UK GCSE level age ~14-16, ~US grades 9-10 Biology revision notes re-edit 11/05/2023 [SEARCH]

 Exchange surfaces: 6. Gas exchanges surface structure adaptations in other animals

Doc Brown's Biology exam study revision notes

*

There are various sections to work through,

after 1 they can be read and studied in any order.

INDEX of biology notes on exchange surfaces

*


6. Exchanges surface structure adaptations in other animals

Tadpoles and aquatic worms

For their gas exchange, tadpoles and aquatic worms absorb air through their skin and external gills.

The gills are feather-like projections that produce a large surface area for gas exchange with the water - so oxygen can be absorbed for cellular respiration and waste carbon dioxide removed.

With adult amphibians the gas exchange takes place mainly through their skin and lungs.

Insects

Insects do not have a transport system and gases cannot be directly exchanged with respiring cell tissue and the external air.

Insects have tiny holes called spiracles all along the side of their body.

The spiracles open out into tiny tubes called trachea - with a moist surface, through which insects pump air in and out.

The trachea are stiffened to prevent the minute 'tubes' collapsing.

The trachea have many minute branches called tracheoles which connect to cells - this increases surface area and shortens gas diffusion distance and time.

At the end of the trachea is a tiny drop of water that connects it to the cells.

So, gases can diffuse through the trachea and water into the cells - providing the cells with oxygen for respiration.

The spiracles can close to prevent evaporation and keep the exchange surfaces moist.

Slugs

The slug absorbs air through its skin and has a moderately large surface area to volume ratio.

The gas exchange surface is moist to dissolve gases which can diffuse through the moist interface.

The skin membrane is thin to give a short diffusion time.


WHAT NEXT?

TOP OF PAGE

INDEX of biology notes on exchange surfaces

Big website and use [SEARCH BOX] below, maybe quicker than the indexes

INDEX of all my BIOLOGY NOTES

HOME PAGE of Doc Brown's Science website Links to all indexes

UK KS3 Science Quizzes for KS3 science students aged ~11-14, ~US grades 6, 7 and 8

BiologyChemistryPhysics UK GCSE/IGCSE students age ~14-16, ~US grades 9-10

Advanced Level Chemistry for pre-university ~16-18 ~US grades 11-12, K12 Honors

Find your GCSE/IGCSE science course for more help links to all science revision notes

email doc brown - comments - query?

Use your mobile phone or ipad etc. in 'landscape' mode?

Website content Dr Phil Brown 2000+. All copyrights reserved on revision notes, images, quizzes, worksheets etc. Copying of website material is NOT permitted. Exam revision summaries & references to science course specifications are unofficial.

 Doc Brown's Biology exam study revision notes

*

TOP OF PAGE