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Advanced Organic Chemistry: Carbon-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane

The Carbon-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing C-13 NMR spectra of 3-methylhexane

See also comparing the 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the nine alkane structural isomers of C7H16

C7H16 C-13 nmr spectrum of 3-methylhexane analysis of chemical shifts ppm interpretation of 13C chemical shifts ppm of 3-methylhexane C13 13-C nmr doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes 

TMS is the acronym for tetramethylsilane, formula Si(CH3)4, whose 13C atoms are arbitrarily given a chemical shift of 0.0 ppm. This is the 'standard' in 13C NMR spectroscopy and all other 13C shifts, called chemical shifts, depend on the individual (electronic) chemical environment of the 13C atoms in an organic molecule - 3-methylhexane here.

 3-methylhexane   C7H16   alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b

 alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b

Interpreting the C-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane

As you can see from the diagram above there are 7 different chemical shift lines in the C-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane indicating 7 different chemical environments of the carbon atoms.

CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3 

(Note the 7 different colours indicating the 7 different chemical environments of the carbon atoms in 3-methylhexane).

Chemical shifts (a) to (g) on the C-13 NMR spectrum diagram for 3-methylhexane.

None of the carbon atoms of 3-methylhexane have the same chemical environment.

The carbon-13 NMR spectra a provides direct evidence of 7 different carbon atom environments for the 7 carbon atoms in the 3-methylhexane molecule, deduced from the presence of 7 different 13C chemical shifts (ppm).

Comparing the 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the nine alkane structural isomers of C7H16

You can distinguish all 9 isomers from a data combination of their number of 1H NMR chemical shifts,

and their resulting integrated 1H proton ratios, plus, their number of 13C chemical shifts.

Name of the alkane structural isomer of molecular formula C7H16 Abbreviated structural formulae of the nine isomers of molecular formula C7H16 (interpretation complications with 3-methylhexane and 2,3-dimethylpentane because they exhibit R/S isomerism due to a chiral carbon) Skeletal formula of the nine alkane isomers of  molecular formula C7H16 Number of 1H NMR chemical shifts (δ) and proton ratio (links to spectrum) Number of 13C chemical shifts (δ) (links to spectrum)
heptane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b heptane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 4 δ: proton ratio: 3:2:2:1 (6:4:4:2 in the molecule) 4 δ shifts
2-methylhexane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 2-methylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 6 δ: proton ratio : 6:3:2:2:2:1 6 δ shifts
3-methylhexane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 3-methylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 7 δ: proton ratio: 3:3:3:2:2:2:1 (simplification) !!! 7 δ shifts
3-ethylpentane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 3-ethylpentane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 3 δ: proton ratio: 9:6:1 3 δ shifts
2,2-dimethylpentane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 2,2-dimethylpentane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 4 δ: proton ratio: 9:3:2:2 5 δ shifts
2,3-dimethylpentane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 2,3-dimethylpentane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 6 δ: proton ratio: 6:3:3:2:1:1 (simplification) !!! 6 δ shifts (simplification) !!!
2,4-dimethylpentane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 2,4-dimethylpentane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 3 δ: proton ratio: 12:2:2 3 δ shifts
3,3-dimethylpentane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 3,3-dimethylpentane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 3 δ: proton ratio: 3:3:2 (6:4:4 in the molecule) 4 δ shifts
2,2,3-trimethylbutane structural formula skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 2,2,3-trimethylbutane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b 3 δ: proton ratio: 9:6:1 4 δ shifts

Key words & phrases: C7H16 Interpreting the C-13 NMR spectra of 3-methylhexane, C-13 nmr spectrum of 3-methylhexane, understanding the carbon-13 nmr spectrum of 3-methylhexane, explaining the line pattern in the high resolution C-13 nmr spectra of 3-methylhexane, revising the C-13 nmr spectrum of 3-methylhexane, ppm chemical shifts of the C-13 nmr spectrum of 3-methylhexane, how to construct the diagram of the C-13 nmr spectrum of 3-methylhexane, how to analyse the chemical shifts in the carbon-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane deducing the chemical environment of all the carbon atoms in 3-methylhexane examining the c13 nmr spectrum of  3-methylhexane analysing the 13-c nmr spectrum of 3-methylhexane how do you sketch and interpret the C-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane interpreting interpretation of the C-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane 13C NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3

Molecular structure diagram of the carbon-13 NMR diagram for the 13C NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane. Deducing the number of different chemical environments of the carbon atoms in the 3-methylhexane molecule from the 13C chemical shifts in the carbon-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane. Revision notes on the carbon-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane. Matching and deducing the structure of the 3-methylhexane molecule from its 13C NMR spectrum. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy of aliphatic alkanes, 13C NMR spectra of 3-methylhexane, a structural isomer of molecular formula C7H16


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Infrared spectra of the isomers of C7H16

The infrared spectrum of heptane

The infrared spectrum of 2-methylhexane

The infrared spectrum of 3-methylhexane

The infrared spectrum of 3-ethylpentane

The infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpentane

The infrared spectrum of 2,3-dimethylpentane

The infrared spectrum of 2,4-dimethylpentane

The infrared spectrum of 3,3-dimethylpentane

The infrared spectrum of 2,2,3-trimethylbutane

Mass spectra of the isomers of C7H16

The mass spectrum of heptane

The mass spectrum of 2-methylhexane

The mass spectrum of 3-methylhexane

The mass spectrum of 3-ethylpentane

The mass spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpentane

The mass spectrum of 2,3-dimethylpentane

The mass spectrum of 2,4-dimethylpentane

The mass spectrum of 3,3-dimethylpentane

The mass spectrum of 2,2,3-trimethylbutane

H-1 proton NMR spectra of ALKANES

1H NMR spectra of the isomers of C7H16

The H-1 NMR spectrum of heptane

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 2-methylhexane

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 3-ethylpentane

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpentane

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 2,3-dimethylpentane

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 2,4-dimethylpentane

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 3,3-dimethylpentane

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 2,2,3-trimethylbutane

C-13 carbon-13 NMR spectra of ALKANES

13C NMR spectra of the isomers of C7H16

The C-13 NMR spectrum of heptane

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 2-methylhexane

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 3-methylhexane

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 3-ethylpentane

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpentane

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 2,3-dimethylpentane

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 2,4-dimethylpentane

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 3,3-dimethylpentane

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 2,2,3-trimethylbutane

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