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Advanced Organic Chemistry: Infrared spectrum of Pentane

Interpreting the infrared spectrum of Pentane

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing infrared spectra

infrared spectrum of pentane wavenumbers cm-1 functional group detection fingerprint pattern identification of pentane doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes 

Spectra obtained from a liquid film of pentane. The right-hand part of the of the infrared spectrum of pentane, wavenumbers ~1500 to 400 cm-1 is considered the fingerprint region for the identification of pentane and most organic compounds. It is due to a unique set of complex overlapping vibrations of the atoms of the molecule of pentane.

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Interpretation of the spectrum of pentane

The most prominent infrared absorption lines of pentane

Most of these are due to the vibrations of the C-H bonds e.g. stretching and bending deformations at ~2900 cm-1 and ~1500 cm-1.

There is no characteristic absorption band for a functional group, as alkanes don't have one.

The absence of a specific functional group band will show that particular functional group is absent from the pentane molecular structure.


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