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Revision help links for US chemistry grades 11-12 and AP honors

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 Doc Brown's Chemistry help links for US K12 AP Honors Chemistry

US K12 honors (K-12 honours) Advanced Chemistry - US pre-university Grade 11 and Grade 12 chemistry syllabuses - Some sections may be useful for AP and other elective chemistry courses in the USA

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ALL my advanced A level chemistry revision study notes

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Each topic or unit is linked to potentially useful sections on this site e.g. revision notes

 READ CAREFULLY  PLEASE remember that despite the fact that my 'advanced level' pre-university chemistry notes are far from complete, and as yet, do not even cover all the basics, but I think there is enough to start a on-site links page. By clicking on the text and [ORGANIC CHEMISTRY], [INORGANIC CHEMISTRY] and [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY] icon links you should find things to help on a particular topic.  The notes-quizzes are not just for your particular syllabus, but are designed to cover, eventually, any advanced level pre-university chemistry specification so you need to pick out the bits which are useful for your syllabus.  [Each link opens up in a new window] [ALL LINKS SHOULD WORK IF THIS PAGE IS SAVED]


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

ALKANES and OIL ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALKANES and the petrochemical industry

Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of alkanes

Type in name Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and nomenclature of cycloalkanes)

General Test on "Development of Fuels"

Quiz on the Petrochemical Industry

Matching pair Quiz on hydrocarbon structure (Drag and drop/printout version)

ALKENES ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry ALKENES

Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of ALKENES

HALOGENOALKANES ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

Revision notes on the structure and naming of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes notes parts 1-3), including nomenclature of many isomers

Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

ALCOHOLS an ETHERS ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALCOHOLS (and mention of ethers)

Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS (including classification into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols), ETHERS, epoxy-alkanes (parts 1-2), including isomers

Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ETHERS

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ETHERS

Matching pair Quiz on alcohol, phenol & ether structure (drag and drop/printout version)

Matching pair Quiz on alcohols, phenols & ether reactions (drag and drop printout version)

ALDEHYDES and KETONES ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ALDEHYDES and KETONES

Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Aldehydes and Ketones, including nomenclature of isomers

Multiple choice on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of Aldehydes and Ketones

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

Revision notes on the structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES, including nomenclature of isomers

Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure (drag and drop/printout version)

Combined matching pair Exercises on organic molecular structure

ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Revision notes on the Structure, Classification and Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

Multiple choice quiz on the Classification, Structure and Naming (nomenclature) of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

AROMATIC CHEMISTRY ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of ALL revision notes on the chemistry of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

Notes on the Structure and Naming of Aromatic Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds

ISOMERISM and STEREOCHEMISTRY ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

INDEX of isomerism & stereochemistry of organic compounds notes

General introduction and definition of isomerism, structural isomerism - chain, positional, functional group and tautomerism examples explained

STEREOISOMERISM general definition, E/Z (geometric/geometrical cis/trans) isomerism

Stereoisomerism - R/S Optical Isomerism examples and chiral auxiliary synthesis

Spotting optical isomers Q (hand written) (answers)

Other organic stereochemistry including amino acids-proteins-polypeptides-enzymes (including enzyme inhibition) & isotactic/atactic/syndiotactic poly(propene)

 chiral auxiliaries and  combinational chemistry

 protein-enzyme structure, function and inhibition

ORGANIC SYNTHESIS and REACTION MECHANISMS ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

 MECHANISM Introduction and terms used in organic chemistry (on the mechanism pages the type of reaction, basic reaction equations and conditions are quoted which may act as a suitable reference, also a reaction index)

 Mechanism of the free radical chlorination/bromination of alkanes to make halogenoalkanes

 Mechanism of the free radical thermal cracking of alkanes

 Mechanism of electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes to make bromoalkanes

 Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes with pure bromine to make dibromoalkanes

 Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes using bromine water to make bromo-alcohols

 Mechanism of electrophilic addition of sulfuric acid to alkenes

 Mechanism of electrophilic addition of water to alkenes to make alcohols [acid catalyst]

 Mechanism of free radical polymerisation of alkenes to form a poly(alkene) polymer

 Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] and  extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, activated complex etc.

 Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to make a nitrile

 Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia or primary amine to make amines

 Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Elimination of hydrogen bromide to give an alkene

 Mechanism: Alcohols - conversion to halogenoalkane

 Mechanism: Alcohols - elimination of water to make an alkene [acid catalysed dehydration]

 Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile

 Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones addition of hydrogen - reduction with LiAlH4 or NaBH4 to give an alcohol

 Mechanism of the iodination of ketones e.g. a 2-one like propanone (a methyl ketone)

 Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - hydrolysis with water to give a carboxylic acid

 Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - esterification with alcohols

 Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - amide formation with ammonia or primary amines

 MECHANISMS AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms

 Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene introduction to electrophilic substitution and nitration to form nitro-aromatic compounds

 Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution chlorination to give halogenoarenes  (similar for bromine, just swap Cl with Br)

 Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution alkylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

 Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution acylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

 Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution aromatic sulfonation to give sulphonic/sulfonic acids

 Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms - the orientation of products in aromatic substitution

Some general ORGANIC links ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

General test on type of Organic Molecule Recognition based on examples of structure and recognition of functional groups, including isomers, so the quiz is mainly on recognition of types of molecules and their structural features and classification

Revision notes on molecule shapes - section added on the bond angles of organic molecules

ALIPHATIC ORGANIC STRUCTURE and NOMENCLATURE BUMPER MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ

Type in name ALIPHATIC ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE BUMPER QUIZ - on most of aliphatic nomenclature based on 6 combined quizzes: alkanes, alkenes, haloalkanes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives (amides, acid chlorides, esters etc.)

Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.)

Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols, reduction of aldehydes & ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro-aromatic compounds (nitro-arenes) and nitriles (use top summary table index)


 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

click me! Part 1 "Historical Introduction to the Periodic Table"

click me! Part 2 "Electronic Structure, Hydrogen Spectrum Ionisation Energies" (7 sections over 3 pages after re-editing)

Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1 to 56), ions and the Periodic Table

Spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, evidence of quantum levels, ionisation energy patterns

click me! Part 3 "Survey of Period 1: hydrogen H to helium He" (1 page only)

click me! Part 4 "Survey of Period 2: lithium Li to neon Ne" (3 pages)

click me! Period 2 trends & explanations of physical properties

click me! Period 2 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions

click me! Part 5 "Survey of Period 3: sodium Na to argon Ar" (3 pages)

click me! Period 3 trends & explanations of physical properties

click me! Period 3 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions

Part 5 Survey of Period 4 elements

6.2 Period 4 trends in physical properties

6.3 Period 4 trends in bonding and formulae

6.4 Important trends down Groups

click me! Part 7 "Groups 1 Alkali Metals and Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals"

Part 8 The p-block elements  : 8.1 Group 3/13 Introduction : Boron : Aluminium * 8.2 Group 4/14 Introduction : Carbon : Silicon : Semi-metals like Ge * 8.3 Group 5/15 Introduction : Nitrogen : Phosphorus * 8.4 Group 6/16 Introduction : Oxygen : Sulfur * 8.5 Group 0/18 The Noble Gases

Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens 9.1 Introduction, trends & Group 7/17 data * 9.2 Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend  * 9.3 Reactions of halogens with other elements * 9.4 Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid * 9.5 Tests for halogens and halide ions * 9.6 Extraction of halogens from natural sources * 9.7 Uses of halogens & compounds * 9.8 Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions * 9.9 Volumetric analysis - titrations involving halogens or halide ions * 9.10 Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links * 9.11 Chemical bonding in halogen compounds * 9.12 Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry

click me! Part 10 3d block TRANSITION METALS: 10.1-10.2 Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals and Data * 10.3 Scandium * 10.4 Titanium * 10.5 Vanadium * 10.6 Chromium * 10.7 Manganese * 10.8 Iron * 10.9  Cobalt * 10.10 Nickel * 10.11 Copper * 10.12 Zinc * 10.13 Other Transition Metals e.g. Ag and Pt * Appendix 1. Hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions * Appendix 2. Complexes & ligands * Appendix 3. Complexes and isomerism * Appendix 4. Electron configuration & colour theory * Appendix 5. Redox equations, feasibility, E * Appendix 6. Catalysis * Appendix 7. Redox equations * Appendix 8. Stability Constants and entropy changes * Appendix 9. Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula * Extra Appendix 10 3d block - extended data * Appendix 11 Some 3d-block compounds, complexes, oxidation states & electrode potentials * Appendix 12 Hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations

click me! Part 11A: Data  tables on Groups 1-7,0, 3d-block-Transition Metals Series, (Groups 1-18) & Periods 2-4

click me! 11B(i) Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20 Period 1 to start of Period 4 (all re-edited)

 11B(ii) Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 38 Period 1 to start of Period 5 (all re-edited)

 11B(iii) Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 96 Period 1 to start of Period 7 (all re-edited)

 11B(iv) DATA for the Periodicity plots


PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

GCSE Atomic Structure Notes including mass spectrometry of elements - the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure notation, 'simple' electronic structure and the Periodic Table and mass spectrometry for isotope analysis and calculation of relative atomic mass (Ar)

Chemical Calculations index - 1. to 16. sections of explanation-examples and quizzes built into the notes, designed up to higher GCSE and basic GCE-AS/IB calculations

section 1. relative atomic mass

section 2. formula mass

section 3. simple reacting mass calculations

section 4. % composition by mass of a compound

section 5. empirical formula

section 6. on reacting mass and % & theoretical yield

section 7. introducing moles

(c) doc b section 8. Using moles to deduce empirical/molecular formula of a compound/molecule

section 9. moles and molar gas volume

(c) doc b section 10. Reacting gas volume ratios

section 11. making up solutions, concentration & molarity

section 12. acid-alkali titration calculations - apparatus/analysis

Structured Question worksheet including Acid-Base volumetric titration calculations (answers)

section 13. electrolysis calculations

section 14. % & theoretical yield, volumetric apparatus & dilution calculations

(c) doc b section 16. Gas calculations involving PVT relationships, PV = nRT and determining molecular mass of a volatile liquid

Structured Question worksheet on Acid-Base, silver nitrate for chloride and EDTA volumetric titration calculations (answers)

Structured Question worksheet on Redox Volumetric Titration Calculation Questions (answers and working)

Experimental question style - redox titration (ans) based on Q1 of above

Spectroscopy ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

Index of all spectroscopy pages and introduction

Introduction to mass spectrometry

Index of mass spectroscopy notes - examples of mass spectrometry of organic compounds

Index of infrared spectroscopy notes - analysis of infrared spectra of organic compounds

Index of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 1H NMR spectra of organic compounds

Index of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 13C NMR spectra of organic compounds

Index of emission and absorption spectroscopy including colorimetry and flame photometry

NMR problem solving

Planck's Law calculation question (ans)

Equilibria ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

Advanced Chemistry Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

Equilibria Part 2 Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

Equilibria Part 3 equilibrium and industrial processes

Equilibria Part 4 Partition and solvent extraction, solubility product and ion-exchange

Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations

Equilibria Part 6 Salt hydrolysis, Acid-base titrations-indicators, pH curves and buffers

Equilibrium Part 7 Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction, electrolysis and electrochemical series

Equilibria Part 8 Phase equilibria-vapour pressure, organic molecule examples - bond polarity, boiling point and intermolecular forces

Atomic structure, bonding, molecule shapes and states of matter ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

Atomic Structure Notes including mass spectrometry of elements - the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure notation, 'simple' electronic structure and the Periodic Table and mass spectrometry for isotope analysis and calculation of relative atomic mass (Ar)

Multiple choice quiz on  Atomic structure, isotopes & 'simple' electronic structure of atoms

Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies" - Electron arrangements - electron configurations and the Periodic Table - s, p, d and f blocks - ionization energy patterns

Introduction to BONDING

Revision notes on the basics of Ionic BONDING

Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and small molecules

Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and giant structures

Revision notes on the basics of Metallic BONDING

Revision notes on shapes and bond angles of simple molecules (VSEPR), ions, transition metal complexes and a section on shape and bond angles in organic molecules

States of Matter: gas-liquid-solid revision notes

 States of Matter Part II More advanced topics on the Ideal Gas Laws, p-V-T and PV=nRT calculations, kinetic particle model-theory and ideal and non-ideal real gas behaviour (compressibility factors and Van der Waals equation)

 Section on bond polarity in organic molecules, boiling point and intermolecular forces

Part 5 Energetics ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

click me! Enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion and Bond Energy Calculation Questions  (answers)

A Level Thermodynamics Part 2 ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

Thermodynamics Part 3 ΔS Entropy and ΔG Free Energy Changes

Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability - includes a free energy-entropy calculation example

Part 6 Rates - Kinetics ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

Notes for the basics of rates of reactions

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts & heterogeneous catalyst, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction

KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

Part 7 Oxidation and reduction - REDOX REACTIONS ( US K12 AP Honors Chemistry)

Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 2 analysing and constructing full redox equations from half-cell reactions

click me! redox titration calculation questions (all with worked out answers)

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