(5) A comparison of aerobic
respiration and anaerobic respiration in plants and animals and relative
yields of ATP
In prokaryotic organisms, aerobic
respiration takes place in the cytoplasm.
In eukaryotic organisms, aerobic
respiration takes place in the mitochondria of cells.
Anaerobic respiration takes place in the
cytoplasm plant cells, animal cells and some microorganisms.
The actual energy release powering cell chemistry takes place through
a very complex biochemistry cycle involving ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and its
conversion to ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
It is the ATP molecule that actually
supplies the chemical energy to power most of the chemistry of any cell. The
more efficient the respiration, the more ATP is made, the faster and more
efficient is the chemistry of cells - see the data table for comparison of
type of respiration and the relative quantities of ATP produced.
The more ATP
that is made, the greater the supply of energy available.
Aerobic respiration in plants
and animals with excess oxygen can be summarised as:
glucose + oxygen ===> carbon dioxide
+ water + energy
+ 6O2(g) ===> 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)
Anaerobic respiration in animals, when there is a
lack of oxygen
glucose ===> lactic acid
Anaerobic respiration in organisms like
plants or yeasts, when there is a lack of oxygen
glucose ===> ethanol ('alcohol') +
carbon dioxide + energy
====> 2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g)
Similarities and differences
needed, we can exercise normally!
|Little oxygen present
due to e.g. vigorous exercise in an animal or organisms in
|Glucose or other sugar or any
organic molecule like a fatty acid or protein molecule that can
be completely oxidised.
|Glucose or other sugar
or any organic molecule like a fatty acid or a protein molecule
that can be partially oxidised.
|Carbon dioxide and water.
|In animals and some bacteria
it is lactic acid. In plants, and some microorganisms like
yeast, the products are ethanol and carbon dioxide.
|High e.g. 30 to 38 ATP molecules
per molecule of glucose.
|Low e.g. 2 ATP
molecules per molecule of glucose (15-19 x less than with
Keywords, phrases and learning objectives for this section on respiration
Know that production of ATP molecules from
respiration is important to provide energy to power most of the
chemistry of cells.
Be able to compare and contrast the similarities and
differences between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.
Know and understand the relative different in ATP yields
produced from aerobic respiration and
anaerobic respiration in plants and animals.
Know that both aerobic respiration and anaerobic
respiration both produce ATP and anaerobic respiration is much less
Know that aerobic and anaerobic respiration produce
the different chemical products.
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