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Advanced level organic chemistry PART 14.7: Structural isomers of molecular formula C8H18

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Doc Brown's Advanced Chemistry: Part 14.7

Carbon chain structural isomers of molecular formula C8H18

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See also Examples of the effects of isomerism on the similarity or difference in the physical and chemical properties of structural isomers

The 18 alkane carbon chain structural isomers of molecular formula C8H18 (Mr = 114)

Examples of carbon chain isomerism

Some of the structural isomers also exhibit R/S (optical isomerism) as well as the carbon chain isomers

(1) Octane, C8H18, CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3  or  CH3(CH2)6CH3    Octane, C8H18 skeletal formula alkane molecular structure naming

(2) 2-methylheptane, (CH3)2CHCH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

(3) 3-methylheptane, CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH2CH3 and has a chiral (asymmetric) carbon atom (3rd C) - example of stereoisomerism - R/S (optical) isomers

(4) 4-methylheptane, CH3CH2CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3

structural isomers of C8H18 2-methylheptane 3-methylheptane 4-methylheptane structural formula skeletal formular molecular structure of alkanes

(1) to (4) isomers of C8H18 are further illustrated above, together with the appropriate carbon atom numbers.

(5) 2,2-dimethylhexane,  isomers of C8H18 structural formula 2,2-dimethylhexane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 2,2-dimethylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b

(6) 2,3-dimethylhexane,  isomers of C8H18 structural formula 2,3-dimethylhexane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 2,3-dimethylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b  and has a chiral (asymmetric) carbon atom (3rd C) - example of stereoisomerism - R/S (optical) isomers

(7) 2,4-dimethylhexane,  isomers of C8H18 structural formula 2,4-dimethylhexane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 2,4-dimethylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b  and has a chiral (asymmetric) carbon atom (4th C) - example of stereoisomerism - R/S (optical) isomers

(8) 2,5-dimethylhexane,  isomers of C8H18 structural formula 2,5-dimethylhexane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 2,5-dimethylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b

(9) 3,3-dimethylhexane, isomers of C8H18 structural formula 3,3-dimethylhexane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 3,3-dimethylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b

(10) 3,4-dimethylhexane,  isomers of C8H18 structural formula 3,4-dimethylhexane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 3,4-dimethylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b  and has two chiral (asymmetric) carbon atoms (3rd and 4th C) - example of stereoisomerism - R/S (optical) isomers

(11) 3-ethylhexane,  isomers of C8H18 structural formula 3-ethylhexane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 3-ethylhexane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b

(12) 3-ethyl-2-methylpentane, isomers of C8H18 structural formula 3-ethyl-2-methylpentane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 3-ethyl-2-methylpentane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b

(13) 3-ethyl-3-methylpentane,  isomers of C8H18 structural formula 3-ethyl-3-methylpentane alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b , 3-ethyl-3-methylpentane skeletal formula alkanes molecular structure naming (c) doc b

(14) 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2 , isomers of C8H18 structural formula 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) alkane molecular structure naming , 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) skeletal formula alkane molecular structure naming

(15) 2,2,3-trimethylpentane, (CH3)3CCH(CH3)CH2CH3  and has a chiral (asymmetric) carbon atom (3rd C) - example of stereoisomerism - R/S (optical) isomers

(16) 2,3,3-trimethylpentane, (CH3)2CHC(CH3)2CH2CH3

(17) 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, (CH3)2CHCH(CH3)CH(CH3)2

(18) 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane, (CH3)3CC(CH3)3

carbon chain isomers of C8H18 2,2,3-trimethylpentane 2,3,3-trimethylpentane 2,3,4-trimethylpentane 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane structural formula skeletal formula alkane molecular structure

(14) to (18) are further illustrated above, together with the appropriate carbon atom chain numbers.


Associated links

Index of sets of isomers for a given molecular formula

The molecular structure and naming of ALKANES

Index of revision notes on the chemistry of ALKANES and the petrochemical industry

Isomerism: introduction, structural isomerism - chain, positional, functional group, tautomerism

Stereoisomerism: introduction, definition, priority rules, E/Z isomerism (cis/trans isomerism)

Stereoisomerism - R/S isomerism (optical isomerism) - definition - examples explained

index for all isomerism pages

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