IGCSE AQA GCSE Chemistry A level Edexcel GCSE Chemistry A level OCR Gateway Science Chemistry A level OCR 21st Century Science Chemistry

AQA Advanced A level Chemistry Edexcel Advanced A level Chemistry OCR Advanced A level Chemistry A OCR Salters Advanced A level Chemistry B

Why is knowledge of chemical bonding and structure is so important?

There are so many uses of chemistry that require detailed descriptions of the chemical structure of substances and their properties

Doc Brown's Chemistry: Chemical Bonding and structure GCSE/IGCSE/O/IB/AS/A US grade 9-12 Level Revision Notes

Chemists can use the theory of structure and bonding to explain the physical and chemical properties of materials of widely varying composition e.g. salt crystals, metals and polymer plastics.

 Detailed analysis of structures by a variety of techniques shows how atoms can be arranged in all sorts of ways summarised below with links to more detailed notes.

Chemical bonding theory (covalent, ionic, metallic) explains how atoms are held together in these different types of structure.

This theoretical chemical bonding knowledge, backed up with experimental evidence, helps scientists to design and engineer new materials with desirable properties for specific uses.

Composites, smart materials and nanotechnology have provided materials with a huge diverse and remarkable sets of properties for many applications.

The properties of these new materials offer new technological applications and uses in a range of different industrial and domestic use of technologies from electronic devices to new structural materials and a lot more besides.

Biochemistry has advanced enormously from the mid 20th century onwards including the deducing the structure of DNA and understanding how genetics work (well mostly!).

Drugs save lives every day or just relieve that annoying headache.

An understanding of the shape and function of enzymes has enabled biochemists to use computer software to design drugs to combat disease.

Artists have taken advantage of new alloys to create great sculptures like the steel "Angel of the North" in north-east England..

Organic chemistry has outstripped any other branch of chemistry and there are more compounds of carbon than any other element in the Periodic Table (many millions of compounds including fuels, plastics, pharmaceutical products etc. etc.!).

Three types of strong chemical bonds: ionic, covalent and metallic will be described and explained.

In ionic bonding the particles (atoms or a group of atoms) form oppositely charged ions.

Ionic bonding occurs in compounds formed from metals combined with non-metals.

In covalent bonding the particles are atoms (usually both non-metals) share pairs of electrons to form the bond.

Covalent bonding occurs in most non-metallic elements and in compounds of non-metals.

In metallic bonding the metal atoms (actually positive ions) of the lattice share negative delocalised electrons to bind themselves together.

Metallic bonding occurs in metallic elements and alloys.

Overall you should be able to explain chemical bonding in terms of electrostatic forces and the transfer or sharing of electrons and use the bonding models to explain the physical properties of elements and compounds.

What next?

Recommend next: Sub-index for:

Introduction to chemical bonding - why? how? and patterns


Index for all chemical bonding and structure notes


Perhaps of interest?

The uses of over 200 different compounds

Formulation chemistry


Use My Google search box

Website map buttons below


KS3 BIOLOGY QUIZZES ~US grades 6-8 KS3 CHEMISTRY QUIZZES ~US grades 6-8 KS3 PHYSICS QUIZZES ~US grades 6-8 HOMEPAGE of Doc Brown's Science Website EMAIL Doc Brown's Science Website
GCSE 9-1 BIOLOGY NOTES GCSE 9-1 CHEMISTRY NOTES and QUIZZES GCSE 9-1 PHYSICS NOTES GCSE 9-1 SCIENCES syllabus-specification help links for biology chemistry physics courses IGCSE & O Level SCIENCES syllabus-specification help links for biology chemistry physics courses
Advanced A/AS Level ORGANIC Chemistry Revision Notes US K12 ~grades 11-12 Advanced A/AS Level INORGANIC Chemistry Revision Notes US K12 ~grades 11-12 Advanced A/AS Level PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL Chemistry Revision Notes US K12 ~grades 11-12 Advanced A/AS Level CHEMISTRY syllabus-specificatio HELP LINKS of my site Doc Brown's Travel Pictures
Website content © Dr Phil Brown 2000+. All copyrights reserved on revision notes, images, quizzes, worksheets etc. Copying of website material is NOT permitted. Exam revision summaries & references to science course specifications are unofficial.

 Doc Brown's Chemistry 


best gift deals latest video game release, best gift deals best bargains in shop sales latest pop music releases, best sales deals download free music, latest film releases, best gifts for teenagers latest high street fashion in clothes, fashionable trending in clothing, best gift deals best bargains in shop salesgirls buy clothes, spend a lot of money on clothes, best sales deals shoes, sweets and chocolates, magazines and make-up best gifts for teenagers Boys buy food and drink, computer games best gift deals best bargains in trainers shop sales DVDs and CDs, girls and boys spend a lot of money on credit for mobile phones best sales deals best bargains in shop sales buses and trains to transport them going out best gifts for teenagers best bargains in shoes shop sales Girls spend a lot of money on clothes best gift deals color colour preferences in clothes, cool sunglasses best sales deals boys buy expensive thins like best gifts for teenagers designer sports clothes and trainers, teenagers save for holidays, best sales deals clothes, mobile phones, birthday presents and electronic goods, teenage accessories, Favourite style of jeans. best gifts for teenagers A typical girl’s shopping list includes mobile phone credit deals best shoes gift deals fashionable quality cool airpods, air pods, fashionable clothes best sales deals the most popular favourite sneakers best gifts for teenagers fancy shoes, sweets, chocolates, magazines, best trainers gift deals best bargains in shop sales lip moisturizer best bargains in  shop sale slots on make-up, well being, teenage decor decorating their room best sales deals teenagers like LED string lantern lights, best gifts for teenagers beauty products for teenagers, denim jackets, scrunchies coolness, fashionable back packs, typical boy’s shopping list includes mobile credit deals, eating out takeaway food and drinks, what teenagers like to buy in clothes best gifts for teenagers computer games, DVDs, CDs, what teenagers talk about best gift deals what teenagers worry about, what teenagers like to do for fun sports best sales deals what cool things do teenagers buy, resale websites like eBay Teenager best high street shop or best online deals currys pc world argos amazon john lewis dell acer samsung raycon bose sony asus huawei HP microsoft in-ear headphones earbuds ipad desktop computer laptop computer for school college university students latest video games consoles apple iphone google high end mobile phones cell phone bargain smartphone xiaomi oppo high tech products latest fashion in trainers latest fashion in shoes latest fashion in mobile phones cell phones