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Advanced Organic Chemistry: Infrared spectrum of butanal

Interpreting the infrared spectrum of butanal (butyraldehyde)

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing infrared spectra of butanal

infrared spectrum of butanal wavenumbers cm-1 functional group detection fingerprint pattern identification of butyraldehyde doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes 

Spectra obtained from a liquid film of butanal. The right-hand part of the of the infrared spectrum of butanal, wavenumbers ~1500 to 400 cm-1 is considered the fingerprint region for the identification of butanal and most organic compounds. It is due to a unique set of complex overlapping vibrations of the atoms of the molecule of butanal.

butanal (butyraldehyde), C4H8O,  aldehydes and ketones nomenclature (c) doc b, aldehydes and ketones nomenclature (c) doc b, aldehydes and ketones nomenclature (c) doc b

Interpretation of the infrared spectrum of butanal

The most prominent infrared absorption lines of butanal

The stretching vibrations of the C-H bond of the aldehyde group (CHO) occur at 2880 to 2650 cm-1.

There is a very prominent C=O stretching vibration absorption at 1740 to 1720 cm-1, characteristic of all molecules with a carbonyl group.

The absence of other specific functional group bands will show that particular functional group is absent from the butanal molecular structure.


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