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Advanced Organic Chemistry: Mass spectrum of 1-chlorobutane

The mass spectrum of 1-chlorobutane

mass spectrum of 1-chlorobutane fragmentation pattern of ions for analysis and identification of 1-chlorobutane n-butyl chloride image diagram doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes 

 1-chlorobutane C4H9Cl, (c) doc b , (c) doc b

Interpreting the mass spectrum of 1-chlorobutane

m/z value of [fragment]+ 63 57 56 55 49 43 42 41 39 29 28 27
molecular fragment CH2CH235Cl CH3CH2CH2CH2 C4H8 C4H7 CH235C CH3CH2CH2 C3H6 C3H5 C3H3 CH3CH2 C2H4 C2H3

Explaining the principal fragments of the mass spectrum of 1-chlorobutane

Note the molecular ion peak is hardly visible indicating the molecule fragments very easily.

m/z values of 43 and 29 correspond to alkyl fragments of the original linear chain.

Small peaks at m/z 49 equate to the [CH235Cl]+ ion and at m/z 63 [CH235Cl]+.

Tiny peaks at m/z 51 and m/z 65 corresponds to [CH237Cl]+ and [CH2CH237Cl]+.

Since chlorine has two common isotopes of 35Cl and 37Cl in the ratio 3 : 1, you should observe double peaks in the intensity ratio 3 : 1, two mass units apart for molecular fragments containing a chlorine atom from the fragmentation of 1-chlorobutane.

Two examples of this are quoted above for m/z 49 and 51  and  35 and 37, although small, you can see they are roughly in the ratio 3 : 1.


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