Gap-fill worksheet question Quiz "THE EXTRACTION OF METALS from their ores"

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   air      aluminium      carbon      chemical      coke      concentrated      copper      dioxide      electrolysis      element      exothermic      gold      haematite      iron      jewellery      lead      least      less      less difficult      limestone      monoxide      more      more difficult      ores      oxidation      oxide      oxides      oxygen      position      reactive      reactivity      reduces      reduction      removed      slag      sodium      top   
blastfurnace.jpg(1) The higher the metal in the reactivity series, the it is to extract from its compounds.

(2) Metals lower in the reactivity series of metals are to extract.

(3) Many of the less reactive metals can be extracted by heating an oxide ore with (charcoal, graphite), in a a process called smelting.

(4) The metal iron can be obtained in this way in a blast furnace (picture above).

(5) The metals which are easiest to extract have been used for thousands of years, but metals like aluminium were not extracted until recently when more advanced technology was invented and the reactivity of a metal explains some of its uses.
(i) The precious metal is so unreactive it is found as the and not combined with anything and so has been used for for thousands of years and shining .
(ii) Metals such as (soft and grey) and reddish-orange can used in piping and roofing because they are relatively unreactive metals.
(iii) The metal is so reactive with oxygen or water, it is kept under oil and cannot be used for any outdoor purpose and not much else, since it is so soft!

(6) The Earth's crust contains metals and metal compounds. These are always found mixed with other substances. In , the metal or metal compound is enough to make it economic to extract the metal. An unreactive metal like , is found in the Earth as the metal itself and so separation is not always needed. The reactivity series of metals lists metals in order of their reactivity, the most reactive metal being placed at the of the list and the reactive at the bottom.

(7) A more metal can displace a reactive metal from its compounds. The non-metal elements and hydrogen will also displace less reactive metals from their . You can use the of a metal in the series to predict how the metal can be extracted from a compound.

(8) Often an ore contains a metal or a substance which can easily be changed into a metal oxide. To extract the metal, the oxygen must be from the metal oxide. This is called . How a metal is extracted from its ore depends on how the metal is. A metal such as iron, which is reactive than carbon, can therefore be extracted from its ore using carbon. Metals which are reactive than carbon, like are extracted by

(9) The solid raw materials used in the blast furnace are an iron ore called , the fuel and reducing agent and limestone. The 4th raw material is hot (oxygen supply) is blown into the furnace and this causes the coke to burn forming and releasing energy (an reacion). At the high temperatures in the furnace the carbon dioxide reacts with coke to form . The carbon monoxide the iron oxide in the iron ore (by removing the oxygen) to form molten iron which flows to the bottom of the furnace. The carbon monoxide combines with the from the iron ore to produce carbon dioxide. This gain in oxygen by carbon monoxide is an example of . The is added to remove acidic impurities like silica (silicon dioxide), forming a molten that floats on the surface of the molten .

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