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Doc Brown's Chemistry  

SQA Higher Chemistry and SQA advanced  Advanced Higher Chemistry

My unofficial help-support for this Scottish Qualifications Authority higher chemistry and advanced higher syllabuses-specifications. Each topic or unit is linked to potentially useful revision notes sections on this website. From these links you will also find sub-indexes of other material that might be useful.

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ALL my advanced A level chemistry revision study notes

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My page for SQA advanced  standard and intermediate grade chemistry

SQA  HIGHER CHEMISTRY (H)

SQA ADVANCED HIGHER CHEMISTRY (AH)


INDEX FOR SQA HIGHER CHEMISTRY (H)

Course content includes the following areas of chemistry:

Chemical changes and structure - the topics covered are:

periodicity

structure and bonding

oxidising and reducing agents

Nature’s chemistry - the topics covered are:

systematic carbon chemistry

alcohols

carboxylic acids

esters

fats and oils

soaps

detergents and emulsions

proteins

oxidation of food

fragrances

skin care

Chemistry in society - the topics covered are:

getting the most from reactants

controlling the rate

chemical energy

equilibria

chemical analysis

Researching chemistry (1) - the topics covered are:

common chemical apparatus

general practical techniques

reporting experimental work


INDEX FOR SQA ADVANCED HIGHER CHEMISTRY (AH)

Course content includes the following areas of chemistry:

Inorganic chemistry - the topics covered are:

electromagnetic radiation and atomic spectra

atomic orbitals, electronic configurations and the periodic table

transition metals

Physical chemistry - the topics covered are:

chemical equilibrium

reaction feasibility

kinetics

Organic chemistry and instrumental analysis - the topics covered are:

molecular orbitals

synthesis

stereochemistry

experimental determination of structure

pharmaceutical chemistry

Researching chemistry (2) - the topics covered are:

common chemical apparatus

skills involved in experimental work

stoichiometric calculations

gravimetric analysis

volumetric analysis

practical skills and techniques


SQA HIGHER CHEMISTRY (H)

Course content includes the following areas of chemistry:


Chemical changes and structure - the topics covered are:

periodicity

Historical Introduction to the modern periodic table and the nuclear physics origin of elements

Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20 Period 1 to start of Period 4

Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 38 Period 1 to start of Period 5

Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 96 Period 1 to start of Period 7

Important trends down Groups

structure and bonding

Introduction to chemical bonding - why? how? and patterns

Ionic Bonding: compounds and properties

Covalent Bonding: small molecules & properties

Giant covalent structures and other big molecules

Metallic Bonding – structure and properties of metals

Electronegativity, bond polarity, type of chemical bonding

More on ionic structures and ionic bonding

Introduction to intermolecular forces - intermolecular bonding

Case studies of boiling points related to intermolecular forces for a variety of compounds

Evidence & theory for hydrogen bonding in covalent hydrides, importance in other molecules

oxidising and reducing agents

Introducing oxidation state (with sub–index)

Analysing and constructing REDOX reactions


Nature’s chemistry - the topics covered are:

systematic carbon chemistry

An Advanced Introduction to pre-university organic chemistry - history, bonding, variety and complexity

A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

An Introduction to organic chemical reaction mechanisms and technical terms explained

alcohols

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALCOHOLS (and mention of ethers)

carboxylic acids

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

esters

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

fats and oils

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

soaps

Colloids - sols, foams, soaps, detergents and emulsions

detergents and emulsions

Colloids - sols, foams, soaps, detergents and emulsions

proteins

LINKS to all my notes on amino acids, peptides, polypeptides and types of proteins

Amino acids - molecular structure, preparation and reactions - two functional group chemistries

Protein-enzyme structure, function and inhibition

Protein analysis & synthesis AND combinatorial chemistry and autosynthesis

oxidation of food

Introducing REDOX reactions (the basics)

Introducing oxidation state (with sub–index)

Analysing and constructing REDOX reactions (with sub–index)

Organic synthesis oxidations (with summary table)

fragrances

Uses of alkenes and occurrence of the alkene functional group in biological molecules (terpenes mentioned)

skin care

An Introduction to organic chemical reaction mechanisms and technical terms explained

Uses of Nanoparticles of titanium(IV) oxide (e.g. sun cream), fat (e.g. cosmetics)

Vitamin C is a powerful free radical scavenger

Use  [SEARCH BOX] to find out more on free radical reactions


Chemistry in society - the topics covered are:

getting the most from reactants

Lots of ideas from ...

Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industry Economics & Sustainability - Life Cycle Assessment

Products of the Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industries & impact on us

The Principles & Practice of Chemical Production - Synthesising Molecules

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass) including use of Avogadro Constant

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law

Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

% reaction yield and theoretical yield calculations, why you can't get 100% yield

Atom economy - definition and calculations

controlling the rate

INDEX of ALL my rates of reaction (kinetics) notes e.g.

GCSE notes for the basics of rates of reactions and investigations (kinetics!)

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy

KINETICS - advanced collision theory and rates of reactions

The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular kinetic energies - temperature, catalyst, reaction profiles

chemical energy

Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data (4 linked pages from GCSE level)

Index of ALL my energetics - thermochemistry - thermodynamics pages

Enthalpy changes - thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

Thermochemistry - Hess's Law and Enthalpy Calculations - reaction, combustion, formation etc.

Bond Enthalpy Calculations

Experimental methods for determining enthalpy changes and treatment of results

Some enthalpy data patterns

The combustion of linear alkanes and linear aliphatic alcohols

Enthalpies of Neutralisation

A set of structured practice Enthalpy Questions

Fully worked out ANSWERS to the ΔH enthalpy Q's above

equilibria

Starter basic notes on reversible reactions and chemical equilibrium

Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

Equilibrium and industrial processes

chemical analysis

Chromatography - Paper/Thin Layer Chromatography and Gas Chromatography

Volumetric titration analysis methods and calculations (with worked out answers)

Various non-redox titration methods and questions (with worked out answers)

Various redox titration methods and questions (with worked out answers)


Researching chemistry (1) - the topics covered are:

common chemical apparatus

Lots of diagrams across my website e.g.

See for examples of simple apparatus and their use

general practical techniques

Heating under reflux and fractional distillation - making an ester

Preparation and reactions of acid/acyl anhydrides, including making aspirin

Experimental methods for determining enthalpy changes and treatment of results

Organic preparations involving oxidising agents

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

Volumetric titration analysis methods and calculations (with worked out answers)

reporting experimental work (just quoting the sspecification)

Candidates must be able to process experimental results by:

tabulating data using appropriate headings and units of measurement

representing data as a scatter graph with suitable scales and labels

sketching a line of best fit (straight or curved) to represent the trend observed in the data

calculating average (mean) values

identifying and eliminating rogue points

commenting on the reproducibility of results where measurements have been repeated

uncertainty associated with a measurement can be indicated in the form: measurement ± uncertainty.

Candidates are not expected to:

be able to state uncertainty values associated with any type of apparatus

calculate uncertainties

conduct any form of quantitative error analysis


SQA ADVANCED HIGHER CHEMISTRY (AH)

Inorganic chemistry - the topics covered are:

electromagnetic radiation and atomic spectra

Index of all spectroscopy pages and introduction to the interaction of emr with matter and calculations

Spectroscopy - hydrogen spectrum calculations

Index of emission and absorption spectroscopy

atomic orbitals, electronic configurations and the periodic table

Electronic Structure of atoms -  s p d f orbitals - electronic basis of periodic table

Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1 to 56), ions and the Periodic Table

Spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, evidence of quantum levels, ionisation energy patterns

Introduction - VSEPR theory - lots of inorganic molecule/ion examples

Some other molecules/ions of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine

shapes and bond angles of organic molecules

transition metals

Introduction and index for the 3d-block and transition Metals and Data e.g.

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Vanadium

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Chromium

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Manganese

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Iron

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Cobalt

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Nickel

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Copper

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes & ligands

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes and isomerism

3d block Transition Metals - Electron configuration and colour theory

3d block Transition Metals - Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula

The uv-visible absorption spectra of some copper complex ions

The uv-visible absorption spectra of some cobalt complex ions

The uv-visible absorption spectra of selected titanium complex ions

The uv-visible absorption spectra of selected nickel complex ions

The uv-visible absorption spectra of selected manganese complex ions

The uv-visible absorption spectra of some chromium ions

3d block Transition Metals - Catalysis


Physical chemistry - the topics covered are:

chemical equilibrium

Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

How to write equilibrium expressions and the effect of temperature on the equilibrium constant K

How to write Kc equilibrium expressions, units and exemplar Kc calculations including esterification

Equilibrium and industrial processes

Equilibria:  Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theories

Self-ionisation of water and pH scale

Strong acids - examples and pH calculations

Weak acids - examples & pH, Ka and pKa calculations

Strong bases - examples and pH calculations

Weak bases - examples and pH

Equilibria - Salt hydrolysis

Buffers - definition, formulation and action

Buffer calculations

Case studies of buffer function

Acid-base indicator theory, pH curves and titrations

reaction feasibility

Introduction to Entropy

Examples of entropy values and comments

ΔS, Entropy and change of state

ΔS, Entropy changes and the feasibility of a chemical change

More on ΔG, Free energy changes, feasibility and applications

kinetics

INDEX of ALL my rates of reaction (kinetics) notes

Obtaining rate data, interpreting data, deducing orders of reaction and rate expressions


Organic chemistry and instrumental analysis - the topics covered are:

molecular orbitals (mainly quoting the specification here)

VSEPR cannot explain the bonding in all compounds. Molecular orbital theory can provide an explanation for more complex
molecules.

Molecular orbitals form when atomic orbitals combine. The number of molecular orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals that combine.

The combination of two atomic orbitals results in the formation of a bonding molecular orbital and an antibonding orbital.

The bonding molecular orbital encompasses both nuclei. The attraction of the positively charged nuclei and the negatively charged electrons in the bonding molecular orbital is the basis of bonding between atoms.

Each molecular orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons.

In a non-polar covalent bond, the bonding molecular orbital is symmetrical about the midpoint between two atoms.

Polar covalent bonds result from bonding molecular orbitals that are asymmetric about the midpoint between two atoms. The atom with the greater value for electronegativity has the greater share of the bonding electrons. Ionic compounds are an extreme case of asymmetry, with the bonding molecular orbitals being almost entirely located around just one atom, resulting in the formation of ions.

Molecular orbitals that form by end-on overlap of atomic orbitals along the axis of the covalent bond are called sigma (σ) molecular orbitals or sigma bonds.

The covalent bonding in the ethene molecule

Proof of the structure of benzene - sigma and pi bonding

Molecule shapes and bond angles (3 linked pages)

The origin of colour, the wavelengths of visible light, our perception!

uv-visible spectroscopy theory, spectrometer, examples of absorption & reflectance spectra explained

Physical & chemical properties of phenylamine including diazonium ions and dyes

The uv-visible absorption spectra of some azo dyes

synthesis

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALKANES and the petrochemical industry

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry ALKENES including reactions and polymers

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALCOHOLS (and mention of ethers)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALDEHYDES and KETONES

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

An Introduction to organic chemical reaction mechanisms and technical terms explained e.g.

Free radical chlorination/bromination to give halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides)

Free radical mechanism for cracking hydrocarbons to give shorter alkanes and alkenes

Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion hydrolysis to give alcohols]

Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to give a nitrile

Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc.

Electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide [HBr(conc. aq) and HBr(g/non-polar solvent)] to form halogenoalkanes

Electrophilic addition of bromine with pure bromine or in non-polar solvent (non-aqueous Br2(l/solvent)) to give dibromoalkanes AND addition using bromine water [aqueous Br2(aq)] to give bromo-alcohols

Nitration to give nitro-aromatics like nitrobenzene

Chlorination to chloro-aromatics like chlorobenzene

Alkylation to give alkyl-aromatics like methylbenzene [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

Acylation to give aromatic ketones [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

Organic synthesis oxidation/reductions (with summary table)

stereochemistry

INDEX of isomerism & stereochemistry of organic compounds notes

General introduction and definition of isomerism, structural isomerism - chain, positional, functional group and tautomerism examples explained

STEREOISOMERISM general definition, E/Z (geometric/geometrical cis/trans) isomerism

Stereoisomerism - R/S Optical Isomerism examples and chiral auxiliary synthesis

experimental determination of structure

Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

Introduction to mass spectrometry

Index of mass spectroscopy notes - examples of mass spectrometry of organic compounds

Index of infrared spectroscopy notes - analysis of infrared spectra of organic compounds

Index of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 1H NMR spectra of organic compounds

pharmaceutical chemistry

No specific section written yet!


Researching chemistry (2) - the topics covered are:

common chemical apparatus (2)

See previous common chemical apparatus

skills involved in experimental work

See previous general practical techniques

stoichiometric calculations

INDEX of chemical calculations sections 1 to 18 indexed examples, notes and short tests e.g.

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass) including use of Avogadro Constant

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

How to do volumetric titration calculations e.g. acid-alkali titrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

gravimetric analysis

Determination and calculation of water of crystallisation

volumetric analysis

Part 1 Acid-base and other non-redox titration calculation questions

PART 1 Fully worked out Question Answers

Part 2 Acid-base and other non-redox titration calculation questions

PART 2 Fully worked out Question Answers

Redox titration calculation questions

FULL ANSWERS and WORKING for REDOX TITRATION QUESTIONS

practical skills and techniques

See previous general practical techniques

3d block Transition Metals - Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula

distillation (simple or fractional)

chromatography (paper/thin layer)

Heating under reflux and fractional distillation - making an ester

Preparation and reactions of acid/acyl anhydrides, including making aspirin

Organic preparations involving oxidising agents

solvent extraction

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