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Advanced Level Organic Chemistry: Naming and structure of aromatic compounds

(c) doc b(c) doc b

AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

Part 7.1 What are they? How do you name them?

Notes on the Molecular Structure and Nomenclature -the naming of Aromatic Compounds - Arenes and substituted products

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK KS5 A/AS GCE IB advanced level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry Revising Advanced A Level Organic Chemistry Revision Notes

Sub-index for aromatic compound nomenclature

Introduction and then fast track to naming examples of

Aromatic hydrocarbons (Arenes)Halogeno-aromatics

Phenols * Aromatic aldehydes/ketones * Aromatic carboxylic acids and derivatives

Aromatic amines (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary ammonium salts)

Aromatic amides * Diazonium salts and azo dyes * Nitro-aromatics * Aromatic sulfonic acids


INDEX of AROMATIC CHEMISTRY NOTES

All Advanced A Level Organic Chemistry Notes

(c) doc b Type in name QUIZ * Functional Group Tests * Summary of FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

See ALKANES page for comparison with aliphatic and alicyclic compounds

The shapes and bond angles of simple molecules - section on bond angles in organic molecules

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How do you name aromatic compounds e.g. arenes - aromatic hydrocarbons. Examples of displayed formula of aromatic compounds, graphic formula, molecular formula, skeletal formula, structural formula of aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes like benzene and methylbenzene), aromatic halides, phenols, aromatic aldehydes, aromatic ketones, aromatic carboxylic acids and derivatives, primary aromatic amine, secondary aromatic amines, tertiary aromatic amines, aromatic amides, diazonium Salts and azo dyes , nitro-aromatics, aromatic sulphonic/sulfonic acids . Please note that some 'old' names are quoted in () though their use should be avoided if possible, however, many are still used - just put one into Google! However, most names are based on the generic hexagonal 'benzene' ring with modifications to this based on the highest functional group attached to the ring (i.e. a ring substituent replacing a hydrogen)


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Introduction to naming aromatic compounds

(a) The naming and structure of monosubstituted benzene compounds

guide to naming monosubstituted derivatives of benzene nomenclature of aromatic compounds advanced A level organic chemistry

Above is a brief, pictorial and selected guide, to naming monosubstituted derivatives of benzene, where just one hydrogen atom has been substituted for another group.

An arene is a hydrocarbon (C and H only), either benzene itself, or benzene with one or more alkyl groups substituted for hydrogen atoms in the hexagonal carbon chain, and can involve two or more fused rings.

Benzene the 'parent' molecule of all aromatic benzene compounds including arene hydrocarbons.

Methylbenzene is the next simplest arene hydrocarbon with a side-chain of one methyl group.

Chlorobenzene, the halogen atom name is in the prefix, so you can have fluoro, bromo and iodo.

Phenol, the parent molecule of a whole series of phenols where the OH group is directly attached to the aromatic ring.

Nitrobenzene, formed by nitration of benzene, the substituent name is a prefix.

Phenylamine, the parent compound for a whole series of 'phenylamine' primary aromatic amines, where the amino group is directly attached to the benzene ring (amine name in suffix). It can be called aminobenzene, but this prefix name is rarely used.

Benzaldehyde, the simplest aromatic aldehyde, where the aldehyde group is directly attached to the benzene ring.

Benzoic acid, the simplest aromatic acid, behaves in most ways like aliphatic carboxylic acids.

Benzoyl chloride, the simplest aromatic acid chloride.

Benamide, the simplest aromatic amide.

Methyl benzoate, the simplest ester made from benzoic acid and the alcohol methanol.

Benzenesulfonic acid, the simplest aromatic sulfonic acid, made by reacting benzene with concentrated sulfuric acid.

 

(b) The naming and structure of polysubstituted benzene compounds

We now look at how we name aromatic compounds of benzene where a 2nd substituent is introduced into the aromatic ring.

It is usual to assign the possible numbers 1 to 6 for substituents in a clockwise manner based on the highest ranking group.

e.g. amine outranks chloro, phenol outranks bromo, carboxylic acid outranks the amino/amine group.

guide to naming 1,2 1,3 1,4 disubstituted derivatives of benzene nomenclature  how to name aromatic compounds advanced A level organic chemistry

For two substituent groups, ether the same or different, there are three possible positional isomers.

1,2-dichlorobenzene, the chlorine atoms occupy ring positions 1 and 2.

You can have two other positional isomers 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

It is NOT 1,6-dichlorobenzene, NOT the lowest number permutation.

3-hydroxybenzoic acid, -COOH group in position 1, and the 2nd substituent in position 3.

Therefore two other positional isomers, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid.

You do not say things like 5-hydroxybenzoic acid or 6-hydroxybenzoic acid, the lowest number must be used.

The top ranking COOH group counts as position 1.

chloro-4-methylbenzene (rather than methyl-4-chlorobenzene, alphabetical order usually prevails).

The other isomer names will be chloro-2-methylbenzene and chloro-3-methylbenzene.

Unfortunately, you will find other accepted alternative names to aromatic compounds, that's the way it is!

You don't always have to count clockwise BUT you must use the lowest possible substituent number.

 

guide to naming trisubstituted tetrasubstituted derivatives of benzene  how to nmae polysubstituted aromatic compounds advanced A level organic chemistry

When you have 3 or 4 different substituent groups in the benzene ring, there are many positional isomers, but many are not too difficult to name.

You don't always have to count clockwise BUT you must only count in one direction and use the lowest number or numbers for the substituent positions in the benzene ring.

Just remember to use (i) the lowest substituent numbers, (ii) alphabetical order of prefixes and (iii) most importantly, the parent molecule with the highest ranking functional group, which counts as position 1.

2-amino-5-nitrophenol, parent molecule phenol, OH occupies position 1 of the carbon ring, 2 is the lowest number for amine group, 4 is next clockwise for nitro group, note alphabetical order of prefixes.

It is NOT 6-amino-3-nitrophenol, nor is 2-amino-3-nitrophenol (might be lowest numbers, but you have counted in two direction).

3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, parent molecule benzoic acid, 3, 5 lowest number, nitro lower ranking, so prefix.

2,4,6-tribromophenol, parent molecule phenol, OH is position 1, obvious 2, 4 and 6 positions for bromine atoms.

2,4-difluoro-5-methylbenzoic acid, parent molecule benzoic acid, COOH position 1, next lowest number is 2 for the first fluorine atom, the 2nd fluorine atom is on C atom 4, finally methyl group on 5th C atom of ring, note prefixes in alphabetical order.


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Aromatic/aryl Hydrocarbons (Arenes)

The alkyl substituent part of the name is usually the prefix of the aromatic compound's name.

The simplest aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene, 

The structures of benzene on the left and right are presented in 'old fashioned' Kekule style.

However, benzene is NOT a triene, so this style ignores the delocalised rings of pi electrons, and this style will not be used for most of the rest of the page.

Unfortunately, the Kekule style is widely used, though in some cases it is justified for multiple benzene ring systems.

benzene molecular formula C6H6, skeletal formula (c) doc b, structural/displayed formula (c) doc b

ALL bond angles 120o, symmetrical hexagonal ring, planar molecule

 

methylbenzene (toluene) C7H8, C6H5CH3(c) doc b(c) doc b(c) doc b , the simplest molecule where an alkyl groups has replaced a hydrogen atom in the benzene ring.

 

ethylbenzene C8H10(c) doc b  (c) doc b

 propylbenzene, C9H12 (c) doc b  (c) doc b  and isomeric 2-phenylpropane,1-methylethyl)benzene

 

phenylethene ('styrene'), C8H8,(c) doc b is usually named as a derivative of ethene, even though it is also technically an aromatic compound,

the C6H5- aromatic ring grouping is called a phenyl group when quoted as a substituent  prefix.

So phenylethene is named as a derivative of ethene.

 

1,2-dimethylbenzene, C8H10, (c) doc b(c) doc b, 1,3-dimethylbenzene(c) doc b(c) doc b, 1,4-dimethylbenzene(c) doc b(c) doc b

Three positional structural isomers of  C8H10 (once called xylenes, ortho, meta and para-xylene)

 

1-ethyl-2-methylbenzene, C9H12,(c) doc b(c) doc b and the two other positional structural isomers

1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene, C9H12,(c) doc b(c) doc b and

1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, C10H14,,(c) doc b(c) doc b

 

1,2-diethylbenzene, C10H14, (c) doc b, structural formula 1,3-diethylbenzen molecular structure advanced organic chemistry 1,3-diethylbenzene, structural formula 1,4-diethylbenzene molecular structure advanced organic chemistry 1,4-diethylbenzene

1,2-dipropylbenzene structural formula 1,2-dipropylbenzene molecular structure advanced organic chemistry  , 1,3-dipropylbenzene (c) doc b, 1,4-dipropylbenzene structural formula 1,4-dipropylbenzene molecular structure advanced organic chemistry

 

1-methyl-2-propylbenzene, C10H14, (c) doc band the two other positional structural isomers

1-methyl-3-propylbenzene, C10H14,(c) doc band

1-methyl-4-propylbenzene, C10H14,(c) doc b

 

1-ethyl-4-propylbenzene, C11H16, (c) doc b

4-ethyl-1,2-dimethylbenzene, C10H14, (c) doc b (uses lower numbers than 1-...-3,4-...)


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Examples of fused ring systems of arene hydrocarbon compounds - polynuclear aromatic ring compounds

Two aromatic rings that share a pair of carbon atoms are said to be fused.

These molecules behave exactly like benzene in their chemistry i.e. they display the typical aromaticity of the single ring arenes above in undergoing electrophilic substitution reactions.

It is usual to display these aromatic fused ring molecules in the Kekule structural formula style.

naphthalene , C10H8  consists of two fused aromatic rings

 

anthracene or  C14H10  consists of three fused rings.

Naphthalene and anthracene are two of the simplest examples of what are called polynuclear aromatic compounds or in this specific case polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also known as polycyclic arenes or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. They are molecules which consist of at least two 'benzene' rings 'fused' together. Incidentally the ultimate molecule with this carbon based aromatic ring system is graphene (essentially an individual layer of graphite!)

Both naphthalene and anthracene are correctly shown in Kekule style skeletal formula here (principal IUPAC accepted style), though some textbooks consider drawing molecules like naphthalene in the following style ...

and are considered as incorrect because, although both rings involve delocalised pi electron systems, and, they are both merged into a continuous delocalised pi electron system, this style of diagram implies two separate delocalised ring systems, which is incorrect. However, some undergraduate textbooks and high school textbooks use the 'multi-inner circle' style of skeletal formula. BUT such a style, also implies for the 'inner' vertical C-C bonds (as drawn above between rings), that they are equivalent to a double bond (bond order 2), but each C-C bond in the rings has an average bond order of 1.5 in the delocalised aromatic ring system. Although beyond the scope of this site, anthracene (naphthalene?) does show some ready addition reactions characteristic of a non-aromatic diene!

Olympicene 2OLYMPICENE molecular structure, shape and bond angles

Olympicene 1Olympicene (caught my imagination in 2012!), C19H12, (Mr = 240, bpt 512oC), was one of the latest arrivals of a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon compound from synthetic organic chemistry in 2011. It was conceived and synthesised by a British research group for the London 2012 Olympic Games. The Olympicene molecule consists of five 'fused' hexagonal rings of carbon atoms (the official Olympic symbol consists of five 'interlocking rings' - can't show due to copyright law!).

Consisting of five shared-fused hexagonal carbon atom rings, Olympicene is a 'flat' or planar molecule (if you ignore the H atoms of the saturated -CH2- which will 'stick out' above/below the planarity of the molecule). In Olympicene, four of the hexagonal carbon atom rings are truly aromatic rings with C-C-C and C-C-H bond angles of ~120o. However, due to valence bond limitations, (in left-hand representation), one of the carbon atoms of the bottom-right ring, must be saturated with two hydrogen atoms (shown in diagram). This means in the delocalised system of '42/3' rings there are 18 delocalised pi electrons NOT 19 in Olympicene. In the 2nd isomer shown (on the right), the saturated carbon atom is at the top of the top middle ring. This means these cases the H-C-H bond angle of the saturated carbon will be between 109o and 120o (probably around 115o?). What is shown in the above diagram are two of the many possible isomeric 'Kekule' skeletal formula structures. You can write more structures of Olympicene in a similar manner eg put the saturated carbon in one of three positions (a sort of 1, 2 or 3 position) in the top right hexagonal carbon ring, or on the bottom carbon atom of one of the lower rings - try this exercise out and let me know how you get on! am I right, that there are six structural isomers? I'm not exactly sure what isomers were actually produced in the synthesis of Olympicene? and I'm not sure if there is a dynamic equilibrium between two or more of the isomers, though going from one isomer to another involves a proton migration from a strong C-H bond?


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Halo-arenes - aryl/aromatic 'halides'

or aryl halide, aromatic halogen compounds, the halogen is directly attached to the benzene ring.

The halogen atom substituent part of the name is usually the prefix of the aromatic compound's name.

chlorobenzene, C6H5Cl, (c) doc b and

1,2 or 1,3 or 1,4-dichlorobenzene, C6H4Cl2, (c) doc b,(c) doc b,(c) doc b

 

C7H7Cl, (c) doc b(c) doc b chloromethylbenzene, or (chloromethyl)benzene (benzyl chloride). It is not a true aryl halogen compound, the halogen atom is in a non-aromatic side chain, so it is a primary aliphatic halogenoalkane.

 

(c) doc b(c) doc b(c) doc b Three positional structural isomers of C7H7Cl

chloro-2-methylbenzene, chloro-3-methylbenzene and chloro-4-methylbenzene,or 1-chloro-2-methylbenzene, 1-chloro-3-methylbenzene and 1-chloro-4-methylbenzene (old names 0-chlorotoluene, m-chlorotoluene and p-chlorotoluene). These are true aryl halides with the halogen attached directly to the benzene ring and they are isomeric with (chloromethyl)benzene above.

 

C7H6Cl2, structural formula for dichloro-2,3-methylbenzene molecular structure dichloro-2,3-methylbenzene, structural formula for dichloro-2,4-methylbenzene molecular structuredichloro-2,4-methylbenzene, structural formula for dichloro-2,5-methylbenzene molecular structure dichloro-2,5-methylbenzene

structural formula for dichloro-2,6-methylbenzene molecular structure dichloro-2,6-methylbenzene, structural formula for dichloro-3,4-methylbenzene molecular structure dichloro-3,4-methylbenzene, structural formula for dichloro-3,5-methylbenzene molecular structure dichloro-3,5-methylbenzene,

C8H9Cl, 1-chloro-2,4-dimethylbenzene(c) doc b , structural formula of 1-chloro-2,4-dimethylbenzene molecular structure 1-chloro-2,3-dimethylbenzene,

structural formula of 1-chloro-3,4-dimethylbenzene (4-chloro-1,2-dimethylbenzene) molecular structure 1-chloro-3,4-dimethylbenzene (4-chloro-1,2-dimethylbenzene), structural formula of 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylbenzene molecular structure 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylbenzene

structural formula of 1-chloro-2,4-dimethylbenzene molecular structure 1-chloro-2,4-dimethylbenzene, structural formula of 1-chloro-3,5-dimethylbenzene molecular structure 1-chloro-3,5-dimethylbenzene, structural formula of 1-chloro-2,4-dimethylbenzene molecular structure 1-chloro-2,4-dimethylbenzene


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Phenols - aryl/aromatic hydroxy compounds - aromatic alcohols

If the OH group (hydroxy) is directly attached to a benzene ring, the molecule is classified as a 'phenol'.

If not, the molecule is classified as an aliphatic alcohol.

The 'phen' part of the name comes from 'phenyl' group C6H5, and the 'ol' comes from the OH functional group, but these are NOT aliphatic alcohols - they share some chemistry, but there are significant difference with phenols due to the presence of the benzene ring.

This difference is illustrated below with molecules containing a benzene ring (Phenols ROH, R = aryl only)

(c) doc b(c) doc b(c) doc b phenol.

This forms the parent molecule for many of the names of phenols.

The extra substituents (other than OH) as part of the name, are usually the prefix of the phenol's name.

Phenols form salts with strong bases e.g. the alkali sodium hydroxide gives ....

sodium phenoxide (old name sodium phenate)

 

  C6H5OCl, structural formula 2-chlorophenol (ortho o-chlorophenol) molecular structure advanced organic chemistry 2-chlorophenol (o-chlorophenol), structural formula 3-chlorophenol (meta m-chlorophenol) molecular structure advanced organic chemistry  3-chlorophenol (m-chlorophenol),

and structural formula 4-chlorophenol (para p-chlorophenol) molecular structure advanced organic chemistry 4-chlorophenol (p-chlorophenol)

C7H8O, structural formula 2-methylphenol (o-methylphenol ortho-cresol) molecular structure advanced organic chemistry 2-methylphenol (o-methylphenol, ortho-cresol)

 structural formula 3-methylphenol (m-methylphenol meta-cresol) molecular structure advanced organic chemistry 3-methylphenol (m-methylphenol, meta-cresol), structural formula 4-methylphenol (p-methylphenol para-cresol) molecular structure advanced organic chemistry 4-methylphenol (p-methylphenol, para-cresol)

 

If the OH is not attached to a benzene ring you get an aliphatic alcohol which is isomeric with a phenols or an ether.

C7H8O,(c) doc b phenylmethanol (old name 'benzyl alcohol') is a primary aliphatic alcohol

which is isomeric with methylphenols and the ether,(c) doc b methoxybenzene (anisole).

C6H7NO, (c) doc b 2-aminophenol, structural formula 3-aminophenol molecular structure 3-aminophenol, (c) doc b 4-aminophenol

 (c) doc b2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol

These molecules can also be called: 2-hydroxynitrobenzene, 3-hydroxynitrobenzene and 4-hydroxynitrobenzene

These molecules have two functional groups: phenol and primary aromatic amine and phenol and aromatic-nitro functional groups.

 

C7H6O3, (c) doc b3-hydroxybenzoic acid and (c) doc b2-hydroxybenzoic acid

 

C7H6OCl2,(c) doc b2,5-dichloro-4-methylphenol

 

C6H6O2, or 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (benzene-1,4-diol, 1,4-benzenediol, 'quinol')

which is oxidised to

C6H4O2, or 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (cycohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, 'p-quinone')

 

C8H10O,(c) doc b1-phenylethanol, which is  isomeric with the ether

C8H10O,(c) doc b ethoxybenzene (phenetole) and the ethylphenols or dimethylphenols.

structural formula of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol 2,4,6-trinitrophenol molecular structure advanced organic chemistry

Examples of aromatic fused ring 'phenols', these two are examples of 'naphthols':

1-naphthol and  2-naphthol based on the arene naphthalene

(also called naphthalen-1-ol  and  naphthalen-2-ol)


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Aromatic aldehydes and ketones

The 'aldehyde' part of the name is usually the suffix in an aromatic aldehyde's name (as in aliphatic aldehydes).

True aromatic aldehydes, R-CHO, have the aldehyde group -CHO directly attached to the ring e.g.

C7H6O, (c) doc bor(c) doc bbenzaldehyde, and

 C7H6O2, (c) doc b2-hydroxybenzaldehyde

  Lots more aldehyde structures

 

The 'ketone' part of the name, one, is usually the suffix in an aromatic ketone's name (as in aliphatic ketones).

Ketones, R2C=O, R = alkyl or aryl. aromatic ketones are often 'mixed' aliphatic-aromatic in the sense that one R group is alkyl and the other R group is aryl e.g.

1-phenylethanone (acetophenone, methyl phenyl ketone), C8H8O,  (c) doc b,

Ethanone is a fictitious ketone, but the aromatic ring on the 1st carbon of the aliphatic 'eth' part, 'converts' the molecule to a true ketone.

The IUPAC preferred name is 1-phenylethan-1-one.

 

and C8H8O2, (c) doc b the IUPAC preferred name is 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone

structural formula 1-(2-methylphenyl)ethanone 2-methylacetophenone molecular structure of molecule structural formula 1-(3-methylphenyl)ethanone 3-methylacetophenone molecular structure of molecule structural formula 1-(4-methylphenyl)ethanone 4-methylacetophenone molecular structure of molecule  1-(2/3/4-methylphenyl)ethanone (2/3/4-methylacetophenone)

Diphenylmethanone (diphenyl ketone), C13H10O, (c) doc b is a completely aromatic ketone.

 


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Aromatic carboxylic acids and their derivatives

Note: quite a few of the 'old' names are still used and accepted

The name ends in ...carboxylic acid or ...oic acid, in salts and esters the suffix is ...oate

The derivative names are similar for aliphatic carboxylic acids and their derivatives e.g.

acid chlorides -COCl, are named ...oyl chloride,  amides -CONH2, are named ...amide

and esters are named in the same way e.g. alkyl ...oate

C7H6O2, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, benenecarboxylic acid, benzoic acid

sodium benzoate  (the sodium salt of benzoic acid), structural formula benzoate ion molecular ionic structure benzoate ion

 

C7H5OCl, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, benzenecarbonyl chloride, benzoyl chloride

 

C7H7ON, (c) doc b, (c) doc b , (c) doc b,(c) doc b , benzenecarboxamide, benzamide

 

C8H8O2, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, methyl benzenecarboxylate, methyl benzoate

 

C8H8O3, (c) doc bmethyl 2-hydroxybenzoate

 

C9H10O2, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, ethyl benzenecarboxylate, ethyl benzoate

 

 C10H12O2, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, (c) doc b, propyl benzenecarboxylate, propyl benzoate

 

  C7H5O3, (c) doc b  (c) doc b  (c) doc b2 3 or 4-hydroxybenzenecarboxylic acid, 2 3 or 4-hydroxybenzoic acid

2-hydroxybenzoic acid is commonly called by its historic trivial name of salicylic acid.

 

C7H5ClO2 ,  2-chlorobenzoic acid structural formula  3-chlorobenzoic acid structural formula  4-chlorobenzoic acid structural formula 2-, 3- and 4-chlorobenzoic acid  

5g. C7H5NO3 , 2-nitrobenzoic acid structural formula advanced A level organic chemistry  3-nitrobenzoic acid structural formula advanced A level organic chemistry  4-nitrobenzoic acid structural formula advanced A level organic chemistry  2-, 3- and 4-nitrobenzoic acid  

5h. C7H7NO2 , 2-aminobenzoic acid structural formula advanced A level organic chemistry  3-aminobenzoic acid structural formula advanced A level organic chemistry  4-aminobenzoic acid structural formula advanced A level organic chemistry   2-, 3- and 4-aminobenzoic acid  

 

5i.  2-methylbenzoic acid structural formula 2-methylbenzoic acid molecular structure advanced organic chemistry ,  3-methylbenzoic acid structural formula 3-methylbenzoic acid molecular structure advanced organic chemistry , 4-methybenzoic acid structural formula 4-methylbenzoic acid molecular structure advanced organic chemistry

5j. C8H6O4, (c) doc b  (c) doc b  (c) doc b benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (or  -1,3-  or  -1,4-)


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Primary AROMATIC amines

(primary, 2 H's and only one R group attached to the N of the amine group, R-NH2 where R = alkyl or aryl)

The amino (prefix) or amine (suffix) group is directly attached to the aromatic benzene ring

e.g. C6H7N, the simplest is C6H5NH2, phenylamine (c) doc b (technically it is aminobenzene, but this name is rarely used.

However, when the amino group is a 2nd substituent, the prefix amino can be used OR in suffix phenylamine.

I'm afraid both namings' are widely used, so just get used to them - the examples below show how both are uses!

 

C6H6NCl, 2- or 3- or 4-chlorophenylamine (c) doc b  (c) doc b  (c) doc b

(Here the suffix phenylamine is used, because the amine group is considered a higher ranking group than chloro)

 

C6H8N2, 1,3-diaminobenzene,  (c) doc b

3-aminobenzoic acid,  (c) doc b  

(Here the prefix amino is used, because the carboxylic acid is considered a higher ranking group than amine or amino.

C7H9N, 2-methylphenylamine, methyl-2-phenylamine, 1-amino-2-methylbenzene (c) doc b or 2-aminomethylbenzene

This is isomeric with benzylamine (c) doc b which is a primary aliphatic amine because the amine group is not directly attached to the ring.


Secondary AROMATIC amines

(secondary, one H and two R groups attached to the N of the amine group, R2NH where R = alkyl or aryl)

C7H9N, N-methylphenylamine(c) doc b, and C8H11N, N-ethylphenylamine(c) doc b

 

and C10H11N, diphenylamine(c) doc b


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Aromatic TERTIARY AMINES and quaternary ammonium salts

(tertiary, no H and three R groups attached to the N of the amine group, R3N where R = alkyl or aryl)

N,N-dimethylphenylamine, C8H11N,  (c) doc b, N,N-diethylphenylamineC10H15N, (c) doc b

The quaternary ammonium salts would have the formulae [C6H5NH(CH3)2]+  and  [C6H5NH(CH2CH3)2]+

 

and C18H15N, triphenylamine (c) doc b

The quaternary ammonium salt would have the formula [(C6H5)3NH]+ 


Aromatic PRIMARY ACID AMIDES

(primary, no alkyl/aryl R group and 2H's on the N of amide group)

The simplest primary aromatic acid amide is

benzamide or benzenecarboxamide, C7H7NO,(c) doc b, (c) doc b,(c) doc b


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Aromatic SECONDARY ACID AMIDES

(secondary, 1 alkyl/aryl R group and 1H on the N of amide group)

N-phenylethanamide, C8H9NO, (c) doc b (this is really a phenyl derivative of an aliphatic amide)

N-methylbenzamide, C8H9NO,  (c) doc b, and

N-phenylbenzamide, C13H11NO,    (c) doc b (both true secondary aromatic amide)


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Aromatic POLYAMIDES

Are secondary amides formed in a condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine.

Water is eliminated between the two 'monomers' to give the secondary, polyamide (polymer)  linkage ...

-COOH + H2N- ==> -CO-NH- + H2O (c) doc b

 

KEVLAR is an aromatic polyamide formed from benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 1,4-diaminobenzene

(c) doc b


Aromatic TERTIARY ACID AMIDES

Tertiary amides would have no H and 2 aryl/alkyl groups on N of amide group.

N,N-dimethylbenzamide, C9H11NO,  (c) doc b


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DIAZONIUM SALTS and AZO DYES:

Diazonium salts are formed when primary aromatic amines reaction with nitrous acid

e.g. C6H5NH2(aq) + HNO2(aq) + H+(aq) ==> C6H5N2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)

The diazonium cation has a nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond system directly attached to the benzene ring e.g.

(1) (c) doc bfrom phenylamine

(2) (c) doc bfrom 4-methylphenylamine

(3) (c) doc bfrom 2-aminobenzoic acid.

 

In alkaline solution these diazonium salts couple with phenols and aromatic amines to form azo dyes.

These dyes have benzene rings linked with an azo -N=N- bond system e.g.

reacting (1) with phenol gives (c) doc b

reacting (1) with phenylamine gives (c) doc b

reacting (2) with phenol gives(c) doc b 

reacting (2) with phenylamine gives (c) doc b


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NITRO-AROMATICS

These have the nitro -NO2 group directly attached to the ring. On reduction they form primary aromatic amines.

nitrobenzene, C6H5NO2, (c) doc band , C6H4N2O4,   1,3-dinitrobenzene, (c) doc b

 

3 isomers of C6H4NO2Cl, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene (c) doc b, 1-chloro-3-nitrobenzene (c) doc b, 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene(c) doc b 

Can also name them more simply as: chloro-2-nitrobenzene, chloro-3-nitrobenzene, chloro-4-nitrobenzene

 

C7H7NO2,  methyl-2-nitrobenzene, (c) doc bor 1-methyl-2-nitrobenzene (o-nitrotoluene, ortho nitrotoluene)

and the two other positional structural isomers

methyl-3-nitrobenzene, or 1-methyl-3-nitrobenzene (m-nitrotoluene, meta nitrotoluene)

and

methyl-4-nitrobenzene, or 1-methyl-4-nitrobenzene (p-nitrotoluene, para nitrotoluene)

The explosive TNT has the structure structural formula for TNT 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene 2,4,6-trinitromethylbenzene advanced A level organic chemistry , the acronym comes from its historic-trivial name of 2,4,6-trinitotolune, toluene was the old name for methylbenzene. A more systematic name for TNT is 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene.

and a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid, C7H5NO3, 3-nitrobenzoic acid, (c) doc b


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Aromatic Sulphonic Acids (sulfonic acids)

These molecules have a strongly mono-basic acidic group -SO2OH directly attached to the benzene ring e.g.

benzenesulphonic acid, C6H6SO3, C6H5SO3H, C6H5SO2OH,(c) doc b(c) doc b (benzenesulphonic acid)

2-, 3- or 4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid, C7H8SO3, CH3C6H5SO2OH,(c) doc b, (c) doc b,(c) doc b 

(or methyl-2/3/4-benzenesulfonic acid)

4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid


Doc Brown's Advanced Level Chemistry Revision Notes

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INDEX of AROMATIC CHEMISTRY NOTES

All Advanced A Level Organic Chemistry Notes

KEYWORDS: fast track to nomenclature examples of ... Hydrocarbons (Arenes) ... Halo-Aromatics ... Phenols ... Aldehydes and Ketones ... Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives ... Amines (prim/sec/tert) ... Amides ... Diazonium Salts and azo dyes ... Nitro-Aromatics ... Sulphonic Acids  

(c) doc b Type in name QUIZ * Functional Group Tests * Summary of FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

See ALKANES page for comparison with aliphatic and alicyclic compounds

The shapes and bond angles of simple molecules - section on bond angles in organic molecules


formula keywords: how to name naming nomenclature empirical molecular formula graphic formula displayed formula skeletal formula structural isomers isomerism for aromatics aromatic compounds Hydrocarbons  arenes) ... Halo-Aromatics ... Phenols ... Aldehydes and Ketones ... Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives ... primary prim secondary sec tertiary tert Amines (prim/sec/tert) ... Amides ... Diazonium Salts and azo dyes ... Nitro-Aromatics ... Sulphonic Acids   C6H6 C7H8 C6H5CH3 C8H10 CH3C6H4CH3 C6H5CH2CH3 C8H18 C6H5CH=CH2 C9H12 C10H14 C11H16 C6H5Cl C6H4Cl2 ClC6H4Cl C7H7Cl C6H5CH2Cl CH3C6H4Cl C7H6Cl2 C8H9Cl C6H6O C6H5OH C6H5OCl C6H5ClO ClC6H4OH C7H8O CH3C6H4OH HOC6H4NH2 NH2C6H4OH H2NC6H4OH C6H7ON C6H7NO C7H6O3 HOC6H4COOH C7H6OCl2 C7H6Cl2O C6H6O2 HOC6H4OH C6H4O2 C6H5CH2OH C6H5OCH3 C8H10O C6H5OCH2CH3 C6H5OCH2CH7H6O2 C6H5COOH C7H6O C6H5CHO C7H6O2 HOC6H4CHO C8H8O C6H5COOCH3 C8H8O2 C13H10O C7H6O2 C6H5COOH C7H5OCl C7H5ClO C68H11N C6H5NHCH2CH3 C6H5COCl C7H7ON C7H7NO C6H5CONH2 C8H8O2 C6H5COOCH3 C8H8O3 C9H10O2 C6H5COOCH2CH3 C9H10O2 C10H12O2 C6H5COOCH2CH2CH3 C7H6O3 HOC6H4COOH C7H5ClO2 C7H5O2Cl ClC6H4COOH C8H6O4 HOOCC6H6COOH C6H7N C6H5NH2 C6H6NCl C6H6ClN C6H8N2 H2NC6H4NH2 NH2C6H4NH2 C7H9N CH3C6H4NH2 C6H5CH2NH2 C6H5NHCH3 C8H11N C6H5NHCH2CH3 C10H11N C6H5NHC6H5 C9H11N C10H15N C18H15N C7H7NO C7H7ON C6H5CONH2 C8H9NO C8H9ON CH3CONHC6H5 C6H5CONHCH3 C13H11NO C13H11ON C6H5CONHC6H5 C9H11NO C9H11ON C6H5NO2 C6H5ON2 C6H4N2O4 C6H4O4N2 C6H4NO2Cl C6H4O2NCl C6H4O2ClN C6H4ClNO2 C6H4ClO2N C6H4NClO2 ClC6H4NO2 O2NC6H4Cl NO2C6H4Cl C7H7NO2 C7H7O2N CH3C6H4NO2 O2NC6H4CH3 NO2C6H4CH3 C7H5NO3 O2NC6H4COOH NO2C6H4COOH C6H6O3S C6H6SO3 C6H5SO3H C6H5SO2OH C7H8SO3 CH3C6H4SO2OH C10H8 C14H10 C19H12 These detailed notes on the structure and naming of aromatic compounds include the general formula of aromatic compound molecules, empirical formula of aromatic compound molecules, structural formula of aromatic compound molecules, skeletal formula of aromatic compound molecules, displayed formula of aromatic compound molecules, shapes of aromatic compound molecules, isomers of aromatic compound molecules IUPAC rules for aromatic nomenclature. Students should be able to draw structural formula of aromatic, displayed and skeletal formulas for aromatic organic compounds apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to name aromatic acid organic compounds including chains and rings and be able to apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to draw the structural, displayed or skeletal structure of aromatic organic compounds from the aromatic IUPAC name from the homologous series of aromatics

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