3n. The covalent bonding in the ethane molecule

Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes

* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)

Pd metals Part of the modern Periodic Table

Pd = period, Gp = group

metals => non–metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1 1H  Note that hydrogen does not readily fit into any group but is a non-metal 2He
2 3Li 4Be atomic number Chemical Symbol eg 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba Transition Metals 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
The covalent molecule ethane from carbon combining with hydrogen

Only the outer electrons are shown in the dot and cross diagrams below (2 inner electrons of carbon not shown).

Carbon's electrons are 2.4 and hydrogen just 1

 Two electronic diagrams for ethane C2H6

and dot and cross Lewis diagrams of ethane

and ethane's displayed formula alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b these three are 2D diagrams

and stick and ball 3D diagram of ethane

space filling model of ethane C2H6 CH3CH3 3D space filling model of ethane


dot and cross diagram of the ethane molecule

 Venn diagram style of showing the bonds in ethane.

 I hope you like the atomic colour coding - xref physics!

 Alkanes are relatively small molecules in which all the chemical bonds are covalent bonds.

 All the bonds in alkane molecules are single bonds i.e. C–C carbon – carbon or C–H carbon – hydrogen.

 Each carbon atom forms four single covalent bonds and hydrogen atoms form one single covalent bond.

 All single bonds are formed by sharing a pair of electrons e.g. one from each of a carbon atom and a hydrogen atom, or two carbon atoms contributing (sharing) an electron each to the covalent bond.


Melting point of ethane -183 oC

Boiling point of ethane -89 oC

Ethene is a colourless gas at room temperature, with a strong hydrocarbon odour.






What next?

Recommend next: The covalent bonding in the chloromethane molecule

Explaining the properties of small covalently bonded molecules


Sub-index for Part 3. Covalent Bonding: small molecules & properties


Index for ALL chemical bonding and structure notes


Perhaps of interest?

The basic chemistry of alkanes


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