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Advanced Organic Chemistry: Infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane

Interpreting the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane (isobutane)

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing infrared spectra of 2-methylpropane

See also comparing the IR, mass, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of 2-methylpropane and butane

infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane C4H10 (CH3)3CH wavenumbers cm-1 functional group detection fingerprint pattern identification of isobutane doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes 

Spectra obtained from 2-methylpropane vapour. The right-hand part of the of the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane, wavenumbers ~1500 to 400 cm-1 is considered the fingerprint region for the identification of 2-methylpropane and most organic compounds. It is due to a unique set of complex overlapping vibrations of the atoms of the molecule of 2-methylpropane.

2-methylpropane  C4H10  alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b   alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b   alkanes structure and naming (c) doc b 

For more see The molecular structure, classification and naming of alkanes

Interpretation of the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane

The most prominent infrared absorption lines of 2-methylpropane

For 2-methylpropane, the C-H stretching vibration absorptions occur in bands of wavenumbers 2975 to 2845 cm-1.

C-H deformation-bending vibration absorptions occur in bands of wavenumbers 1470 to 1365 cm-1 (a significant double peak).

C-C-C/C-C skeletal vibrations absorptions occur in bands of wavenumbers 1250 to 1170 cm-1.

The absence of other specific functional group bands will show that a particular functional group is absent from the 2-methylpropane molecular structure.

Apart from the fingerprint pattern for 2-methylpropane, these are all typical alkane/alkyl vibrations and offer little of value in investigating molecular structure.

There is no significant characteristic peak for a functional group infrared absorption band, because 2-methylpropane doesn't have one!

See also comparing the IR, mass, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of 2-methylpropane and butane

Comparing the infrared, mass, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the 2 alkane isomers of C4H10

NOTE: The images are linked to their original detailed spectral analysis pages AND can be doubled in size with touch screens to increase the definition to the original butane and 2-methylpropane image sizes.

The infrared spectra of butane and 2-methyl propane are quite similar, mainly due to C-H stretching and deformation vibrations, but you can see significant differences in the fingerprint region at wavenumbers 1500 to 600 cm-1 e.g. 2-methylpropane has a prominent absorption at ~1200 cm-1 due to C-C-C skeletal vibrations.

The mass spectra of butane and 2-methyl propane are quite similar and both have a base ion peak of m/z 43 [C3H7]+, but there significant differences in the ratios of the m/z ions 27 to 29 [C2H3,4,5]+.

The 1H NMR spectra of butane and 2-methyl propane are quite similar in that both show the 8 hydrogen atoms exist in only 2 different chemical environment. However, they can be distinguished from each other by the different integrated proton ratios. Butane gives a (2) : (3) proton ratio and 2-methylbutane a (1) : (9) proton ratio.

The 13C NMR spectra of butane and 2-methyl propane are quite similar in that both show the 4 carbon atoms exist in only 2 different chemical environments.


Key words & phrases: C4H10 (CH3)3CH image and diagram explaining the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane, complete infrared absorption spectrum of 2-methylpropane, comparative spectra of 2-methylpropane, prominent peaks/troughs for identifying functional groups in the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane, important wavenumber values in cm-1 for peaks/troughs in the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane, revision of infrared spectroscopy of 2-methylpropane, fingerprint region analysis of 2-methylpropane, how to identify 2-methylpropane from its infrared spectrum, identifying organic compounds like 2-methylpropane from their infrared spectrum, how to analyse the absorption bands in the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane detection of functional groups in the 2-methylpropane molecule example of the infrared spectrum of a molecule like 2-methylpropane with a functional group  interpreting interpretation of the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane shows presence of functional group isobutane methylpropane CH(CH3)3

Diagram of absorption of wavenumber peaks in the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane. Characteristic peak wavenumbers in the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane. Finger print identification pattern using the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane. Revision notes on the infrared spectrum of 2-methylpropane. Matching and deducing the structure of the 2-methylpropane molecule from  its infrared spectrum. Infrared spectroscopy of aliphatic alkanes, infrared spectra of 2-methylpropane, a structural isomer of molecular formula C4H10


Links associated with 2-methylpropane

The chemistry of ALKANES revision notes INDEX

The mass spectrum of 2-methylpropane (methylpropane, isobutane)

The H-1 NMR spectrum of 2-methylpropane (methylpropane, isobutane)

The C-13 NMR spectrum of 2-methylpropane (methylpropane, isobutane)

Infrared spectroscopy index

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