GCSE/Advanced level Chemistry Notes: My online chemical calculation revision pages

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CALCULATIONS IN CHEMISTRY and quantitative chemical analysis

Doc Brown's Chemistry KS4 science GCSE 9-1, IGCSE, O Level and GCE AS A2 Advanced A Level Revision Notes

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS INDEX PAGES of Online Quantitative Chemistry Calculations


All my GCSE Chemistry Revision notes

Advanced UK A/AS level, IB and US grade 11-12 pre-university chemistry

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Online practice exam chemistry CALCULATIONS and solved problems for KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE CHEMISTRY and basic starter chemical calculations for A level AS/A2/IB.

F/H (foundation/higher) represent easier/harder UK KS4 GCSE/IGCSE/KS4 science-chemistry courses * There are 16 linked sections listed below * EMAIL query? comment

e.g. spotted a silly error or request for type of GCSE calculation I don't seem to have covered

In sections 1-16 you can study definitions of the terms used and examples of how to do chemical calculations.

Sections 2 to 6 illustrate the basic 'calculation' requirements for most UK GCSE Science students.

Sections 1, and 7 to 15 cover most extra material for higher GCSE student in Science, triple award or IGCSE Chemistry.

These revision notes and practice questions on how to do chemical calculations and worked examples should prove useful for the new AQA, Edexcel and OCR GCSE (9–1) chemistry science courses.

There are two larger combined quizzes for foundation (F) or higher (H) GCSE/IGCSE students.

F/H suggests general foundation/higher revising guidelines for GCSE level i.e. F+ H = some easy and some hard!

Please note the Quiz feedback either relates directly to the Q [???-xx] OR it may be a typical worked example.

Make sure you understand and can use the symbols: = equal to or equivalent to,

< less than, << much less than, much more than >>, more than >, proportionality sign , ~ approximately equal to


Links to NOTES and EXAMPLES of types of chemical calculations

Questions-quizzes only for A level are indicated

Many of these pages will help GCSE, IGCSE, O level and a level students

IGCSE/GCSE QUIZ abbreviations: FT Foundation Tier Quiz, HT Higher Tier Quiz

Abbreviations for quizzes: (c) doc b mc = multiple choice quiz, click me! sa = type in a short answer quiz




F = foundation exam level

H = higher exam tier level

(c) doc bclick me!1. What is relative atomic mass? and how to calculate atomic mass from % abundance of  isotopes (Ar) * See also Mass Spectrometer and Ar and relative isotopic mass

1. click me! Honly 

or (c) doc b Honly

(c) doc bclick me!2. Calculating relative formula/molecular mass (Mr) of a compound or element molecule

QUIZ on calculating formula/molecular mass


.(c) doc bclick me!3. Law of Conservation of Mass experiments and simple reacting mass calculations

QUIZ on Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations


(c) doc bclick me!4. Calculating composition by percentage (%) mass of elements in a compound and other % composition calculations

4. click me! F + H

or (c) doc b F + H

(c) doc bclick me!5. Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, NOT using moles)

(c) doc b F + H

c) doc bclick me!6a. Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products and brief mention of actual percent % yield and theoretical yield, atom economy and formula mass determination (NOT using moles, but still based on the law of conservation of mass)

See sections 14.2a and 14.2b for more detailed notes on actual/theoretical % yield and atom economy.

QUIZ on reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products




c) doc b click me!6b. Reacting masses, concentration of solution and volumetric titration calculations (NOT using moles)  

(c) doc bclick me!7. Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting mass and formula mass)

AND includes interpreting and deducing balanced chemical equations from the moles involved

Also extra more advanced Q's for Advanced Chemistry Students using the Avogadro Constant and with answers provided

ANSWERS to Part 7 - the more advanced A level chemistry mole Questions

7.click me! H only 

or (c) doc b H only

(c) doc bclick me!8. Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

8.click me!H only

or (c) doc bH only

(c) doc bclick me!9. Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law

 (c) doc bHonly

(c) doc bclick me!10. Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

10.click me! H only

or (c) doc b H only

(c) doc bclick me!11. Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

11.click me! H only

or (c) doc b H only

(c) doc bclick me!12. Volumetric titration procedures and calculations e.g. acid-alkali titrations (and diagrams of apparatus and descriptions of procedures)

See also Advanced level acid-base titration calculation questions

and Advanced level REDOX titration calculation questions

12.click me! H only

or (c) doc b H only

(c) doc bclick me!13. Electrolysis products calculations (negative cathode and positive anode products)

13.click me! H only

or (c) doc b H only

(c) doc bclick me!14. Other miscellaneous calculations e.g. % purity, % percentage & theoretical yield, atom economy, volumetric titration apparatus, dilution of solutions (and diagrams of apparatus), water of crystallisation, quantity of reactants required

14.1 % purity of a product calculations

14.2a % reaction yield and theoretical yield calculations, why you can't get 100% yield

14.2b atom economy calculations

14.3 dilution of solutions calculations

14.4 water of crystallisation calculations

14.5 What quantity of chemicals are needed to carry out a reaction? calculation of quantities required and limiting quantity of a reactant (some examples use the mole concept too)

14. No Quiz written yet

(c) doc bclick me! Calculations involving gases - Boyle's Law and Charles/Gay-Lussac Law - all about PVT etc.


The notes and questions indexed below are for Advanced A/AS level students only

These students also need to be able to do everything indexed above!


(c) doc bclick me!15. Energy transfers in physical/chemical changes, activation energies and reaction profiles etc. (notes on a separate web page)

(c) doc bclick me!More enthalpy calculations explained for Advanced Level

Advanced A Level: Enthalpy Calculations with worked out answers

15.(c) doc b F + H

or (c) doc b H only

(c) doc b 16. Gas calculations involving PVT relationship (Ideal Gas Equation) and determining molecular mass of a volatile liquid

only examples in notes

(c) doc bclick me!17 Radioactivity & half-life calculations including dating materials


(c) doc bclick me!18. Selection of 9 Advanced A Level Practical Exercises and Calculations involving Volumetric Analysis and Gravimetric Analysis


(c) doc bclick me! More advanced topics on the ideal gas laws - various calculations including molecular mass determination, partial pressures and Graham's law of diffusion, kinetic particle model–theory and ideal and non–ideal real gas behaviour


Extra Advanced A Level Chemistry Calculations Exercises

e.g. for UK GCE-A-AS-A2 level, IB, US grades 11-12, US AP honors students)

(but all the basics you need to know are listed above)

Ideal gas law P-V-T calculations

Acid-base and other non-redox titration questions

Redox volumetric titration questions

molecular equilibrium problem solving

partition and solubility product calculations

pH-pKa/b acid-base Q's and buffer calculations

Relative atomic mass calculations and Mass Spectrometer

All advanced level questions have links included to the completely worked out and explained answers

Part 1 Introduction to chemical testing, analysing substances & line spectra

Part 2 Qualitative tests to identify organic molecule functional groups

Part 3 TESTS for cations (positive ions) and metal carbonates

Part 4 TESTS for gases, water and non–metallic elements

Part 5 TESTS for Anions (negative ions) including hydroxide (alkalis)

Note that qualitative chemical tests are all in another section

Combined 'bumper' on-line Chemical Calculations Quizzes for KS4-GCSE-IGCSE students of chemistry

click me!click me! Basic GCSE/IGCSE Foundation Quiz on Ex. 2. to 6. (NO moles!)  (multiple choice)

click me!(c) doc b More advanced GCSE/IGCSE Higher Quiz/GCE-AS(basic) on Ex. 1. to 13. (lots of moles!)

click me!click me! Basic GCSE/IGCSE Foundation Quiz on Ex. 2. to 6. (NO moles!)  (type in answer)

click me!(c) doc b More advanced GCSE/IGCSE Higher Quiz/AS(basic) on Ex. 1. to 13. (lots of moles!)

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