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3r. The covalent bonding in the ethanol molecule

Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes


metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)

Pd metals Part of the modern Periodic Table

Pd = period, Gp = group

metals => non–metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1 1H  Note that hydrogen does not readily fit into any group but is a non-metal 2He
2 3Li 4Be atomic number Chemical Symbol eg 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba Transition Metals 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
The covalent molecule ethane from carbon combining with hydrogen

The organic molecule ethanol is composed of three non-metallic elements, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Empirical and molecular formula C2H6O, abbreviated structural formula C2H5OH  or  CH3CH2OH

ball and stick model of ethanol molecular structure The ball and stick model of the ethanol molecule.

displayed formula of ethanol - the full structural formula molecular structure The displayed formula of ethanol - the full structural formula

dot and cross diagram of ethanol molecule molecular structure The dot and cross diagram of the ethanol molecule.

Only the outer electrons are shown in the dot and cross diagram above.

The 2 inner electrons of carbon and oxygen are not shown.

Carbon's outer electrons are 2.4, oxygen 2.6 and hydrogen just 1.

Comments

Melting point of ethane -183 oC

Boiling point of ethanol -114 oC

Typically relatively low values for relatively small covalent molecules.

Ethenol is a colourless liquid at room temperature, with a strong 'alcohol' odour familiar with 'alcoholic' drinks.

Used as a solvent and to make ethyl esters.


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IGCSE/GCSE notes of alcohols including ethanol.

IGCSE/GCSE notes on esters including ethyl ethanoate preparation

INDEX of all ADVANCED A LEVEL revision notes on ALCOHOLS

Sub-index for Part 3. Covalent Bonding: small molecules & properties

Index for ALL chemical bonding and structure notes

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