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GCSE level School Biology Revision Notes: Stem cells, cell differentiation and specialisation

SITEMAP    Use sub-index, take time to study content, follow links on cell specialisation

School biology notes: INDEX of pages on stem cells and introduction to cell differentiation and cell specialisation

Doc Brown's GCSE level biology exam revision study notes

Always be able to relate a cell's structure to its function

Pre-reading: Introduction to plant and animal cell structure and function


Sub-index of pages for this section on cell specialisation, differentiation and stem cells

(1) Introduction: differentiation and the specialisation of cells

(2) Examples of specialised animal cells adapted to their functions

(3) Specialised plant cells

(4) More about animal stem cells and reproduction

(5) The potential uses of stem cells, particularly in medicine

(6) Some risks and concerns in using stem cells and future research

(7) Plant stem cells - the production of identical plants from meristems

(8) Some basic examples of specialised cells and their features you need to be able to recognise

These notes about cell specialisation and specialised cell function are also developed on other pages

Pre-reading: Introduction to plant and animal cell structure and function gcse biology revision notes

and for the bigger picture Introduction to the organisation of cells => tissues => organs => organ systems

e.g. see also

Introduction to plant and animal cell structure and function - comparison of subcellular structures

 Introduction to the organisation of cells => tissues => organs => organ systems (e.g. in humans)

Cloning - tissue culture of plants and animals, uses of cloning techniques


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General CELL BIOLOGY and GENETICS revision notes index

Introduction to plant and animal cell structure and function - comparison of subcellular structures

Stem cells and medical uses, and introduction to cell differentiation and specialisation

Cell division - cell cycle - mitosis, meiosis, sexual/asexual reproduction, binary fission

Microscopy - the development and use of microscopes in biology - optical and electron

Diffusion - including demonstration, factors & Fick's Law, osmosis investigation and active transport

Examples of surfaces for the exchange of substances in animal organisms

Respiration - aerobic/anaerobic in plants, fungi & animals, substrates/products, experimental investigations

Enzymes - structure, functions, optimum conditions, investigation experiments, digestion

See also Enzymes and Biotechnology (gcse chemistry notes)

Culturing microorganisms like bacteria - testing antibiotics and antiseptics

DNA and RNA structure and Protein Synthesis

An introduction to genetic variation and the formation and consequence of mutations

Introduction to the inheritance of characteristics and genetic diagrams (including Punnett squares)  including technical terms, Mendel's work and inherited genetic disorder, genetic testing

The human GENOME project - gene expression, chromosomes, alleles, genotype, phenotype, variations, uses of genetic testing including 'pros and cons'

Inherited characteristics and human sexual reproduction, genetic fingerprinting and its uses

Genetic engineering: uses - making insulin, medical applications, GM crops & food security

More complicated genetics: Sex-linked genetic disorders, inheritance of blood groups

See also section on Cloning - tissue culture of plants and animals


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