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Flowering plants: 1. The structure and functions of the flower parts of a flowering plants

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Sub-index of notes on flowering plants

(1) The structure and functions of the flower parts of a flowering plants

What are the structure and functions of the parts of the flower of flowering plants?

The diagram includes male and female parts for a flowering plant.

structure and functions of the parts of the flowering plant asexual sexual reproduction

Parts of the flowering plant and their function (in alphabetical order, not all shown or labelled on the diagram)

Anther - part of the stamen producing the pollen grains which contain the male sex cells.

Carpel - the female parts of the flower, consisting of the stigma, style and ovary.

Filament - supports the anther and carries nutrients to the anther for the development of pollen grains.

Ovary - the swollen base of the pistil and contains the female sex cells inside the ovules which develop into seeds after fertilisation. The ovary later then develops and matures into the fruit (dry or fleshy) enclosing the seeds.

Ovule - it is borne in the ovary of the flower and contains the female sex cells (female gametes) and forms a seed seeds after fertilisation.

Petals - spread above and around the reproductive organs, often brightly coloured to attract insects required for pollination.

Pistil - the ovule producing part of the flower, it is the innermost, seed-bearing, female part of a flower. It is located generally to the centre and consists of a swollen base called the ovary.

Pollen grains - contain the male sex cells (male gametes).

Pollen tube - grows in the style and conveys the pollen grain down to the ovary for fertilisation to take place.

Sepals - these are a defensive organ, consisting of green leaf-like structures below the main petals and enclose and protect the flower in the bud. At maturity the sepal opens when the flower blooms.

Stamen - the male parts of the flower producing the pollen, consisting of the filament and anther, which is the pollen producing part of the plant. The filament carries nutrients to the anther for the development of pollen grains.

Stem - the main green vertical support for the plant above ground i.e. the leaves, flowers and bud (the roots support and anchor the plant below ground).

Stigma - a specially adapted part of the pistil modified to receive pollen.  The stigma can be feathery and branched or elongated, adapted for wind-pollinated flowers as those of the grasses, or it may be compact and have a sticky surface for insect pollinators.

Style - a tube-like structure connecting the stigma and ovary. It is crucial for fertilisation and generates the pollen tube down which the pollen travels to the ovary, but also prevents the passage of incompatible pollen.

Keywords, phrases and learning objectives for this part on flowering plants

Know the structure and function of the parts of the flower of a flowering plant including the anther, stigma, carpel, filament, ovary, ovule, petals, pistil, pollen grains, pollen tube, style, sepals and stem.



INDEX of biology notes on flowering plants


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