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Advanced Organic Chemistry: Infrared spectrum of d-glucose

Interpreting the infrared spectrum of d-glucose

Doc Brown's Chemistry Advanced Level Pre-University Chemistry Revision Study Notes for UK IB KS5 A/AS GCE advanced A level organic chemistry students US K12 grade 11 grade 12 organic chemistry courses involving molecular spectroscopy analysing infrared spectra of d-glucose

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Infrared spectroscopy - spectra index

infrared spectrum of d-glucose C6H12O6 wavenumbers cm-1 functional group detection fingerprint pattern identification of d-glucose doc brown's advanced organic chemistry revision notes  

molecular structure of glucose structural formula of d-glucose molecular formular C6H12O6Spectra obtained from a nujol mull of d-glucose, so thee is an overlap of two spectra.

The right-hand part of the of the infrared spectrum of d-glucose, wavenumbers ~1500 to 400 cm-1 is considered the fingerprint region for the identification of d-glucose and most organic compounds.

It is due to a unique set of complex overlapping vibrations of the atoms of the molecule of d-glucose.

d-glucose, C6H12O6 has several functional groups - one C-O-C ether linkage, one primary alcohol group and four secondary alcohol groups.

d-glucose equilibrium formed between alpha α-D-glucopyranose and beta β-D-glucopyranose molecular structures

The d-glucose equilibrium formed between α-D-glucopyranose and β-D-glucopyranose

Interpretation of the infrared spectrum of d-glucose

The most prominent infrared absorption lines of d-glucose (wavenumber bands in cm-1)

From ~3700 to ~2500 cm-1 there two broad overlapping bands from O-H and C-H stretching vibrations.

The bands are complicated by hydrogen bonding affecting the O-H vibration frequencies and the O-H vibrations can originate from both primary and secondary alcohol groups.

Absorptions in the 3500 to 3200 cm-1 region are mainly due to the O-H stretching vibrations and the twin peaks may originate from the primary alcohol group as well as the secondary alcohol groups.

Absorptions in the 3000 to 2800 cm-1 region are mainly due to the C-H stretching vibrations.

C-O stretching vibrations for the C-O C ether group occur at ~1140 to 1070 cm-1.

C-O vibrations from a primary alcohol group usually occur at ~1075 to 1000 cm-1.

C-O vibrations from a secondary alcohol group occur at ~1150 to 1075 cm-1.

The absence of other specific functional group bands will show that a particular functional group is absent from the d-glucose molecular structure.


Key words & phrases: isomer of molecular formula d-glucose C6H12O6 image and diagram explaining the infrared spectrum of d-glucose, complete infrared absorption spectrum of d-glucose, comparative spectra of d-glucose, prominent peaks and troughs for identifying functional groups in the infrared spectrum of d-glucose, important wavenumber values in cm-1 for peaks and troughs in the infrared spectrum of d-glucose, revision study to understand the infrared spectroscopy of d-glucose, fingerprint region analysis of d-glucose, how to identify d-glucose from its infrared spectrum, identifying organic compounds like d-glucose from their infrared spectrum, how to analyse the absorption bands in the infrared spectrum of d-glucose, detection of alcohol functional groups in the d-glucose molecule example of the infrared spectrum of a molecule like d-glucose with an ether functional group  interpreting interpretation of the infrared spectrum of d-glucose shows presence of primary alcohol group, secondary alcohol group, ether group linkage


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