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Advanced Organic Chemistry: 1H NMR spectrum of 1,2-dichloroethane

Interpreting the H-1 hydrogen-1 (proton) NMR spectrum of 1,2-dichloroethane

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing H-1 NMR spectra of 1,2-dichloroethane

1H proton nmr spectrum of 1,2-dichloroethane low/high resolution diagrams C2H4Cl2 CH2ClCH2Cl analysis interpretation of chemical shifts ppm spin spin line splitting diagram H1 H-1 nmr for 1,2-dichloroethane explaining spin-spin coupling for line splitting doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes

TMS is the acronym for tetramethylsilane, formula Si(CH3)4, whose protons are arbitrarily given a chemical shift of 0.0 ppm. This is the 'standard' in 1H NMR spectroscopy and all other proton resonances, called chemical shifts, are measured with respect to the TMS, and depend on the individual (electronic) chemical environment of the hydrogen atoms in an organic molecule - 1,2-dichloroethane here.

The chemical shifts quoted in ppm on the diagram of the H-1 NMR spectrum of 1,2-dichloroethane represent the peaks of the intensity of the chemical shifts of (which are often groups of split lines at high resolution) AND the relative integrated areas under the peaks gives you the ratio of protons in the different chemical environments of the 1,2-dichloroethane molecule.

1,2-dichloroethane,  C2H4Cl2,  ClCH2-CH2Cl

Interpreting the H-1 NMR spectrum of 1,2-dichloroethane

In terms of spin-spin coupling from the possible proton magnetic orientations, for 1,2-dichloroethane I have only considered the interactions of non-equivalent protons on adjacent carbon atoms, but here the two groups of protons are equivalent to each other, no splitting occurs.

The hydrogen atoms (protons) of 1,2-dichloroethane occupy just one chemical environments so that the low/high resolution NMR spectra will show just one H-1 NMR chemical shift (diagram above for 1,2-dichloroethane).


Note the one colour of the protons in the single chemical environment.

Chemical shifts (a) on the H-1 NMR spectrum diagram for 1,2-dichloroethane.

Chemically equivalent proton fields do NOT split each others resonances - that is why you just see a singlet proton resonance line.

Number of directly adjacent protons 1H causing splitting Splitting pattern produced from the n+1 rule on spin-spin coupling and the theoretical ratio of line intensities
0 means no splitting             1            
1 creates a doublet           1   1          
2 creates a triplet         1   2   1        
3 creates a quartet       1   3   3   1      
4 creates a quintet     1   4   6   4   1    
5 creates a sextet   1   5   10   10   5   1  
6 creates a septet 1   6   15   20   15   6   1

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