Advanced A Level Organic Chemistry: Aldehydes & ketones - naming and structure
AQA Advanced A level Chemistry Edexcel Advanced A level Chemistry OCR Advanced A level Chemistry A OCR Salters Advanced A level Chemistry B
Part 5. Carbonyl chemistry of ALDEHYDES & KETONES
5. The structure and nomenclature - naming of Aldehydes & Ketones
Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK KS5 A/AS GCE IB advanced level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry
Revision Notes Part 5 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS
NOMENCLATURE of ALDEHYDES and KETONES
5.1 The molecular structure and naming of ALDEHYDES and KETONES - including nomenclature of some isomers
Nomenclature of aldehydes & ketones names and structures of aldehydes & ketones How to name aldehydes? How to name ketones? Nomenclature of substituted aldehydes or ketones - examples of acceptable names, displayed formula of aldehydes and ketones, graphic formula of aldehydes and ketones, molecular formula of aldehydes and ketones, skeletal formula of aldehydes and ketones, structural formula of aldehydes and ketones and homologous series of aldehydes and ketones, how to name the carbonyl group of compounds known as aldehydes and ketones
Part 5 sub-index:
5.1.2 Examples of aldehydes
5.1.3 Examples of ketones
[SEARCH BOX] ignore adverts at top
Revision notes on the structure and naming-nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones
5.1.1 Introduction to Aldehyde and Ketone Nomenclature
5.1.2 Examples of aliphatic aldehydes
These examples start with the aldehyde's molecular formula, then one or more abbreviated structural formula, then. in some cases, the full displayed formula (full structural formula) and finally the skeletal formula of the aldehyde.
The names in bold are the preferred IUPAC aldehyde name.
Methanal is a trigonal planar
shape and the planarity gives H-C=O and H-C-H bond angles of ~120o. ethanal
Bond angles from left to right:
propanal (propionaldehyde), C3H6O, , , ,
butanal (butyraldehyde),C4H8O, , ,
These examples start with the ketone's molecular formula, then one or more abbreviated structural formula, then, in some cases, the full displayed formula (full structural formula) and finally the skeletal formula of the ketone.
The names in bold are the preferred IUPAC ketone name.
1. propanone (acetone, dimethyl ketone, DMK), C3H6O, , , ,
2. butanone (or butan-2-one, but 2 not strictly needed, methyl ethyl ketone, MEK, 2-butanone),
4. pentan-2-one (2-pentanone), C5H10O, , ,
5. pentan-3-one (3-pentanone), C5H10O, , ,
6. 3-methylpentan-2-one, C6H12O, CH3COCH(CH3)CH2CH3
7. 4-methylpentan-2-one, C6H12O, CH3COCH2CH(CH3)2
8. hexan-2-one (2-hexanone), C6H12O, CH3COCH2CH2CH2CH3
9. hexan-3-one (3-hexanone), C6H12O, CH3CH2COCH2CH2CH3
10. 1-phenylethanone, C6H5COCH3, or just phenylethanone and considered the simplest aromatic ketone.
11. 2-hydroxyphenylethanone (you might consider ketones 10 and 11 as half aliphatic and half aromatic!
The names in bold are the preferred IUPAC ketone name.
1 to 3, 5 to 6 and 10 are formed by the reaction of the parent ketone with iodine in the presence of an acid (e.g. HCl(aq), because H+(aq) catalyses the reaction)
True aromatic aldehydes, R-CHO, have the aldehyde group -CHO directly attached to the ring e.g.
C7H6O, orbenzaldehyde, and
Ketones, R2C=O, are often 'mixed' aliphatic-aromatic in the sense that one R group is alkyl and the other is aryl e.g.
1-phenylethanone (acetophenone, methyl phenyl ketone), C8H8O, , and C8H8O2,
Diphenylmethanone (diphenyl ketone), C13H10O, , is a completely aromatic ketone.
5.1.6 Alcohol oxidation sequences
The reagent can be potassium dichromate(VI) K2Cr2O7 , acidified with diluted sulphuric acid H2SO4(aq) (colour change is orange to green).
However the oxidation products depend on the original structure of the alcohol. The alcohol functional group -OH in aliphatic alcohols is classified into primary, secondary and tertiary types (see below). When the -OH is attached directly to a benzene ring the molecule is called a phenol.
Primary aliphatic alcohols R-OH, R is H or alkyl: When oxidised they form aldehydes and then further oxidation gives a relatively stable carboxylic acid e.g.
Secondary aliphatic alcohols R-CH(OH)-R', R or R' are both alkyl (can be aryl): When oxidised they form relatively stable ketones (see NOTE below) e.g.
Tertiary aliphatic alcohols RR'R"C-OH, where R,R' or R" are all alkyl (or aryl): These are relatively stable to oxidation (see NOTE 1. further down) e.g.
INDEX of ALDEHYDES and KETONES revision notes
LINKS TO ASSOCIATED ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY PAGES
formula keywords: how to name naming nomenclature empirical molecular formula graphic formula displayed formula skeletal formula structural isomers isomerism 5.1.1 carbonyl compounds Nomenclature introduction * 5.1.2 Examples of aldehydes * 5.1.3 Examples of ketones * 5.1.4 Other examples of substituted ketones CH2O HCHO C2H4O CH3CHO CH3-CHO C3H6O CH3CH2CHO CH3-CH2-CHO CH3COCH3 CH3-CO-CH3 C4H8O CH3CH2CH2CHO CH3-CH2-CH2-CHO CH3COCH2CH3 CH3-CO-CH2-CH3 C5H10O CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO CH3COCH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2COCH2CH3 C7H6O C6H5CHO C6H5COCH3 chemistry revision notes structure of aldehydes & ketones how to name aldehydes ketone for AQA AS chemistry, how to name aldehydes ketone for Edexcel A level AS chemistry, how to name aldehydes ketone for A level OCR AS chemistry A, how to name aldehydes ketone for OCR Salters AS chemistry B, how to name aldehydes ketone for AQA A level chemistry, how to name aldehydes ketone for A level Edexcel A level chemistry, how to name aldehydes ketone for OCR A level chemistry A, how to name aldehydes ketone for A level OCR Salters A level chemistry B how to name aldehydes ketone for US Honours grade 11 grade 12 how to name aldehydes ketone for pre-university chemistry courses pre-university A level revision notes for how to name aldehydes ketone A level guide notes on how to name aldehydes ketone for schools colleges academies science course tutors images pictures diagrams for how to name aldehydes ketone A level chemistry revision notes on how to name aldehydes ketone for revising module topics notes to help on understanding of how to name aldehydes ketone university courses in science careers in science jobs in the industry laboratory assistant apprenticeships technical internships USA US grade 11 grade 11 AQA A level chemistry notes on how to name aldehydes ketone Edexcel A level chemistry notes on how to name aldehydes ketone for OCR A level chemistry notes WJEC A level chemistry notes on how to name aldehydes ketone CCEA/CEA A level chemistry notes on how to name aldehydes ketone for university entrance examinations describe the molecular structure of aldehydes & ketones, notes on how to name aldehydes & ketones, how to draw skeletal formula of aldehydes & ketones, how to use the IUPAC nomenclature of aldehydes & ketones, examples of aldehydes & ketones molecular structures, diagrams of isomeric aldehydes & ketones, naming isomers of aldehydes & ketones These detailed notes on the structure and naming of aldehydes include the general formula of aldehyde molecules, empirical formula of aldehyde molecules, structural formula of aldehyde molecules, skeletal formula of aldehyde molecules, displayed formula of aldehyde molecules, shapes of aldehyde molecules, isomers of aldehyde molecules These detailed notes on the structure and naming of ketones include the general formula of ketone molecules, empirical formula of ketone molecules, structural formula of ketone molecules, skeletal formula of ketone molecules, displayed formula of ketone molecules, shapes of ketone molecules, isomers of ketone molecules IUPAC rules for aldehyde nomenclature. Students should be able to draw structural formula of aldehyde, displayed and skeletal formulas for aldehyde organic compounds apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to name aldehyde acid organic compounds including chains and rings and be able to apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to draw the structural, displayed or skeletal structure of aldehyde organic compounds from the aldehyde IUPAC name from the homologous series of aldehydes IUPAC rules for ketone nomenclature. Students should be able to draw structural formula of ketone, displayed and skeletal formulas for ketone organic compounds apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to name ketone acid organic compounds including chains and rings and be able to apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to draw the structural, displayed or skeletal structure of ketone organic compounds from the ketone IUPAC name from the homologous series of ketones
Doc Brown's Chemistry
Enter chemistry words e.g. topic, module, exam board, formula, compound, reaction, structure, concept, equation, 'phrase', homework question! anything of chemical interest!
best gift deals latest video game release, best gift deals best bargains in shop sales latest pop music releases, best sales deals download free music, latest film releases, best gifts for teenagers latest high street fashion in clothes, fashionable trending in clothing, best gift deals best bargains in shop salesgirls buy clothes, spend a lot of money on clothes, best sales deals shoes, sweets and chocolates, magazines and make-up best gifts for teenagers Boys buy food and drink, computer games best gift deals best bargains in trainers shop sales DVDs and CDs, girls and boys spend a lot of money on credit for mobile phones best sales deals best bargains in shop sales buses and trains to transport them going out best gifts for teenagers best bargains in shoes shop sales Girls spend a lot of money on clothes best gift deals color colour preferences in clothes, cool sunglasses best sales deals boys buy expensive thins like best gifts for teenagers designer sports clothes and trainers, teenagers save for holidays, best sales deals clothes, mobile phones, birthday presents and electronic goods, teenage accessories, Favourite style of jeans. best gifts for teenagers A typical girl’s shopping list includes mobile phone credit deals best shoes gift deals fashionable quality cool airpods, air pods, fashionable clothes best sales deals the most popular favourite sneakers best gifts for teenagers fancy shoes, sweets, chocolates, magazines, best trainers gift deals best bargains in shop sales lip moisturizer best bargains in shop sale slots on make-up, well being, teenage decor decorating their room best sales deals teenagers like LED string lantern lights, best gifts for teenagers beauty products for teenagers, denim jackets, scrunchies coolness, fashionable back packs, typical boy’s shopping list includes mobile credit deals, eating out takeaway food and drinks, what teenagers like to buy in clothes best gifts for teenagers computer games, DVDs, CDs, what teenagers talk about best gift deals what teenagers worry about, what teenagers like to do for fun sports best sales deals what cool things do teenagers buy, resale websites like eBay Teenager best high street shop or best online deals currys pc world argos amazon john lewis dell acer samsung raycon bose sony asus huawei HP microsoft in-ear headphones earbuds ipad desktop computer laptop computer for school college university students latest video games consoles apple iphone google high end mobile phones cell phone bargain smartphone xiaomi oppo high tech products latest fashion in trainers latest fashion in shoes latest fashion in mobile phones cell phones
TOP OF PAGE and sub-index