GCSE level School Biology Notes: Introduction to cell organisation
CELL ORGANISATION introduction
specialised cells ==> specific tissues ==> organs ==> organ systems ==> complete multicellular animal or plant organism
Introduction to cell organisation of plants and animals explaining from cells to tissues to organs to organ systems to whole organism
Doc Brown's school biology revision notes
Index of notes on cell organisation (this page only)
1. Introduction and reminders about cells
Many organisms consist of a huge number of cells. (cell structure)
Most cells can be thought of as a unit of life surrounded and enclosed by an outer membrane of some sort.
But, how are they organised to form e.g. a fully functioning animal?
Cells are the building blocks of multicellular organisms.
In the process called differentiation, cells become specialised to carry out a particular function e.g.
Differentiation happens during the growth and development of a multicellular organism.
Specialised cells form tissues, which can connect to form organs and these connect together to form organ systems.
Large multicellular organisms like animals have different organ systems for exchanging and transporting substances.
2. Examples of the organisation of tissue cells
3. Examples of organ and gland cells
4. From tissues and organs to organ systems
An organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform overall a more complex function - each organ performs its own function as part of the overall process
Examples of organ systems
The digestive system of mammals is an excellent example of an organ system - this organ system breaks down food and absorbs the molecules and ions.
It consists of a whole series of organs and glands working together.
(1) The pancreas and salivary glands produce digestive juices containing enzymes to break down food.
(2) The stomach and small intestine digest the food - nutrients pass from the small intestine to the blood stream - absorption of soluble food molecules.
(3) The liver produces bile that helps digestion in the small intestine.
(4) The large intestine absorbs water from undigested food to leave the waste as faeces.
Other organ systems in the human body (with links to detailed notes)
The human body contains 11 important organ systems, including:
All these systems work closely together to maintain a fully functioning healthy human body.
The failure of any of the organ systems can lead to a serious, and potential fatal, medical condition.
5. More summary examples as part of whole organism
Summary of learning objectives and key words or phrases
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General HUMAN BIOLOGY revision notes
See also cell biology section
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