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Advanced Organic Chemistry: Carbon-13 NMR spectrum of 2-chlorobutane

The Carbon-13 NMR spectrum of 2-chlorobutane

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing C-13 NMR spectra of 2-chlorobutane

C4H9Cl CH3CHClCH2CH3 C-13 nmr spectrum of 2-chlorobutane analysis of chemical shifts ppm interpretation of 13C chemical shifts ppm of  sec-butyl chloride C13 13-C nmr doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes 

TMS is the acronym for tetramethylsilane, formula Si(CH3)4, whose 13C atoms are arbitrarily given a chemical shift of 0.0 ppm. This is the 'standard' in 13C NMR spectroscopy and all other 13C resonances, called chemical shifts, are measured with respect to the TMS, and depend on the individual (electronic) chemical environment of the 13C atoms in an organic molecule - 2-chlorobutane here.

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Interpreting the C-13 NMR spectrum of 2-chlorobutane

As you can see from the diagram above there are 4 different chemical shift lines in the C-13 NMR spectrum of 2-chlorobutane indicating 4 different chemical environments of the 4 carbon atoms of 2-chlorobutane.

CH3CHClCH2CH3

(Note the 4 different colours indicating the 4 different chemical environments of the carbon atoms in 2-chlorobutane).

13C chemical shifts (a) to (d) on the C-13 NMR spectrum diagram for 2-chlorobutane.

Note the decreasing effect on the 13C chemical shift as the carbon atom is further from the more electronegative chlorine atom in 2-chlorobutane.

The carbon-13 NMR spectra provides direct evidence of 4 different carbon atom environments for the 4 carbon atoms in the 2-chlorobutane molecule, deduced from the presence of 4 different 13C chemical shifts (ppm).


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