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2f. The ionic bonding of the compounds magnesium sulfide and calcium sulfide

Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE level, IGCSE, O, IB, AS, A level US grade 9-12 level Revision Notes


Example 2f. A Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metal combining with a Group 6 non–metallic element

* metals \ non-metals (zig-zag line)

Pd metals Part of the modern Periodic Table

Pd = period, Gp = group

metals => non–metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1

1H  Note that H does not readily fit into any group

2He
2 3Li 4Be atomic number Chemical Symbol eg 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba Transition Metals 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
The ionic compounds MAGNESIUM SULFIDE and CALCIUM SULFIDE

Where the elements magnesium, calcium and sulfur are in the Periodic Table

 

Magnesium oxide MgO, magnesium sulfide MgS and calcium sulfide CaS will be similar electronically and give identical giant ionic lattice structures.

Group 2 metals lose the two outer electrons to give the stable 2+ positive ion (cation) and S and O, both non–metals in Group 6, have 6 outer electrons and gain 2 electrons to form 2– negative ion (anion).

For magnesium sulfide: Mg (2.8.2) + S (2.8.6) ==> Mg2+ (2.8) S2– (2.8.8)

For calcium sulfide: Ca (2.8.8.2) + S (2.8.6) ==> Ca2+ (2.8.8) S2– (2.8.8)

so both the magnesium/calcium and sulfide ions have a full outer shell like a noble gas

The dot and cross (ox) diagrams will be identical to that for calcium oxide above, except Mg instead of Ca (same group) and S instead of O (same group of Periodic Table). eg

The electronic dot & cross diagrams for the ionic bonding in magnesium sulfide and calcium sulfide

electronic structure of magnesium sulfide MgS

Lewis diagram for magnesium sulfide

 

Melting point of magnesium sulfide is 2000oC

 

 

electronic structure of calcium sulfide CaS

Lewis diagram for calcium sulfide

Melting point of magnesium oxide is 2525oC

 

Pd metals Part of the modern Periodic Table

Pd = period, Gp = group

metals => non–metals
Gp1 Gp2 Gp3 Gp4 Gp5 Gp6 Gp7 Gp0
1

1H  Note that H does not readily fit into any group

2He
2 3Li 4Be atomic number Chemical Symbol eg 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
6 55Cs 56Ba Transition Metals 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
A Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metal combining with a Group 6 non–metallic element

Predicting formulae

Gp2\6 O S
Mg MgO MgS
Ca CaO CaS
Sr SrO SrS
Ba BaO BaS

All the formula highlighted in yellow can be described in the same way as magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfide, calcium oxide or calcium sulfide

The Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metal atom loses two electrons to form a doubly charged positive ion

The Group 6 non–metal atom gains two electrons to form a doubly charged negative ion

 


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Sub-index for: Part 2 Ionic Bonding: compounds and properties

 

Index for ALL chemical bonding and structure notes

 

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