbol: m;   kilogram unit symbol: kg;   second unit symbol: s

ampere unit symbol: A;  kelvin unit symbol: K;   mole unit symbol: mol;

AND some derived units with special names: name unit abbreviation:

Frequency hertz Hz,  Force newton N, Energy joule J, Power watt W,

Pressure pascal Pa, Electric charge coulomb C

Electric potential difference volt V,  Electric resistance ohm Ω,  Magnetic flux density tesla T

Be able to recall and use multiples and sub-multiples of units, including using:

giga (G, 109),  mega (M, 106),  kilo (k, 103), centi  (c, 10-2),  milli (m, 10-3),  micro (μ, 10-6)  and  nano (n, 10-9)

Be able to convert between different units, including hours to seconds.

Be able to use significant figures and standard form where appropriate



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Appendix 2 The numbers game! Using numerical equivalents

e.g.: 1 m 10-6 m, 1 nm 1.0 x 10-9 m, 1 mm 1.0 x 10-3 m, 1 cm 1.0 x 10-2 m,

1 m 1.0 x 106 m, 1 m 1.0 x 109 nm, 1 mm 1.0 x 103 m, 1 cm 1.0 x 104 m, 1 m 1.0 x 106 m (etc.!)

Numerical prefixes you should know for your gcse science-physics courses

10n Prefix 10n Prefix
1024 yotta 10-1 deci (d)
1021 zetta 10-2 centi (c)
1018 exa 10-3 milli (m)
1015 peta 10-6 micro ()
1012 tera (T) 10-9 nano (n)
109 giga (G) 10-12 pico (p)
106 mega (M) 10-15 femto
103 kilo (k) 10-18 atto
100 (none) 10-21 zepto

Another numbers game that can cost you marks in an exam!

Significant figures and what is legitimate to quote for a final numerical answer

Since many sections of physics involve calculations, significant figure quotation should follow the rule:

Significant figures (s.f.) is the limit of numerical accuracy you can be sure of e.g.

If the data numbers in a question are 20, 25, 0.125, 678, 1.234, you can only quote the final answer to the nearest 2 sf - dictated by the 20 (only quoted to 2 s.f.) even though the data is quoted to 3 or 4 significant figures..

If the question data said 20.0, you could still only quote the final answer to 2 s.f. because of the 25.

If the question data said 20.0 and 25.1, you could then quote the final answer to 3 s.f.

Any intermediate working is not governed by this convention, only the final answer to a specific calculation.



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LINKS for my revision pages for the GCSE 9-1 science-physics courses, next exams May-June 2021

Revision Summaries for the new GCSE PHYSICS/combined science physics courses

AQA GCSE Physics 8463 1st Paper (Topics 1-4, Combined Science Trilogy Physics 1 Topics 18-21)

AQA GCSE Physics 8463 2nd Paper (Topics 5-8, Combined Science Trilogy Physics 2 Topics 22-24)

Edexcel GCSE (9-1) Physics  1st Paper (Topics 1-7 & Combined Science Chemistry 2 Topics 1-8)

Edexcel GCSE (9-1) Physics 2nd Paper (Topics 1, 8-15 & Combined Science Chemistry 2 Topics 1, 8-10, 12-15)

OCR (9-1) Gateway Science GCSE Physics A 1st Paper (Topics P1-4 & Combined Science A physics 1 Topics P1-4)

OCR (9-1) Gateway Science GCSE Physics2nd Paper (Topics P5-8 & Combined Science A physics 1 Topics P5-8)

OCR (9-1) 21st Century Science GCSE Physics B Chapters P1-3 (Chapters P1-3, GCSE Combined Science B physics)

OCR (9-1) 21st Century Science GCSE Physics B Chapters P4-6 (Chapters P4-6, GCSE Combined Science B physics)



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IGCSE GCSE revision notes gcse physics revision KS4  physics Science notes on gcse physics revision GCSE physics guide notes on gcse physics revision for schools colleges academies science course tutors images pictures diagrams for gcse physics revision science revision notes on gcse physics revision for revising  physics modules physics topics notes to help on understanding of gcse physics revision university courses in biological science careers in science  physics jobs in the pharmaceutical industry laboratory assistant apprenticeships internships technical internships in  physics USA US grade 8 grade 9 grade10 AQA  physics science GCSE notes on gcse physics revision Edexcel physics science notes on gcse physics revision for OCR 21st century  physics science OCR GCSE Gateway  physics science notes WJEC gcse science CCEA/CEA gcse science


 
I│ ≈ ∏ ← → ↑  ↓ ↔ ↕ Σ √  λ   θ  ρ   ∆ ϱ σ α β  β+ γ Ω  π       ∕    + = < << >> >  ~ σ Δ  Doc Brown     \     Џ П

  v = f x λ  *  f = v / λ  *  λ = v / f

s = d / t  *  t = d / s  *  d = s x t

F = ma  *  m = F / a  *  a = F / m


Doc Brown's School SCIENCE Revision Notes

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