3d. The covalent bonding in the hydrogen molecule
Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes
Covalent bonding diagram for HYDROGEN covalent molecule, molecular formula H2
* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)
Two hydrogen atoms (1) form the molecule of the element hydrogen H2
Hydrogen, a H atom, is one short of a full shell like helium, so two hydrogen atoms share each others electron to have a full outer shell.
and combine to form where both atoms have a pseudo helium structure of 2 outer electrons around each atom's nucleus. Any covalent bond is formed from the mutual attraction of two positive hydrogen nuclei and negative electrons between them (i.e. effectively 'electron sharing'), in this case a single H-H bond.
The Lewis diagram of hydrogen is the most simplified 'dot and cross' style of electronic diagram for the covalently bonded hydrogen molecule.
The hydrogen molecule is held together by the strong hydrogen–hydrogen single covalent bond H–H (displayed formula, a simple representation of the single bond but no electronic structure detail).
Remember, electronically, hydrogen is simply 1 and becomes like helium 2, so the hydrogen atoms effectively have a full outer shell in forming the covalent bonds when the atoms share their outer electrons. This last diagram of the hydrogen molecule shows the sharing of electrons bond in an overlap 'Venn diagram' style.
The - line in H-H represents the single covalent bond, in this simplest possible displayed formula
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