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Index of Doc Brown's School Biology Revision Notes

INDEX of Doc Brown's School Biology Revision Study Notes

Suitable for GCSE biology, IGCSE  biology, O level biology, ~US grades 9 and 10 biology science courses or equivalent for ~14 to 16 year old and any English speaking college students of biology

For the UK schools I've have written GCSE biology notes for AQA GCSE biology, Edexcel GCSE biology, OCR (gateway science biology and 21st Century Science biology) exam board specifications

 AND to the GCSE science/biology pages summarising what you need to know for any GCSE science/biology paper specification (exam paper link section)

Index of ALL GCSE Sciences Help Links

Sub-index for this page

General cell biology  *  Genetics  *  General human biology  *  General plant biology

From evolution to classification  *  The environment, ecology and biodiversity

Help links for GCSE Combined Science and Biology courses



General CELL BIOLOGY and GENETICS revision notes index

Introduction to plant and animal cell structure and function - comparison of subcellular structures

Stem cells and medical uses, and an introduction to cell differentiation and specialisation

Cell division - cell cycle - mitosis, meiosis, sexual/asexual reproduction, binary fission, cancer cells 

Microscopy - the development and use of microscopes in biology - optical and electron

Diffusion - including demonstration, factors & Fick's Law, osmosis investigation and active transport

Examples of surfaces for the exchange of substances in animal organisms

Respiration - aerobic/anaerobic in plants, fungi & animals, substrates/products, experimental investigations

Enzymes - structure, functions, optimum conditions, investigation experiments, human digestion system

See also Enzymes and Biotechnology (gcse chemistry notes)

Culturing microorganisms like bacteria - testing antibiotics and antiseptics


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Sub-index of Genetics Notes - from DNA to proteins to GM and lots in between!

Cell division - cell cycle - mitosis, meiosis, sexual/asexual reproduction, binary fission and cancer 

DNA and RNA structure and Protein Synthesis and an experiment to extract DNA

An introduction to genetic variation and the formation and consequence of mutations

Introduction to the inheritance of characteristics and genetic diagrams (including Punnett squares)  including technical terms, Mendel's work and inherited genetic disorders, genetic testing

The human GENOME project - gene expression, chromosomes, alleles, genotype, phenotype, variations, uses of genetic testing including 'pros and cons'

Inherited characteristics and human sexual reproduction - gender, genetic fingerprinting and its uses

Genetic engineering: uses - making insulin, medical applications, GM crops & food security

More complicated genetics: Sex-linked genetic disorders, inheritance of blood groups

See also section on Cloning - tissue culture of plants and animals



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General human biology revision notes - including some other appropriate animal biology

See also cell biology index above too

Introduction to the organisation of cells => tissues => organs => organ systems (e.g. in humans)

Examples of surfaces for the exchange of substances in animal organisms (includes small intestine)

See also Enzymes - section on human digestion, metabolism and synthesis  gcse biology

The human circulatory system - heart, lungs, blood, blood vessels, causes/treatment of cardiovascular disease

Hormone systems - Introduction to the endocrine system - adrenaline & thyroxine hormones

Hormone systems - menstrual cycle, contraception, fertility treatments

See also

Cell division - mitosis, meiosis, sexual/asexual reproduction

Inherited characteristics and human sexual reproduction

Homeostasis - introduction to how it functions (negative feedback systems explained) 

Homeostasis - control of blood sugar level - insulin and diabetes

Homeostasis - osmoregulation, ADH, water control, urea and ion concentrations, kidney function, dialysis

Homeostasis - thermoregulation, control of temperature

The brain - what the different parts do and the dangers if damaged

An introduction to the nervous system including the reflex arc

Respiration - aerobic and anaerobic in plants and animals, investigations

Keeping healthy - communicable diseases - pathogen infections

Keeping healthy - non-communicable diseases - risk factors for e.g. CVD, cancers, obesity, diabetes, body/mass/hip indexes

Keeping healthy - diet and exercise, diabetes, body/mass/hip indexes

Keeping healthy - defence against pathogens, infections, treating diseases, vaccination, new drugs and testing, monoclonal antibodies, detecting diseases

See also Culturing microorganisms like bacteria - testing antibiotics/antiseptics

Food tests for reducing sugars, starch, proteins and lipids

The eye - structure and function - correction of vision defects

See also Optics - lens types (convex, concave, uses), experiments, ray diagrams, correction of eye defects (gcse physics)

See also GENETICS and section on Cloning with animals



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General plant biology revision notes

See also cell biology section

Photosynthesis, importance explained, limiting factors affecting rate, leaf adaptations

Plant cells - transport, gas exchange, transpiration & experiments, absorption of nutrients, leaf & root structure

See also Diffusion, osmosis, active transport, exchange of substances - examples fully explained

Respiration - aerobic and anaerobic in plants (and animals)

Hormone control of plant growth and uses of plant hormones

Plant diseases and defences against pathogens and pests

How to produce new varieties of plants

Genetic engineering: Uses including GM crops & food security

See also Adaptations, lots explained including plant examples

and a section in Stem cells and uses - meristems in plants (at the end of the page!)

and section on plants in Cloning - tissue culture of plants



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Evolution, Adaptations, Speciation and Classification

Evolution - theories and evidence, variation, speciation - new/old species & extinctions, selective breeding

Classification - domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, Linnaeus naming of organisms

Adaptations - lots of plant and animal examples described and explained including extremophiles

See also ....

Introduction to plant and animal cell structure - comparisons

How to produce new varieties of plants

An introduction to genetic variation and the formation and consequence of mutations



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The environment:  ecology, communities, cycles, decay, sustainable food security, biodiversity revision notes index

Carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, water cycle, decomposition - decay investigation, biogas

Ecosystems - biotic & abiotic factors - interactions between organisms - interdependency

Food chains, food webs, trophic levels, pyramids of biomass, transfer efficiency, pyramids of numbers

Adaptations, lots of examples explained including extremophiles

Food security - population growth and sustainability issues, issues ways of increasing production

Biodiversity and ecological surveying - using quadrats and transects, methods of trapping animals

Biodiversity, land management, waste management, maintaining ecosystems - conservation

See also from GCSE chemistry and physics revision notes on pollution and climate change

Fossil fuel air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot particulates

Pollution, Accidents and Economic Aspects of the Petrochemical Industry

Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

Fossil fuel air pollution - effects of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides

and section in The absorption and emission of radiation by materials - including global warming



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LINKS for my revision pages for the GCSE 9-1 science-biology courses, next exams May-June 2021

Revision Summaries for the new GCSE BIOLOGY courses that started with Y10 in Sept. 2016

AQA GCSE Biology 8461  1st Paper (Topics 1-4 & Combined Science Trilogy Biology 1 Topics 1-4)

AQA GCSE Biology 8461  2nd Paper (Topics 5-7 & Combined Science Trilogy Biology 2 Topics 5-7)

Edexcel GCSE (9-1) Biology 1st Paper (Topics 1-5 & Combined Science Biology 1 Topics 1-5)

Edexcel GCSE (9-1) Biology 2nd Paper (Topics 1, 6-9 & Combined Science Biology 2 Topics 1, 6-9)

OCR (9-1) Gateway Science GCSE Biology A 1st Paper (Topics B1-3 & Comb. Science A Biology 1 Topics B1-3)

OCR (9-1) Gateway Science GCSE Biology A 2nd Paper (Topics B4-6 & Comb. Science A Biology 1 Topics B4-6)

OCR (9-1) 21st Century Science GCSE Biology B Chapters B1-3 (Chapters B1-3, GCSE Comb. Science B biology)

OCR (9-1) 21st Century Science GCSE Biology B Chapters B4-6 (Chapters B4-6, GCSE Comb. Science B biology)


Doc Brown's School SCIENCE Revision Notes

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 Doc Brown's Biology Revision Notes

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