3j. The covalent bonding in the oxygen molecule
Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes
Covalent bonding diagram for OXYGEN covalent molecule, molecular formula O2
* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)
Two atoms of oxygen (2.6) combine to form the molecules of the element oxygen O2 (only the outer shell of oxygen's electrons are shown).
Each oxygen atom is two electrons short of a full outer shell, so each oxygen atom shares two of its electrons with the other atom, so both oxygen atoms have a full outer shell.
(Lewis diagram of oxygen) simplified 'dot and cross' electronic diagram for the covalently bonded oxygen molecule
The molecule has one O=O double covalent bond (displayed formula), oxygen valency 2.
The oxygen molecule is held together by the strong O=O oxygen–oxygen double covalent bond by sharing electrons.
Electronically, by sharing two electrons, both oxygen atoms attain a pseudo neon structure (2.8), so the oxygen atoms effectively have full outer shells in forming the covalent bonds when the atoms share their outer electrons.
On the left is the full 'dot and cross' electronic diagram for the covalent bonding in the oxygen molecule showing the inner non-valence electrons - omitted from the right diagram.
The electronic dot & cross Lewis diagrams for covalent bonding in oxygen can be shown without the inner non-valency electrons (right diagram).
ball and stick model of oxygen would be like chlorine with a = bond
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