Doc Brown's Chemistry  Cambridge 0652 IGCSE Combined Science

Helps the CHEMISTRY of the Cambridge IGCSE Physical Science 0653 CIE syllabus-specification

Cambridge International Certificate of Education (ICE) For examination in November 2012 and November 2013

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Other Cambridge IGCSE/O Level International Syllabuses: 0620 * 0652 * 0654 * 5070 * 5129


BIOLOGY Curriculum Content core & supplement syllabus-specification Cambridge IGCSE Physical Science 0653

B1 Characteristics of living organisms

1 List and describe the characteristics of living organisms.

B2. Cells

2.1 Cell structure and organisation

1 State that living organisms are made of cells.

2 Identify and describe the structure of a plant cell (palisade cell) and an animal cell (liver cell), as seen under a light microscope.

3 Relate the structures seen under the light microscope in the plant cell and in the animal cell to their functions.

4 Describe the differences in structure between typical animal and plant cells.

5 Calculate magnification and size of biological specimens using millimetres as units.

2.2 Movement in and out of cells

1 Define diffusion as the net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement.

2 Describe the importance of diffusion of gases and solutes and of water as a solvent.

B3. Enzymes

1 Define enzymes as proteins that function as biological catalysts.

2 Investigate and describe the effect of changes in temperature and pH on enzyme activity.

3 Explain the effect of changes in temperature and pH on enzyme activity.

B4. Nutrition

4.1 Nutrients

1 List the chemical elements that make up: • carbohydrates, • fats, • proteins.

2 Describe the structure of large molecules made from smaller basic units, i.e. • simple sugars to starch and glycogen, • amino acids to proteins, • fatty acids and glycerol to fats and oils.

3 Describe tests for: • starch (iodine solution), • reducing sugars (Benedict’s solution), • protein (Biuret test), • fats (ethanol).

4 List the principal sources of, and describe the importance of: • carbohydrates, • fats, • proteins, • vitamins (C and D only), • mineral salts (calcium and iron only), • fibre (roughage), • water.

5 Describe the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of yoghurt.

6 Describe the deficiency symptoms for: • vitamins (C and D only), • mineral salts (calcium and iron only.

4.2 Plant nutrition

1 Define photosynthesis as the fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light.

2 Explain that chlorophyll traps light energy and converts it into chemical energy for the formation of carbohydrates and their subsequent storage.

3 State the word equation for the production of simple sugars and oxygen.

4 State the balanced equation for photosynthesis in symbols

6CO2 + 6H2O == light == chlorophyll ==> C6H12O6 + 6O2

5 Investigate the necessity for chlorophyll, light and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, using appropriate controls.

6 Investigate and state the effect of varying light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis (e.g. in submerged aquatic plants).

7 Describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants.

8 Identify and label the cuticle, cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, as seen in cross-section under the light microscope.

4.3 Animal nutrition

1 State what is meant by the term balanced diet and describe a balanced diet related to age, sex and activity of an individual.

2 Describe the effects of malnutrition in relation to starvation, coronary heart disease, constipation and obesity.

3 Identify the main regions of the alimentary canal and associated organs including mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine: duodenum and ileum, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, large intestine: colon and rectum, anus.

4 Describe the functions of the regions of the alimentary canal listed above, in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food.

5 Define digestion as the break-down of large, insoluble food molecules into small, water- soluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes.

6 Identify the types of human teeth and describe their structure and functions.

7 State the causes of dental decay and describe the proper care of teeth.

8 State the significance of chemical digestion in the alimentary canal in producing small, soluble molecules that can be absorbed.

9 Define absorption as movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the blood.

10 Identify the small intestine as the region for the absorption of digested food.

B5. Transportation

5.1 Transport in plants

1 State the functions of xylem and phloem.

2 Identify the positions of xylem tissues as seen in transverse sections of unthickened, herbaceous, dicotyledonous roots, stems and leaves.

3 Identify root hair cells, as seen under the light microscope, and state their functions.

4 Relate the structure and functions of root hairs to their surface area and to water and ion uptake.

5 Investigate, using a suitable stain, the pathway of water through the above-ground parts of a plant.

6 Define transpiration as evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by loss of water vapour from plant leaves, through the stomata.

7 Describe the effects of variation of temperature, humidity and light intensity on transpiration rate.

5.2 Transport in humans

1 Describe the circulatory system as a system of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one-way flow of blood.

2 Describe the double circulation in terms of a low pressure circulation to the lungs and a high pressure circulation to the body tissues and relate these differences to the different functions of the two circuits.

3 Describe the structure of the heart including the muscular wall and septum, atria, ventricles, valves and associated blood vessels.

4 Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the blockage of coronary arteries and state the possible causes (diet, stress and smoking) and preventive measures.

5 Describe the function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of the valves.

6 Investigate the effect of physical activity on pulse rate.

7 Investigate, state and explain the effect of physical activity on pulse rate.

8 Identify red and white blood cells as seen under the light microscope on prepared slides, and in diagrams and photomicrographs.

9 List the components of blood as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma.

10 State the functions of blood: • red blood cells – haemoglobin and oxygen transport, • white blood cells – phagocytosis and antibody formation, • platelets – causing clotting (no details), • plasma – transport of blood cells, ions, soluble nutrients, hormones and carbon dioxide.

B6. Respiration

6.1 Respiration and energy

1 Define respiration as the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy.

2 State the uses of energy in the body of humans: muscle contraction, protein synthesis, cell division, growth, the passage of nerve impulses and the maintenance of a constant body temperature.

3 State the word equation for aerobic respiration.

4 Define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen.

5 State the equation for aerobic respiration using symbols

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ==> 6CO2 + 6H2O

6.2 Gas exchange

1 Identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries.

2 List the features of gas exchange surfaces in animals.

3 Explain the role of mucus and cilia in protecting the gas exchange system from pathogens and particles.

4 Describe the effects of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, smoke particles) on the gas exchange system.

5 State the differences in composition between inspired and expired air.

6 Use lime water as a test for carbon dioxide to investigate the differences in composition between inspired and expired air.

7 Investigate and describe the effects of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing.

8 Explain the effects of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing.

B7. Coordination and response

7.1 Hormones

1 Define a hormone as a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver.

2 State the role of the hormone adrenaline in chemical control of metabolic activity, including increasing the blood glucose concentration and pulse rate.

3 Give examples of situations in which adrenaline secretion increases.

7.2 Tropic responses

1 Define and investigate geotropism (as a response in which a plant grows towards or away from gravity) and phototropism (as a response in which a plant grows towards or away from the direction from which light is coming).

2 Explain the chemical control of plant growth by auxins including geotropism and phototropism in terms of auxins regulating differential growth.

B8. Reproduction

8.1 Asexual and sexual reproduction

1 Define asexual reproduction as the process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent.

2 Define sexual reproduction as the process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring.

8.2 Sexual reproduction in plants

1 Identify and draw, using a hand lens if necessary, the sepals, petals, stamens, anthers, carpels, ovaries and stigmas of one, locally available, named, insect-pollinated, dicotyledonous flower, and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs.

2 Use a hand lens to identify and describe the anthers and stigmas of one, locally available, named, wind-pollinated flower.

3 State the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers, stigmas and ovaries.

4 Candidates should expect to apply their understanding of the flowers they have studied to unfamiliar flowers.

5 Define pollination as the transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma).

6 Name the agents of pollination.

7 Compare the different structural adaptations of insect-pollinated and wind- pollinated flowers.

8 Investigate and state the environmental conditions that affect germination of seeds: requirement for water and oxygen, suitable temperature.

8.3 Sexual reproduction in humans

1 Identify on diagrams of the male reproductive system, the testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis, and state the functions of these parts.

2 Compare male and female gametes in terms of size, numbers and mobility.

3 Identify on diagrams of the female reproductive system, the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina, and state the functions of these parts.

4 Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of changes in the uterus and ovaries.

5 Describe fertilisation in terms of the joining of the nuclei of male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg).

6 Outline early development of the zygote simply in terms of the formation of a ball of cells that becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus.

7 Indicate the functions of the amniotic sac and amniotic fluid.

8 Describe the function of the placenta and umbilical cord in relation to exchange of dissolved nutrients, gases and excretory products (no structural details are required).

9 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of breast-feeding compared with bottle-feeding using formula milk.

10 Describe the methods of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the ways in which HIV / AIDS can be prevented from spreading.

11 Outline how HIV affects the immune system in a person with HIV / AIDS.

B9. Energy flow in ecosystems

1 State that the Sun is the principal source of energy input to biological systems.

2 Define the terms: • food chain as a chart showing the flow of energy (food) from one organism to the next beginning with a producer (e.g. mahogany tree . caterpillar . song bird . hawk), • food web as a network of interconnected food chains showing the energy flow through part of an ecosystem, • producer as an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis, • consumer as an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms, • herbivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating plants, • carnivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals.

3 Describe energy losses between trophic levels.

4 Define the terms: • decomposer as an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter, • ecosystem as a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment, interacting together, in a given area e.g. decomposing log or a lake, • trophic level as the position of an organism in a food chain or food web.

5 Explain why food chains usually have fewer than five trophic levels.

6 Describe the carbon cycle.

7 Discuss the effects of the combustion of fossil fuels and the cutting down of forests on the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.

B10. Human influences on the ecosystem

1 List the undesirable effects of deforestation (to include extinction, loss of soil, flooding, carbon dioxide build up).

2 Describe the undesirable effects of pollution to include: • water pollution by sewage and chemical waste, • air pollution by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) contributing to global warming.

3 Describe the undesirable effects of overuse of fertilisers (to include eutrophication of lakes and rivers).

4 Discuss the causes and effects on the environment of acid rain, and the measures that might be taken to reduce its incidence.

5 Explain how increases in greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) are thought to cause global warming.

6 Describe the need for conservation of: • species and their habitats, • natural resources (limited to water and non-renewable materials including fossil fuels).


CHEMISTRY Curriculum Content core & supplement syllabus-specification Cambridge IGCSE Physical Science 0653

C1.The particulate nature of matter See P4.1 and P4.2 for details of common content.

1 Demonstrate understanding of the terms atom and molecule.

C2. Experimental techniques

2.1 Methods of separation and purification

1 Describe methods of separation and purification: filtration, crystallisation, distillation, fractional distillation.

2 Suggest suitable purification techniques, given information about the substances involved.

3 Describe paper chromatography.

4 Interpret simple chromatograms.

C3. Atoms, elements and compounds

3.1 Physical and chemical changes

1 Identify physical and chemical changes, and understand the differences between them.

3.2 Elements, compounds and mixtures

1 Describe the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures.

2 Demonstrate understanding of the concepts of element, compound and mixture.

3.3 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table

1 Describe the structure of an atom in terms of electrons and a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.

2 Describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and understand the significance of the noble gas electronic structures and of valency electrons (the ideas of the distribution of electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not required).

3 State the relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons.

4 Define proton number and nucleon number.

5 Use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the basis of the Periodic Table (see section C9), with special reference to the elements of proton number 1 to 20.

3.4 Ions and ionic bonds

1 Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain.

2 Describe the formation of ionic bonds between elements from Groups I and VII.

3 Explain the formation of ionic bonds between metallic and non-metallic elements.

3.5 Molecules and covalent bonds

1 State that non-metallic elements form non- ionic compounds using a different type of bonding called covalent bonding involving shared pairs of electrons.

2 Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the sharing of electron pairs to form single covalent bonds in simple molecules, exemplified by H2, Cl2, H2O, CH4 and HCl.

C4. Stoichiometry

1 Use the symbols of the elements to write the formulae of simple compounds.

2 Deduce the formula of a simple compound from the relative numbers of atoms present.

3 Deduce the formula of a simple compound from a model or a diagrammatic representation.

4 Construct and use word equations.

5 Determine the formula of an ionic compound from the charges on the ions present.

6 Construct and use symbolic equations with state symbols.

7 Deduce the balanced equation for a chemical reaction, given relevant information.

C5. Electricity and chemistry

1 State that electrolysis is the chemical effect of electricity on ionic compounds, causing them to break up into simpler substances, usually elements.

2 Use the terms electrode, electrolyte, anode

3 Describe electrolysis in terms of the and cathode. ions present and the reactions at the electrodes.

4 Describe the electrode products, using inert

5 Predict the products of the electrolysis electrodes, in the electrolysis of: of a specified binary compound in the molten state.• molten lead(II) bromide,  • aqueous copper chloride.

C6. Energy changes in chemical reactions

6.1 Energetics of a reaction

1 Relate the terms exothermic and relate to the transformation of chemical energy to heat (thermal energy), and vice versa.

2 Demonstrate understanding that endothermic to the temperature changes exothermic and endothermic changes observed during chemical reactions.

C7. Chemical reactions

7.1 Speed of reaction

1 Describe the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysis and temperature on the speeds of reactions.

2 Describe a practical method for investigating the speed of a reaction involving gas evolution.

3 Interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction.

4 Describe and explain the effects of temperature and concentration in terms of collisions between reacting particles (concept of activation energy will not be examined).

5 Define catalyst as an agent which increases rate but which remains unchanged.

7.2 Redox

1 Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen loss / gain, and identify such reactions from given information.

C8. Acids, bases and salts

8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases

1 Describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH (whole numbers only) measured using full-range indicator and litmus.

2 Describe the characteristic reactions between acids and metals, bases (including alkalis) and carbonates.

3 Describe and explain the importance of controlling acidity in the environment (air, water and soil).

8.2 Preparation of salts

1 Describe the preparation, separation and purification of salts using techniques selected from section C2.1 and the reactions specified in section C8.1.

2 Suggest a method of making a given salt from suitable starting material, given appropriate information.

8.3 Identification of ions and gases

1 Use the following tests to identify:

aqueous cations: • copper(II), iron(II), iron(III) and zinc by means of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia as appropriate. (Formulae of complex ions are not required.)

anions: • carbonate by means of dilute acid and then limewater • chloride by means of aqueous silver nitrate under acidic conditions

gases: • carbon dioxide by means of limewater • chlorine by means of damp litmus paper • hydrogen by means of a lighted splint • oxygen by means of a glowing splint.

C9. The Periodic Table

1 Describe the way the Periodic Table classifies elements in order of proton number.

2 Use the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements by means of groups and periods.

9.1 Periodic trends

1 Describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character across a period.

2 Describe the relationship between Group number, number of outer-shell (valency) electrons and metallic/non-metallic character.

9.2 Group properties

1 Describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I as a collection of relatively soft metals showing a trend in melting point and reaction with water.

2 Predict the properties of other elements in Group I, given data where appropriate.

3 Describe the trends in properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII including colour, physical state and reactions with other halide ions.

4 Predict the properties of other elements in Group VII, given data where appropriate.

9.3 Transition elements

1 Describe the transition elements as a collection of metals having high densities, high melting points and forming coloured compounds, and which, as elements and compounds, often act as catalysts.

9.4 Noble gases

1 Describe the noble gases as being unreactive.

2 Describe the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere, i.e. argon in lamps, helium for filling balloons.

C10. Metals

10.1 Properties of metals

1 Distinguish between metals and non-metals by their general physical and chemical properties.

2 Identify and interpret diagrams that represent the structure of an alloy.

3 Explain why metals are often used in the form of alloys.

10.2 Reactivity series

1 Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, hydrogen and copper, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the elements with • water or steam, • dilute hydrochloric acid (except for alkali metals).

2 Compare the reactivity series to the tendency of a metal to form its positive ion, illustrated by its reaction, if any, with: • the aqueous ions of other listed metals, • the oxides of the other listed metals.

3 Deduce an order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results.

10.3 Extraction of metals

1 Describe the use of carbon in the extraction of copper from copper oxide.

2 Describe the essential reactions in the extraction of iron in the blast furnace.

3 Relate the method of extraction of a metal from its ore to its position in the reactivity series limited to Group I and II metals, aluminium, iron and copper.

C11. Air and water

1 Describe a chemical test for water.

2 Describe and explain, in outline, the purification of the water supply by filtration and chlorination.

3 Describe the composition of clean air as being a mixture of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and small quantities of noble gases, water vapour and carbon dioxide.

4 Explain why the proportion of carbon dioxide in air is increasing, and why this is important.

5 Describe the formation of carbon dioxide: • as a product of complete combustion of carbon-containing substances, • as a product of respiration, • as a product of the reaction between an acid and a carbonate.

6 Describe the rusting of iron in terms of a reaction involving air and water, and simple methods of rust prevention, including paint and other coatings to exclude oxygen.

C12. Organic chemistry

12.1 Fuels

1 Recall coal, natural gas and petroleum as fossil fuels that produce carbon dioxide on combustion.

2 Understand the essential principle of fractional distillation in terms of differing boiling points (ranges) of fractions related to molecular size and intermolecular attractive forces.

3 Name methane as the main constituent of natural gas.

4 Describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation.

5 State the use of: • refinery gas for bottled gas for heating and cooking, • gasoline fraction for fuel (petrol) in cars, • diesel oil/gas oil for fuel in diesel engines.

12.2 Hydrocarbons

1 Describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally unreactive, except in terms of burning.

2 State that the products of complete combustion of hydrocarbons, exemplified by methane, are carbon dioxide and water.

3 Name, identify and draw the structures of methane, ethane and ethene.

4 Recognise alkanes and alkenes from their chemical names or from molecular structures.

5 Describe the manufacture of alkenes by cracking.

6 Distinguish between alkanes and alkenes by the addition reaction of alkenes with bromine.


Chemistry Appendix Notes for use in qualitative analysis

Appendix - Summary of test results for chemical identification

Tests for anions - anion test and results

carbonate (CO3) add dilute acid effervescence, carbon dioxide produced

chloride (Cl–) [in solution] acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate white ppt.

nitrate (NO3–) [in solution] add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then aluminium foil; warm carefully ammonia produced

sulfate (SO4) [in solution] acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous barium nitrate white ppt.

Tests for aqueous cations

cation effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH(aq)) and effect of aqueous ammonia (NH3(aq))

NaOH(aq) - ammonium (NH4+) ammonia produced on warming

NaOH(aq) - copper(II) (Cu2+) light blue ppt., insoluble in excess

NH3(aq) - copper(II) (Cu2+) light blue ppt., soluble in excess, giving a dark blue solution

NaOH(aq)/NH3(aq) - iron(II) (Fe2+) green ppt., insoluble in excess

NaOH(aq)/NH3(aq) - iron(III) (Fe3+) red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess

NaOH(aq)/NH3(aq) - zinc (Zn2+) white ppt., soluble in excess, giving a colourless solution

Tests for gases

gas test and test result

ammonia (NH3) turns damp red litmus paper blue

carbon dioxide (CO2) turns lime water milky

chlorine (Cl2) bleaches damp litmus paper

hydrogen (H2) ‘pops’ with a lighted splint

oxygen (O2) relights a glowing splint


PHYSICS Curriculum Content core & supplement syllabus-specification Cambridge IGCSE Physical Science 0653

P1. Motion

1 Define speed and calculate speed from total time / total distance

2 Plot and interpret a speed/time graph and a distance/time graph.

3 Recognise from the shape of a speed/time graph when a body is • at rest, • moving with constant speed, • moving with changing speed.

4 Recognise linear motion for which the acceleration is constant and calculate the acceleration.

5 Recognise motion for which the acceleration is not constant.

6 Calculate the area under a speed / time graph to work out the distance travelled for motion with constant acceleration.

P2. Matter and Forces

2.1 Mass and weight

1 State that weight is a force.

2 Know that the Earth is the source of a gravitational field.

3 Describe, and use the concept of, weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass.

2.2 Density

1 Describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid and of a regularly shaped solid and make the necessary calculation
using the equation density = mass / volume or d = m / v

2 Describe the determination of the density of an irregularly shaped solid by the method of displacement, and make the necessary calculation.

2.3 Effects of forces

1 Know that a force is measured in newtons (N).

2 Describe how forces may change the size, shape and motion of a body.

3 Plot and interpret extension/load graphs.

4 State Hooke’s Law and recall and use the expression force = constant Χ extension (F = k x).

5 Recognise the significance of the term ‘limit of proportionality’ for an extension / load graph.

P3. Energy, Work and Power

3.1 Energy

1 Know that energy and work are measured in joules (J), and power in watts (W).

2 Demonstrate understanding that an object may have energy due to its motion (kinetic) or its position (potential), and that energy may be transferred and stored.

3 Recall and use the expressions K.E. = ½ mv2 and P.E. = mgh 

4 Give and identify examples of energy in different forms, including kinetic, gravitational, chemical, nuclear, thermal (heat), electrical, light and sound.

5 Give and identify examples of the conversion of energy from one form to another, and of its transfer from one place to another.

6 Apply the principle of energy conservation to simple examples.

3.2 Energy resources

1 Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy.

2 Know that the Sun is the source of energy for all our energy resources except geothermal and nuclear.

3 Describe how electricity or other useful forms of energy may be obtained from: • chemical energy stored in fuel, • water, including the energy stored in waves, in tides, and in water behind hydroelectric dams, • geothermal resources, • heat and light from the Sun (solar cells and panels).

4 Recall and use the equation: % efficiency = 100 x useful energy output / energy input

5 Give advantages and disadvantages of each method in terms of reliability, scale and environmental impact.

6 Demonstrate a qualitative understanding of efficiency.

3.3 Work

1 Relate (without calculation) work done to the magnitude of a force and the distance moved.

2 Describe energy changes in terms of work done.

3 Recall and use W = F Χ d

3.4 Power

1 Relate (without calculation) power to work done and time taken, using appropriate examples.

2 Recall and use the equation P = E / t in simple systems.

P4. Simple Kinetic Molecular Model of Matter

4.1 States of matter

1 State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases.

4.2 Molecular model

1 Describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases.

2 Relate the properties of solids, liquids and gases to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules.

3 Interpret the temperature of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules.

4.3 Evaporation

1 Describe evaporation in terms of the escape of more-energetic molecules from the surface of a liquid.

2 Relate evaporation to the consequent cooling.

P5. Matter and Thermal Properties

1 Describe qualitatively the thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases.

2 Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of thermal expansion.

3 State the meaning of melting point and boiling point.

P6.Transfer of thermal energy

6.1 Conduction

1 Describe experiments to demonstrate the properties of good and bad conductors of heat.

2 Explain heat transfer in solids in terms of molecular motion.

6.2 Convection

1 Recognise convection as the main method of heat transfer in liquids and gases.

2 Relate convection in fluids to density changes.

3 Describe experiments to illustrate convection in liquids and gases.

6.3 Radiation

1 Recognise radiation as the method of heat transfer that does not require a medium to travel through.

2 Describe experiments to show the properties of good and bad emitters and good and bad absorbers of infra-red radiation.

3 Identify infra-red radiation as the part of the electromagnetic spectrum often involved in heat transfer by radiation.

6.4 Consequences of energy transfer

1 Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of conduction, convection and radiation.

P7. Waves

7.1 General wave properties

1 Describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes and springs and by experiments using water waves.

2 Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples.

3 State the meaning of and use the terms speed, frequency, wavelength and amplitude.

4 Recall and use the equation v = f λ

5 Identify how a wave can be reflected off a plane barrier and can change direction as its speed changes.

P8. Light

8.1 Reflection of light

1 Describe the formation and give the characteristics of an optical image by a plane mirror.

2 Perform simple constructions, measurements and calculations based on reflections in plane mirrors.

3 Use the law angle of incidence = angle of reflection.

8.2 Refraction of light

1 Describe an experimental demonstration of the refraction of light.

2 Identify and describe internal and total internal reflection using ray diagrams.

3 Describe, using ray diagrams, the passage of light through parallel-sided transparent material, indicating the angle of incidence i and angle of refraction r.

4 State the meaning of critical angle.

5 Describe the action of optical fibres particularly in medicine and communications technology.

P9. Electromagnetic spectrum

1 Describe the main features of the electromagnetic spectrum.

2 State that all electromagnetic waves travel with the same high speed in vacuo.

3 Describe the role of electromagnetic waves in: • radio and television communications (radio waves), • satellite television and telephones (microwaves), • electrical appliances, remote controllers for televisions and intruder alarms (infrared), • medicine and security (X-rays).

4 Demonstrate an awareness of safety issues regarding the use of microwaves and X-rays.

P10. Sound

1 Describe the production of sound by vibrating sources.

2 Describe transmission of sound in air in terms of compressions and rarefactions.

3 State the approximate human range of audible frequencies.

4 Demonstrate understanding that a medium is needed to transmit sound waves.

5 Describe an experiment to determine the speed of sound in air.

6 Relate the loudness and pitch of sound waves to amplitude and frequency.

7 State the order of magnitude of the speed of sound in air, liquids and solids.

8 Describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo.

P11. Electricity

11.1 Electrical quantities

1 Demonstrate understanding of current, potential difference and resistance, and use with their appropriate units.

2 Use and describe the use of an ammeter and a voltmeter.

11.2 Electric charge

1 Describe simple experiments to show the production and detection of electrostatic charges.

2 State that there are positive and negative charges.

3 State that unlike charges attract and that like charges repel.

4 Describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force.

5 Distinguish between electrical conductors and insulators and give typical examples.

11.3 Current and potential difference

1 State that current is related to the flow of charge.

2 Use the term potential difference (p.d.) to describe what drives the current between two points in a circuit.

11.4 Resistance

1 State that resistance = p.d. / current and understand qualitatively how changes in p.d. or resistance affect current.

2 Recall and use the equation R = V / I.

3 Relate (without calculation) the resistance of a wire to its length and to its diameter.

4 Describe an experiment to determine resistance using a voltmeter and an ammeter.

11.5 Electrical energy

1 Recall and use the equations P = I V and E = I V t

11.6 Dangers of electricity

1 Identify electrical hazards including • damaged insulation, • overheating of cables, • damp conditions.

2 Demonstrate understanding of the use of fuses.

P12. Electric circuits

12.1 Circuit diagrams

1 Draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing sources, switches, resistors (fixed and variable), lamps, ammeters, voltmeters and fuses.

12.2 Series and parallel circuits

1 Demonstrate understanding that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same.

2 Recall and use the fact that the sum of the p.d.s across the components in a series circuit is equal to the total p.d. across the supply.

3 Calculate the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series.

4 State that, for a parallel circuit, the current from the source is larger than the current in each branch.

5 Recall and use the fact that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of a parallel circuit.

6 State that the combined resistance of two resistors in parallel is less than that of either resistor by itself.

7 State the advantages of connecting lamps in parallel in a lighting circuit.

 


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