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LINKS to: Preliminary course: 8.2 The chemical Earth * 8.3 Metals * 8.4 Water * 8.5 EnergyHSC course: 9.2 Production of materials * 9.3 The acidic environment * 9.4 Chemical monitoring and managementHSC options: 9.5 Industrial chemistry * 9.6 Shipwrecks, corrosion and conservation * 9.7 Biochemistry of movement * 9.8 The chemistry of art * 9.9 Forensic chemistry

Preliminary course

8.2 The chemical Earth

1. The living and non-living components of the Earth contain mixtures

2. Although most elements are found in combinations on Earth, some elements are found uncombined

3. Elements in Earth materials are present mostly as compounds because of interactions at the atomic level

4. Energy is required to extract elements from their naturally occurring sources

5. The properties of elements and their compounds are determined by their bonding and structure

8.3 Metals

1. Metals have been extracted and used for thousands of years

2. Metals differ in their reactivity with other chemicals and this influences their uses

3. As metals and other elements were discovered scientists recognised that patterns in their physical and chemical properties could be organised into a Periodic Table

4. For efficient resource use, industrial chemical reactions must use measured amounts of each reactant

5. The relative abundance and ease of extraction of metals influences their value and breadth of use in the community

8.4 Water

1. Water is distributed on Earth as a solid, liquid and gas

2. The wide distribution and importance of water on Earth is a consequence of its molecular structure and hydrogen bonding

3. Water is an important solvent

4. The concentration of salts in water will vary according to their solubility, and precipitation can occur when the ions of an insoluble salt are in solution together

5. Water has a higher heat capacity than many other liquids

8.5 Energy

1. Living organisms make compounds which are important energy sources

2. There is a wide variety of carbon compounds

3. A variety of carbon compounds are extracted from organic sources

4. Combustion provides another opportunity to examine the conditions under which chemical reactions occur

5. The rate of energy release is affected by factors such as type of reactant

HSC course

9.2 Production of materials

1. Fossil fuels provide both energy and raw materials such as ethylene (ethene), for the production of other substances

2. Some scientists research the extraction of materials from biomass to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels

3. Other sources of fuel such as ethanol are readily available from renewable resources such as plants

4. Oxidation-reduction reactions are increasingly important as a source of energy

5. Nuclear chemistry provides a range of materials

9.3 The acidic environment

1. Indicators were identified with the observation that the colour of some plants depends on soil composition

2. While we usually think of the air around us as neutral, the atmosphere around us naturally contains oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. The concentrations of these acidic oxides has been increasing since the Industrial Revolution

3. Acids occur in many foods, drinks and even within our stomach

4. Because of the prevalence and importance of acids, they have been used and studied for hundreds of years. Over time the definitions of acid and base has been refined

5. Esterification is a naturally occurring process which can be performed in the laboratory

9.4 Chemical monitoring and management

1. Much of the work of chemists involves monitoring the reactants and products of reactions and managing reaction conditions

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2. Chemical processes in industry require monitoring and management to maximise production

3. Manufactured products, including food, drugs, household chemicals, are analysed to determine or ensure their chemical composition

4. Human activity has caused changes in the composition and the structure of the atmosphere. Chemists monitor these changes so that further damage can be limited

5. Human activity also impacts on waterways. Chemical monitoring and management assists in providing safe water for human use and to protect the habitats of other organisms

HSC options

9.5 Industrial chemistry

1. Industrial chemical processes have enabled chemists to develop replacements for natural products

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2. Many industrial processes require management of equilibrium condition

3. Sulfuric acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals

4. The industrial production of sodium hydroxide requires the use of electrolysis

5. Saponification is an important organic industrial process

6. The Solvay process has been in use since the 1860's

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9.6 Shipwrecks, corrosion and conservation

1. The chemical composition of the ocean implies its potential role as an electrolyte

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2. Ships have been made of metals or alloys of metals

3. Electrolytic cells involve oxidation-reduction reactions

4. Iron and steel corrode quickly in a marine environment and must be protected

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5. When a ship sinks the rate of decay and corrosion ay be dependent on the final depth of the wreck

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6. Predictions of slow rate of corrosion at great depths were apparently incorrect

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7. Salvage, conservation and restoration of objects from wrecks requires careful planning and understanding of the behaviour of chemicals

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9.7 Biochemistry of movement

1. ATP is the energy currency of any living cell

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2. Carbohydrates are an important part of an athlete's diet

3. Fats are also an important fuel for cells

4. Proteins are used as both structural molecules and enzymes to catalyse metabolic reactions

5. Muscle cells cause movement by contraction along their length

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6. Fats are oxidised to release energy in the cell

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7. Glycolysis is the first stage of the decomposition of glucose to release energy

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8. Gentle exercise uses type 1 muscles and involves aerobic respiration

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9. ATP used in muscle contraction is continually regenerated

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10. Sprinting involves muscles contracting powerfully and rapidly and uses type 2 muscle cells

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9.8 The chemistry of art

1. From earliest times people have used colours to decorate themselves and their surroundings

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2. By the twentieth century, chemists were using a range of technologies to study the spectra, leading to increased understanding about the origins of colours from different elements

3. The distribution of electrons within elements can be related to their position in the Periodic Table

4. The chemical properties of transition metals can be explained by their more complicated electron configurations

5. The formation of complexes by transition metal ions increases the variety of coloured compounds that can be produced

9.9 Forensic chemistry

1. The job of the forensic chemist is to identify materials and trace their origins

2. Analysis of organic material can distinguish animal and plant material

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3. Because proteins are major structural and metabolic component of all living organisms, the analysis of protein samples can be useful in forensic chemistry

4. DNA is an important compound found in all living things and is a most useful identification molecule

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5. Much forensic evidence consists of very small samples and sensitive analytical techniques are required

6. All elements have identifiable emission spectra and this can be used to identify trace elements


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