Part 4f. Methods
of increasing food production and improving sustainability
Methods of managing livestock
Doc Brown's Biology exam study revision notes
There are various sections to work through,
after 1 they can be read and studied in any order.
Sub-index of notes on increasing food
Index of notes on ALL aspects of food production
4(f) Livestock management
(advantages and disadvantages)
Use of hormones dealt with
in Part 4c.
(i) You can limit the of farm animals and keep
them in a temperature controlled environment to reduce their
movement and reducing the transfer of energy from livestock to the
This increases efficiency because the
animals use less energy moving around and controlling their body
temperature and so more energy is released in growth for the
same feed input.
This seems to me to be a form of factory
farming and not a good environment to live in.
(ii) Calves and chickens can be factory farmed
by raising them in small confined indoor pens - but many people find
this style of farming unacceptable.
The animals like 'battery hens or chickens'
(for eggs or meat) are
cramped allowing the rapid spread of any disease - requiring animals
reared in this way to be treated with antibiotics - again these
become part of our food chain.
The animals must be fed with protein based
feed, reducing the efficiency of this form of protein production.
People have every right to question the
ethics of factory farming and point out the cruel unnatural and
uncomfortable conditions under which these animals are made to
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