3f. The covalent bonding in the hydrogen chloride molecule
Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes
Covalent bonding diagram for HYDROGEN CHLORIDE covalent molecule, molecular formula HCl
* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)
One atom of hydrogen (1) combines with one atom of chlorine (2.8.7) to form the molecule of the compound hydrogen chloride HCl
Both hydrogen and chlorine have one electron short of a full outer shell (2 for H, 8 for Cl), so both atoms share an electron to have full outer shells.
and combine to form where hydrogen is electronically like helium (2) and chlorine like argon (2.8.8).
(Lewis diagram of hydrogen chloride) simplified 'dot and cross' electronic diagram for the covalently bonded hydrogen chloride molecule.
is the full 'dot and cross' electronic diagram for the covalent bonding in the hydrogen chloride molecule - all the electrons are shown.
The electronic dot & cross Lewis diagrams for covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride.
All the other hydrogen halides will be similar e.g. hydrogen fluoride HF, hydrogen bromide HBr and hydrogen iodide HI.
ball and stick model of hydrogen chloride
space-filling model of hydrogen chloride
Reminder: How to work out formula of covalent compounds without going through some demanding electronic thinking is described on the "Elements, Compounds and Mixtures" page and it is followed by a section on naming compounds.
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