Chemistry help links for the Cambridge CIE O level combined science course

Doc Brown's Chemistry  Cambridge O Level Combined Science CIE Syllabus 5129

Helps the CHEMISTRY of the Syllabus-Specification code 5129 For CIE examinations in June and November

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Other Cambridge IGCSE/O Level International Syllabuses: 0620 * 0652 * 0653 * 0654 * 5070

Units and significant figures Candidates should be aware that misuse of units and/or significant figures, i.e. failure to quote units where necessary, the inclusion of units in quantities defined as ratios or quoting answers to an inappropriate number of significant figures, is liable to be penalised.

Curriculum Content PHYSICS of the Cambridge O level syllabus code 5129 Combined Science

Candidates are expected to have adequate mathematical skills to cope with the curriculum. Throughout the course, attention should be paid to showing the relevance of concepts to the candidates’ everyday life and to the natural and man-made world.

1. Physical quantities and units

1.1 Measurement of length, time and volume

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) use and describe how to use rules, micrometers, vernier scales and calipers to determine lengths

(b) use and describe how to use clocks and other devices for measuring an interval of time, including the period of a pendulum

(c) use and describe how to use a measuring cylinder to measure a volume

2. Kinematics Content

2.1 Speed, velocity and acceleration

2.2 Graphical analysis of motion

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) state what is meant by speed, velocity and acceleration

(b) recognise motion for which the acceleration is constant

(c) recognise motion for which the acceleration is not constant

(d) plot and interpret a speed-time graph (e) recognise from the shape of a speed-time graph when a body is (i) at rest (ii) moving with constant speed (iii) moving with constant acceleration

3. Dynamics Content

3.1 Motion

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body

(b) use the relation between force, mass and acceleration

4. Mass, weight and density

4.1 Mass and weight

4.2 Density

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) demonstrate an understanding that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body

(b) describe, and use the concept of, weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass

(c) demonstrate understanding that two weights, and therefore masses, can be compared using a balance

(d) use appropriate balances to measure mass and weight

(e) describe experiments to determine the density of a liquid, of a regularly shaped solid and of an irregularly shaped solid (by the method of displacement) and make the necessary calculations

5. Turning effect of forces

5.1 Moments

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and give everyday examples

(b) perform and describe an experiment to verify the principle of moments

(c) make calculations involving the principle of moments

6. Deformation

6.1 Elastic deformation

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) state that a force may produce a change in size and shape of a body

(b) plot, draw and interpret extension-load graphs for elastic solids and describe the associated experimental procedure

7. Energy, work and power

7.1 Energy conversion and conservation

7.2 Major sources of energy

7.3 Work

7.4 Power

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) give examples of energy in different forms, its conversion and conservation, and apply the principle of energy conservation to simple examples

(b) use the terms kinetic energy and potential energy in context

(c) describe, and express a qualitative understanding of, processes by which energy is converted from one form to another, including reference to (i) chemical/fuel energy (a re-grouping of atoms) (ii) hydroelectric generation (emphasising the mechanical energies involved) (iii) solar energy (nuclei of atoms in the Sun) (iv) nuclear energy (v) geothermal energy (vi) wind energy

(d) relate work done to the magnitude of a force and the distance moved and make calculations involving the formula: Work = F × d

(e) relate power to energy transferred and time taken, using appropriate examples and using the equation P = E/t in simple systems

8. Transfer of Thermal Energy

8.1 Conduction

8.2 Convection

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe experiments to distinguish between good and bad conductors of heat

(b) relate convection in fluids to density changes and describe experiments to illustrate convection

(c) describe experiments to distinguish between good and bad emitters and good and bad absorbers of infra-red radiation

(d) identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of conduction, convection and radiation

9. Temperature Content

9.1 Principles of thermometry

9.2 Liquid-in-glass thermometers

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) appreciate how a physical property which varies with temperature may be used for the measurement of temperature and state examples of such properties

(b) recognise the need for, and identify, fixed points

(c) show understanding of sensitivity and range

(d) describe the structure and action of liquid-in-glass thermometers (laboratory and clinical)

10. Thermal properties of matter

10.1 Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe qualitatively the thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases

(b) identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of thermal expansion

11. General wave properties

11.1 Describing wave motion

11.2 Wave terms

11.3 Longitudinal and transverse waves

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes, springs and by experiments using a ripple tank

(b) give the meaning of speed, frequency, wavelength and amplitude and use the equation c = f × λ

(c) distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves and give suitable examples

12. Light Content

12.1 Reflection of light

12.2 Refraction of light

12.3 Thin converging lens

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) perform and describe experiments to illustrate the laws of reflection

(b) describe an experiment to find the position of an optical image formed by a plane mirror

(c) use the law i = r in reflection

(d) perform simple constructions, measurements and calculations for reflection

(e) describe and perform experiments to demonstrate refraction of light through glass blocks

(f) use the terminology for the angles i and r in refraction and describe the passage of light through parallel-sided transparent material

(g) use the equation sin i / sin r = n (refractive index)

(h) give the meaning of refractive index (i) describe the action of a thin converging lens on a beam of light

13. Electromagnetic spectrum Content

13.1 Properties of electromagnetic waves

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same high speed in vacuo and state the magnitude of this speed

(b) describe the main components of the electromagnetic spectrum

14. Static electricity Content

14.1 Principles of electrostatics

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) show understanding that there are positive and negative charges and that charge is measured in coulombs

(b) show understanding that unlike charges attract and that like charges repel

15. Current electricity

15.1 Electric current

15.2 Electromotive force

15.3 Potential difference

15.4 Resistance

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) show understanding that a current is a rate of flow of charge and is measured in amperes (amps)

(b) use the equation I = Q/t

(c) use and describe the use of an ammeter

(d) use the concept that the e.m.f. is measured by the energy dissipated by a source in driving charge round the complete circuit

(e) show appreciation that the volt is given by J/C

(f) show understanding that the potential difference across a circuit component is measured in volts

(g) use and describe the use of a voltmeter

(h) state that resistance = p.d./current and use the equation R = V/I

16. d.c. circuits

16.1 Current and potential difference in circuits

16.2 Series and parallel circuits

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing sources, switches, resistors (fixed and variable), ammeters and voltmeters

(b) show understanding that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same

(c) use the fact that the sum of the p.d.’s in a series circuit is equal to the p.d. across the whole circuit

(d) calculate the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series

(e) use the fact that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit, the current from the source being larger than the current in each branch

17. Practical electricity

17.1 Electric power and energy

17.2 Dangers of electricity

17.3 Safe use of electricity in the home

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the uses of electricity in heating and lighting

(b) use the equations P=VI and E=VIt

(c) state the hazards of (i) damaged insulation (ii) overheating of cables (iii) damp conditions

(d) show understanding of the use of fuses and fuse ratings

(e) explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation

(f) give the meaning of the terms live, neutral and earth

(g) wire, and describe how to wire, a mains plug

(h) give the reasons for switches and fuses in live leads

18. Magnetism Content

18.1 Laws of magnetism

18.2 Magnetic properties of matter

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) state the properties of magnets

(b) give an account of induced magnetism

(c) distinguish between magnetic and non-magnetic materials

(d) distinguish between the magnetic properties of iron and steel

(e) distinguish between the design and use of permanent magnets and electromagnets

19. Electromagnetic induction

19.1 Principles of electromagnetic induction

19.2 The a.c. generator

19.3 The transformer

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe an experiment which shows that a changing magnetic field can induce an e.m.f. in a circuit

(b) state the factors affecting the magnitude of the induced e.m.f.

(c) show understanding that the direction of the induced e.m.f. opposes the change producing it

(d) describe a simple form of generator (e.g. rotating coil or rotating magnet) and the use of slip rings

(e) sketch a graph of voltage output against time for a simple a.c. generator

(f) describe the structure and principle of operation of a basic iron-cored transformer as used for voltage transformations

20. The nuclear atom Content

20.1 Atomic model

20.2 Composition of a nucleus

20.3 Proton number and nucleon number

20.4 Nuclide notation

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the structure of an atom in terms of a nucleus and electrons

(b) describe the composition of the nucleus in terms of protons and neutrons

(c) use the term nucleon number, A

(d) use the term proton number, Z

(e) use the term nuclide and use the nuclide notation AZX

21.2 Characteristics of the three types of emission

21.3 Nuclear reactions

21.4 Half-life

21.5 Safety precautions

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the detection of alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays

(b) state, for radioactive emissions, (i) their nature (ii) their relative ionising effects (iii) their relative penetrating powers

(c) show understanding of the meaning of radioactive decay, using equations (involving symbols) to represent changes in the composition of the nucleus when particles are emitted

(d) use the term half-life in simple calculations which might involve information in tables or in decay curves

(e) describe how radioactive materials are handled, used, stored and disposed of, in a safe way

Curriculum Content CHEMISTRY of the Cambridge O level syllabus code 5129 Combined Science

In chemistry, full structural formulae (displayed formulae) in answers should show in detail both the relative placing of atoms and the number of bonds between atoms. Hence –CONH2 and –CO2H are not satisfactory as full structural formulae, although either of the usual symbols for the benzene ring is acceptable

It is important that, throughout the course, attention should be drawn to: (i) the finite life of the world’s resources and hence the need for recycling and conservation (ii) some economic considerations in the chemical industry, such as the availability and cost of raw materials and energy (iii) the importance of chemicals in industry and in everyday life

1. Experimental Chemistry

1.1 Experimental design

1.2 Methods of purification and analysis

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) name and use appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes and measuring cylinders

(b) design arrangements of apparatus, given information about the substances involved

(c) describe and use methods of purification by the use of a suitable solvent, filtration, crystallisation and distillation (including description but not use of fractional distillation) (Refer to the fractional distillation of crude oil (petroleum) (topic 17.2(c)).)

(d) suggest suitable purification techniques, given information about the substances involved

(e) describe and use paper chromatography and interpret chromatograms

(f) identify substances and test their purity by melting point and boiling point determination and by paper chromatography

2. Kinetic particle theory

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the states of matter and explain their inter-conversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory

3. Atomic Structure

3.1 Atomic structure

3.2 Isotopes

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) state the relative charge and approximate relative mass of a proton, a neutron and an electron

(b) define proton number and nucleon number

(c) use and interpret such symbols as 126C

(d) use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the Periodic Table, with special reference to the elements of proton number 1 to 20

(e) define isotopes

(f) describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and understand the significance of outer electrons and the noble gas electronic structures

The ideas of the distribution of electrons in s- and p-orbitals and in d-block elements are not required.

Note that a copy of the Periodic Table will be available in the examination.

4. Structure and properties of materials

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures, and between metals and non-metals

(b) describe alloys, such as brass, as a mixture of a metal with other elements

5. Ionic bonding

5.1 Ion formation

5.2 Ionic bond formation

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain

(b) describe the formation of ionic bonds between metallic and non-metallic elements (e.g. in NaCl and CaCl2)

6. Covalent bonding Content

6.1 Covalent bond formation

6.2 Physical properties of covalent compounds

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of covalent bonds as the sharing of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration (e.g. H2, Cl2, HCl, H2O, CH4 and CO2)

(b) deduce the electron arrangement in other covalent molecules

(c) construct ‘dot and cross’ diagrams to show the outer electrons in covalent molecules

(d) describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic and covalent compounds

7. Formulae and equations

7.1 Formulae

7.2 Equations

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) state the symbols of the elements and the formulae of the compounds mentioned in the syllabus

(b) deduce the formula of a simple compound from the relative numbers of atoms present and vice versa

(c) determine the formula of an ionic compound from the charges on the ions present and vice versa

(d) construct equations with state symbols, including ionic equations

(e) deduce, from experimental results, the identity of the reactants and the products and the balanced chemical equation for a chemical reaction (Calculations will not be required.)

(f) define relative atomic mass, Ar (g) define relative molecular mass, Mr

(h) perform calculations concerning reacting masses using simple proportions (Calculations will not involve the mole concept.)

8. The chemistry and uses of acids, bases and salts

8.1 Characteristic properties of acids and bases

8.2 pH

8.3 Types of oxides

8.4 Preparation of salts

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the meanings of the terms acid and alkali in terms of the ions they contain or produce in aqueous solution

(b) describe the characteristic properties of acids as in their reactions with metals, bases, carbonates and their effects on indicator paper

(c) describe the characteristic properties of bases as in their reactions with acids and with ammonium salts and their effects on indicator paper

(d) describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH (whole numbers only), measured using Universal Indicator paper

(e) describe and explain the importance of controlling acidity in soil

(f) classify oxides as either acidic, basic, or amphoteric related to metallic/non-metallic character

(g) describe the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of some of the techniques specified in topic 1.2(c): methods of preparing salts to illustrate the practical techniques should include the action of acids with insoluble bases, and acids with insoluble carbonates

(h) suggest a method of preparing a given salt from suitable starting materials, given appropriate information

9. The periodic table Content

9.1 Periodic trends

9.2 Group properties

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the Periodic Table as a method of classifying elements and describe its use in predicting properties of elements

(b) describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character across a period

(c) describe the relationship between group number, number of outer electrons and metallic/non-metallic character

(d) describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I (the alkali metals) as a collection of relatively soft metals showing a trend in melting point and in reaction with water and with chlorine

(e) predict the properties of other elements in Group I, given data, where appropriate

(f) describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII (the halogens) as a collection of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour, state, and in their displacement reactions with other halide ions

(g) predict the properties of other elements in Group VII, given data, where appropriate

(h) identify trends in other groups, given information about the elements concerned

(i) describe the noble gases as being unreactive

(j) describe the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere (e.g. argon in lamps and helium for filling balloons)

10. Properties of metals

10.1 Physical properties

10.2 Alloys

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the general physical properties of metals

(b) explain why metals are often used in the form of alloys

(c) identify representations of metals and alloys from diagrams of structures

11. Reactivity series Content

11.1 Order of reactivity

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) place in order of reactivity calcium, copper, (hydrogen), iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc by reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with water (or steam) and dilute hydrochloric acid

(b) account for the apparent unreactivity of aluminium in terms of the presence of an oxide layer which adheres to the metal

(c) deduce an order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results

12. Extraction and uses of metals Content

12.1 Metal ores

12.2 The blast furnace

12.3 Iron and steel

12.4 Aluminium

12.5 Zinc

12.6 Copper

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the ease in obtaining metals from their ores by relating the elements to the reactivity series

(b) describe the essential reactions in the extraction of iron from haematite

(c) describe the idea of changing the properties of iron by the controlled use of additives to form alloys called steels

(d) state the uses of mild steel (car bodies and machinery) and stainless steel (chemical plant and cutlery)

(e) state the uses of aluminium (e.g. in the manufacture of aircraft parts because of its strength and low density and in food containers because of its resistance to corrosion)

(f) state the uses of zinc for galvanising and for making brass (with copper)

(g) state the uses of copper related to its properties (e.g. electrical wiring)

13. Atmosphere and environment

13.1 Air

13.2 Corrosion

13.3 Pollution

13.4 Water

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the volume composition of clean air in terms of 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, with the remainder being noble gases (with argon as the main constituent), carbon dioxide and variable amounts of water vapour

(b) name the uses of oxygen in making steel, oxygen tents in hospitals, and with acetylene (a hydrocarbon) in welding

(c) describe, in simple terms, the ideas of respiration, combustion and rusting

(d) describe methods of rust prevention by painting and other coatings (including galvanising)

(e) identify processes involving the addition of oxygen as oxidation and the removal of oxygen as reduction

(f) define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen/hydrogen gain/loss

(g) describe the identification of oxygen using a glowing splint

(h) describe the identification of carbon dioxide using limewater (Equations are not required.)

(i) name common pollutants of air (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and lead compounds)

(j) state the source of each of these pollutants (i) carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances (ii) sulfur dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels which contain sulfur compounds (leading to acid rain) (iii) oxides of nitrogen and lead compounds from car exhausts

(k) state the adverse effect of acidic pollutants on buildings and plants, and of carbon monoxide and lead compounds on health

(I) describe, in outline, the purification of the water supply in terms of filtration and chlorination

(m) state some of the uses of water in industry and in the home

14. Hydrogen

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of hydrogen as a product of the reaction between (i) reactive metals and water (ii) metals and acids

(b) name the uses of hydrogen in the manufacture of ammonia and margarine, and as a fuel in rockets

(c) describe the identification of hydrogen using a lighted splint (water being formed)

15. Nitrogen Content

15.1 Ammonia and the Haber process

15.2 Fertiliser manufacture

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the need for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds in plant life

(b) name the use of nitrogen in the manufacture of ammonia

(c) describe the essential conditions for the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process

(d) name the uses of ammonia in the manufacture of fertilisers such as ammonium sulfate and nitrate

Notes on Ammonia synthesis - Haber Process Synthesis, nitric acid manufacture, fertiliser ammonium salt preparation

16.Organic Chemistry Content

16.1 Names of compounds

16.2 Structures of compounds

16.3 Homologous series

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) name, and draw the structure of, methane, ethane, ethene, ethanol and poly(ethene)

(b) state the type of compound present given a chemical name, ending in -ane, -ene, or -ol, or given a molecular structure

(c) describe the general characteristics of a homologous series

17. Fuels Content

17.1 Natural gas and petroleum as energy sources

17.2 Fractional distillation

17.3 Uses of fractions

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) name natural gas and petroleum as sources of fuels

(b) name methane as the main constituent of natural gas

(c) describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation

(d) name the uses of petroleum fractions: petrol (gasoline), as fuel in cars; paraffin (kerosene), for oil stoves and aircraft fuel; diesel, for fuel in diesel engines; oils, for lubricants and making waxes and polishes; bitumen, for making roads

18. Alkanes

18.1 Properties of alkanes

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive, except in terms of burning

19. Alkenes

19.1 Cracking

19.2 Unsaturated hydrocarbons

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the manufacture of alkenes and of hydrogen by cracking

(b) describe the properties of alkenes in terms of burning and addition reactions with hydrogen and steam

(c) distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (i) from molecular structures (ii) by using aqueous bromine

(d) describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of additional polymerisation of monomer units

(e) name some uses of poly(ethene) as a typical plastic (e.g. plastic bags)

20. Alcohols Content

20.1 Formation of ethanol

20.2 Combustion and oxidation

20.3 Uses of ethanol

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of ethanol by fermentation and by the catalytic addition of steam to ethene

(b) describe the properties of ethanol in terms of combustion and of oxidation

(c) name the uses of ethanol (e.g. as a solvent, as a fuel and as a constituent of wine and beer)

Curriculum Content BIOLOGY of the Cambridge O level syllabus code 5129 Combined Science

1. Cell structure and organisation

1.1 Plant and animal cells

1.2 Specialised cells

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) examine under the microscope an animal cell (e.g. from fresh liver) and a plant cell (e.g. from Elodea, a moss, or any suitable locally available material)

(b) identify and describe the structures seen, (cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm for animal cells; cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, sap vacuole and chloroplasts for plant cells)

(c) compare the visible differences in structure of the animal and plant cells examined

(d) state the function of the cell membrane in controlling the passage of substances into and out of the cell

(e) state, in simple terms, the relationship between cell structure and cell function for (i) root hair cells – absorption (ii) red blood cells – transport of oxygen

(f) identify these cells from diagrams and from photomicrographs

2. Diffusion and osmosis Content

2.1 Diffusion

2.2 Osmosis

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) define diffusion as the movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration, down a concentration gradient

(b) define osmosis as the passage of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration, through a partially permeable membrane

(c) describe the importance of osmosis in the uptake of water by plants and the effects of osmosis on animal tissue

3. Enzymes Content

3.1 Enzyme action

3.2 Effects of temperature and of pH

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) define enzymes as proteins which function as biological catalysts

(b) describe the effect of temperature and of pH on enzyme activity

(c) state the effect of enzymes on the germination of seeds

4. Plant nutrition

4.1 Photosynthesis

4.2 Leaf structure

4.3 Mineral nutrition

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) understand that photosynthesis is the fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials

(b) define photosynthesis and state the equation for photosynthesis (in words or symbols)

(c) state the effect of varying light intensity and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis (e.g. in submerged aquatic plants, such as Elodea)

(d) describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants, the trapping of light energy by chlorophyll, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy, the formation of carbohydrates, their subsequent storage, and the release of oxygen

(e) explain why most forms of life are completely dependent on photosynthesis

(f) identify and label the cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, as seen in cross-section under the microscope

(g) investigate and state the effect of insufficient nitrogen on plant growth and state the importance of nitrogen-containing ions for protein synthesis and their use in nitrogen-containing fertilisers for agriculture

5. Animal Nutrition

5.1 Diet

5.2 Human alimentary canal

5.3 Mechanical and physical digestion

5.4 Chemical digestion

5.5 Absorption and assimilation

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) define a balanced diet as a diet supplying sufficient quantities of protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals, fibre, water and energy to sustain a healthy life

(b) explain why diet, especially energy intake, should be related to age, sex, and activity of an individual

(c) state the effects of malnutrition in relation to constipation and obesity

(d) identify, on diagrams and photographs, and name the main regions of the alimentary canal and the associated organs: mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, gall bladder, liver, ileum, colon, rectum and anus

(e) describe the main functions of these parts in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food, as appropriate

(f) describe the function of the teeth in reducing the size of food particles

(g) state the causes of dental decay and describe the proper care of teeth

(h) describe chewing and peristalsis

(i) describe the function of a typical amylase, listing the substrate and end products as an example of extra-cellular digestion in the alimentary canal

(j) describe absorption as the passage of soluble products of digestion through the wall of the small intestine and into the blood capillaries (Structure of villi is not required.)

(k) state (i) the role of the liver in the metabolism of glucose and amino acids (ii) the role of fat as a storage substance

(l) state that the formation of urea and the breakdown of alcohol occur in the liver

6. Transport in flowering plants

6.1 Water and ion uptake

6.2 Transpiration

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the structure and function of root hairs in relation to their surface area, and to water and ion uptake (topic 1.2(e))

(b) define transpiration as the loss of water vapour from stomata

(c) describe how wilting occurs

7. Transport in humans Content

7.1 Circulatory system

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the circulatory system as a system of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one-way flow of blood

(b) describe the structure and function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of valves

(c) compare the structure and function of arteries, veins and capillaries

(d) describe coronary heart disease in terms of blockage of coronary arteries and list the possible causes

(e) identify red and white blood cells as seen under the microscope on prepared slides, and in diagrams and photomicrographs

(f) list the components of blood as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma

(g) state the functions of blood (i) red blood cells – haemoglobin and oxygen transport (ii) white blood cells – phagocytosis, antibody formation and tissue rejection (iii) platelets – fibrinogen to fibrin causing clotting (iv) plasma – transport of blood cells, ions, soluble food substances, hormones, carbon dioxide, urea, vitamins and plasma proteins

8. Respiration Content

8.1 Aerobic respiration

8.2 Anaerobic respiration

8.3 Human gaseous exchange

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) define respiration as the release of energy from food substances in living cells

(b) define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen

(c) state the equation for aerobic respiration, using words only

(d) define anaerobic respiration as the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen

(e) state the equation for anaerobic respiration, using words only

(f) describe the production of lactic acid in muscles during exercise

(g) state the differences between inspired and expired air

(h) investigate and state the effect of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing

(i) describe the role of the exchange surface of the alveoli in gaseous exchange (Details of the role of the diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in breathing are not required.)

9. Excretion

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) define excretion as the removal of toxic materials and the waste products of metabolism from organisms

(b) describe the removal of carbon dioxide from the lungs, and of water and urea through the kidneys (Details of kidney structure and nephron are not required.)

10. Co-ordination and response

10.1 Receptors

10.2 Reflex action

10.3 Hormones

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) state the principal functions of component parts of the eye in producing a focused image of near and distant objects on the retina

(b) describe the pupil reflex in response to bright and dim light

(c) define a hormone as a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver

11. The use and abuse of drugs

11.1 Effects of heroin

11.2 Effects of alcohol

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) define a drug as an externally administered substance which modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body

(b) describe a drug such as heroin as a drug of abuse and its related effects such as a powerful depressant, problems of addiction, severe withdrawal symptoms, associated problems such as crime and infection (e.g. AIDS/HIV)

(c) describe the effects of excessive consumption of alcohol: reduced self-control, depressant, problems of addiction, severe withdrawal symptoms, associated problems such as crime and infection (e.g. AIDS/HIV)

12. Relationships of organisms with one another and with the environment

12.1 Energy flow

12.2 Food chains and food webs

12.3 Carbon cycle

12.4 Effects of Man on the ecosystem

12.5 Pollution

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) state that the Sun is the principal source of energy input to biological systems

(b) describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow

(c) define food chain, food web, producer, consumer, herbivore, carnivore and decomposer

(d) describe energy losses between trophic levels and the advantages of short food chains

(e) describe the carbon cycle in terms of photosynthesis, animal nutrition, respiration and combustion

(f) describe the effects of Man on the ecosystem with emphasis on examples of international importance (tropical rain forests, oceans and rivers)

(g) describe the problems which contribute to famine (unequal distribution of food, drought and flooding and increasing population)

(h) describe the undesirable effects of air pollution on gaseous exchange surfaces

13. Development of organisms and continuity of life

13.1 Asexual reproduction

13.2 Sexual reproduction in plants

13.3 Sexual reproduction in humans

13.4 Sexually transmitted diseases

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to:

(a) define asexual reproduction as the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent

(b) describe sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of nuclei to form a zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring

(c) identify the sepals, petals, stamens and carpels of one, locally available, named dicotyledonous flower

(d) state the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers and carpels

(e) investigate and describe the structure of a non-endospermic seed in terms of the embryo (radicle, plumule and cotyledons) and the testa, protected by the pericarp (fruit wall)

(f) state that seed and fruit dispersal by wind and animals provides a means of colonising new areas

(g) investigate and state the environmental conditions which affect germination of seeds (suitable temperature, water and oxygen)

(h) identify on diagrams of the male reproductive system and give the functions of: testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis

(i) identify on diagrams of the female reproductive system and give the functions of: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina

(j) describe the menstrual cycle with reference to the alternation of menstruation and ovulation, the natural variation in its length, and fertile and infertile phases of the cycle

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