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Advanced Organic Chemistry: Infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane

Interpreting the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing infrared spectra of 2,2-dimethylpropane

See also comparing the infrared, mass, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the 3 alkane isomers of C5H12

infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane wavenumbers cm-1 functional group detection fingerprint pattern identification of neopentane doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes 

Spectra obtained from 2,2-dimethylpropane in its gaseous state (boiling point oC). The right-hand part of the of the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane, wavenumbers ~1500 to 400 cm-1 is considered the fingerprint region for the identification of 2,2-dimethylpropane and most organic compounds. It is due to a unique set of complex overlapping vibrations of the atoms of the molecule of 2,2-dimethylpropane.

2,2-dimethylpropane C5H12 alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b , alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b , alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b

For more see The molecular structure and naming of alkanes

Interpretation of the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane

The most prominent infrared absorption lines of 2,2-dimethylpropane

Most of these are due to the vibrations of the C-H bonds e.g. stretching and bending at ~2975 to 2845 cm-1 and ~1470 to 1370 cm-1.

There is no characteristic absorption band for a functional group, as alkanes don't have one.

There are C-C skeletal vibration absorptions at 1175 to 1140 cm-1, which include C-(CH3)2 and C-(CH3)3 vibrations

Note:

(i) The infrared spectrum of vapours tends to be simpler than those for liquid or solid films.

(ii) The absorption peaks are usually much sharper than in liquid/solid film spectra.

(iii) In the condensed state of liquid or solid, molecules interact with each other (vibrate against each other) and affect the individual vibrational energy level modes of the molecules, often producing a broadening effect on the absorption bands.

(i) In the gaseous state, the molecules are much further apart and are less likely to interfere with each other.

The absence of other specific functional group bands will show that particular functional group is absent from the 2,2-dimethylpropane molecular structure.

Comparing the infrared, mass, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the 3 alkane isomers of C5H12

NOTE: The images are linked to their original detailed spectral analysis pages AND can be doubled in size with touch screens to increase the definition to the original pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane image sizes.

Comparing the infrared spectra of pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane

Pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane are structural isomers of molecular formula C5H12

Pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane exemplify infrared spectra of  the alkane homologous series CnH2n+2  hydrocarbon molecules, where n = 5

INFRARED SPECTRA (above): There are, as expected, differences in the fingerprint region at wavenumbers 1500 to 400 cm-1, but there is no specific infrared absorption band for a functional group. The infrared spectra of pentane and 2-methylbutane seem very similar, but that of 2,2-dimethylpropane seems much simpler.

Comparing the mass spectra of pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane

Pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane are structural isomers of molecular formula C5H12

Pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane exemplify the mass spectra of  the alkane series CnH2n+2  hydrocarbon molecules, where n = 5

MASS SPECTRA (above): All three hydrocarbons show some similarities in their mass spectra e.g. m/z ions 27 to 29 for [C2Hx]+ (x = 2 and 4). The molecular ion peaks will be the same for all three isomers (m/z 72), but it is very tiny for 2,2-dimethypropane. The pattern ratios for m/z 39 to 43 are similar for pentane and 2-methylbutane, but m/z 42 and 43 ions are almost absent from the 2,2-dimethylpropane spectrum. The base peak ion for pentane is m/z 43, but for 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane it is m/z 57.

Comparing the 1H proton NMR spectra of pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane

Pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane are structural isomers of molecular formula C5H12

Pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane exemplify the 1H proton NMR spectra of the alkane homologous series CnH2n+2  hydrocarbon molecules where, n = 5

1H NMR SPECTRA (above): The 1H NMR spectra of all three molecules give different proton ratios for the different 1H chemical environments i.e. pentane's proton ratio is 3:2:1 (from 6:4:2 H's in the molecule). 2-methylbutane's proton ratio is 6:1:2:3 and 2,2-dimethylpropane's doesn't have a proton ratio, all hydrogen atoms are equivalent. This means all three isomeric C5H12 hydrocarbons can be distinguished from their 1H NMR spectra.

Comparing the carbon-13 NMR spectra of pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane

Pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane are structural isomers of molecular formula C5H12

Pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane exemplify the carbon-13 NMR spectra of members of  the alkane homologous series CnH2n+2  hydrocarbon molecules, where n = 5

13C NMR SPECTRA (above): The 13C NMR spectra of the three molecules show different numbers of carbon-13 chemical environments i.e different numbers of 13C NMR resonance lines. So, pentane gives three 13C chemical shifts, 2-methylbutane four and 2,2-dimethylpropane two. This means all three isomeric C5H12 hydrocarbons can be distinguished from their 13C NMR spectra.

Key words & phrases: neopentane dimethylpropane image and diagram explaining the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane, complete infrared absorption spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane, comparative spectra of 2,2-dimethylpropane, prominent peaks/troughs for identifying functional groups in the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane, important wavenumber values in cm-1 for peaks/troughs in the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane, revision of infrared spectroscopy of 2,2-dimethylpropane, fingerprint region analysis of 2,2-dimethylpropane, how to identify 2,2-dimethylpropane from its infrared spectrum, identifying organic compounds like 2,2-dimethylpropane from their infrared spectrum, how to analyse the absorption bands in the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane detection of  neopentane dimethylpropane functional groups in the 2,2-dimethylpropane molecule example of the infrared spectrum of a molecule like 2,2-dimethylpropane with a functional group  neopentane dimethylpropane

Diagram of absorption of wavenumber peaks in the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane. Characteristic peak wavenumbers in the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane. Finger print identification pattern using the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane. Revision notes on the infrared spectrum of 2,2-dimethylpropane. Matching and deducing the structure of the 2,2-dimethylpropane molecule from  its infrared spectrum. Infrared spectroscopy of aliphatic alkanes, infrared spectra of 2,2-dimethylpropane, an isomer of molecular formula C5H12


Links associated with 2,2-dimethylpropane

The chemistry of ALKANES revision notes INDEX

The mass spectrum for 2,2-dimethylpropane

The H-1 NMR spectrum for 2,2-dimethylpropane

The C-13 NMR spectrum for 2,2-dimethylpropane

Infrared spectroscopy index

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