3l. The covalent bonding in the ethene molecule
Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes
Covalent bonding diagram for ETHENE covalent molecule, molecular formula C2H4
* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)
Two atoms of carbon (2.4) combine with four atoms of hydrogen (1) to form ethene C2H4 (only the outer shell of carbon's electrons are shown).
On the right, the Lewis diagram of ethene - a simplified 'dot and cross' electronic diagram for the covalently bonded ethene molecule.
Electronically, hydrogen (1) becomes like helium (2) and carbon (2.4) becomes like neon (2.8), so ALL the hydrogen and carbon atoms effectively have full outer shells in forming the covalent bonds when the atoms share their outer electrons.
The molecule can be shown as (displayed formula) with one carbon = carbon double bond and four carbon – hydrogen single covalent bonds (it has a planar shape, its completely flat!, the H–C=C and H–C–H bond angles are 120o). The valency of carbon is still 4.
The ethane molecule is held together by the four strong C–H carbon–hydrogen single covalent bonds and one C=C carbon–carbon covalent double bond.
The above diagrams are other styles of 'dot and x' electronic diagrams for ethene.
ball and stick model of ethene
space filling model of ethene
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