Advanced Level Chemistry: Extra notes on ionic formulae and naming ionic compounds
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Extra Notes on chemical bonding for advanced A level chemistry students
Extra A level Notes on Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds
All the advanced A level 'basics' with lots of examples of dot and cross diagrams of ionic bonding, Lewis diagrams, properties of ionic compounds etc. is on a separate page.
However, advanced electron notation using s, p and d notation was NOT included.
Ionic bonding and advanced electron notation
I'm not going to repeat the diagrams, there's no point, so I'm just outlining the ionic bond formation in s, p and d terms.
Most involve the 'octet rule' to form a noble gas electron configuration.
You need to be able to write the electron configuration of ions in terms of s, p and d orbital notation.
Which elements form ionic compounds? and how to work out and write an ionic formula?
numerical ion charges = the valency of A and B to deduce the formula AxBy
i.e. the valence or ionic charge = the combining power of the ion
'molecular' or ionic style of formula and compound name are shown
In the electrically balanced formula for a potentially stable compound, the total positive ionic charge must equal the total negative ionic charge.
More examples of how to work out ionic formulae1 of K+ balances 1 of Br– because 1 x 1 = 1 x 1 gives KBr or K+Br– potassium bromide
2 of Na+ balances 1 of O2– because 2 x 1 = 1 x 2 gives Na2O or (Na+)2O2– sodium oxide1 of Mg2+ balances 2 of Cl– because 1 x 2 = 2 x 1 gives MgCl2 or Mg2+(Cl–)2 magnesium chloride
1 of Fe3+ balances 3 of F– because 1 x 3 = 3 x 1 gives FeF3 or Fe3+(F–)3 iron(III) fluoride1 of Ca2+ balances 2 of NO3– because 1 x 2 = 2 x 1 gives Ca(NO3)2 or Ca2+(NO3–)2 calcium nitrate
2 of Fe3+ balances 3 of SO42– because 2 x 3 = 3 x 2 gives Fe2(SO4)3 or (Fe3+)2(SO42–)3 iron(III) sulfate
(includes common oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, hydrogencarbonates, halides, sulfates, nitrates)
At Advanced A level you would be expected to work out any ionic formulae from given ions and you should know many of them anyway, or work out the charge on the ion from the position of the element in the periodic table and using the octet electron rule eg for groups 1, 2, 3/13, 4/14, 5/15, 6/16, 7/17, 0/18.
Naming ionic inorganic compounds
When combined with other elements in simple compounds the name of the non-metallic element changes slightly from ...??? to ...ide.
Sulfur forms a sulfide (ion S2-), oxygen forms an oxide (ion O2-), fluorine forms a fluoride (ion F-), chlorine forms a chloride (ion Cl-), bromine a bromide (ion Br-) and iodine an iodide (ion I-).
The other element at the start of the compound name e.g. hydrogen or a metal like sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, etc. remains unchanged because there is only one oxidation state.
So typical compound names are, sodium sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, magnesium oxide, potassium fluoride, hydrogen chloride, sodium chloride, calcium bromide, magnesium iodide etc.
However, with different oxidation states the complications will arise e.g.
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