Brown's Chemistry Cambridge 0652 IGCSE Combined Science
CHEMISTRY of the
Cambridge IGCSE Physical Science 0653 CIE
Certificate of Education (ICE) For examination in November
2012 and November 2013
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Other Cambridge IGCSE/O Level
International Syllabuses: 0620 *
0652 * 0654 *
5070 * 5129
BIOLOGY Curriculum Content
core & supplement syllabus-specification Cambridge IGCSE Physical
B1 Characteristics of living organisms
1 List and describe the characteristics of living organisms.
2.1 Cell structure and organisation
1 State that living organisms are made of cells.
2 Identify and describe the structure of a plant
cell (palisade cell) and an animal cell (liver
cell), as seen under a light microscope.
3 Relate the structures seen under the light
microscope in the plant cell and in the
animal cell to their functions.
4 Describe the differences in structure
between typical animal and plant cells.
5 Calculate magnification and size of biological
specimens using millimetres as units.
2.2 Movement in and out of cells
1 Define diffusion as the net movement of
molecules from a region of their higher
concentration to a region of their lower
concentration down a concentration gradient,
as a result of their random movement.
2 Describe the importance of diffusion of
gases and solutes and of water as a solvent.
1 Define enzymes as proteins that function as
2 Investigate and describe the effect of
changes in temperature and pH on enzyme
3 Explain the effect of changes in
temperature and pH on enzyme activity.
1 List the chemical elements that make up:
2 Describe the structure of large molecules
made from smaller basic units, i.e.
simple sugars to starch and glycogen,
amino acids to proteins,
fatty acids and glycerol to fats and oils.
3 Describe tests for:
starch (iodine solution),
reducing sugars (Benedicts solution),
protein (Biuret test),
4 List the principal sources of, and describe
the importance of:
vitamins (C and D only),
mineral salts (calcium and iron only),
5 Describe the use of microorganisms in
the manufacture of yoghurt.
6 Describe the deficiency symptoms for:
vitamins (C and D only),
mineral salts (calcium and iron only.
4.2 Plant nutrition
1 Define photosynthesis as the fundamental
process by which plants manufacture
carbohydrates from raw materials using
energy from light.
2 Explain that chlorophyll traps light
energy and converts it into chemical energy for the formation of
carbohydrates and their subsequent storage.
3 State the word equation for the production
of simple sugars and oxygen.
4 State the balanced equation for
photosynthesis in symbols
6CO2 + 6H2O ==
light == chlorophyll ==> C6H12O6 +
5 Investigate the necessity for chlorophyll, light
and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, using
Investigate and state the effect of
varying light intensity on the rate of
photosynthesis (e.g. in submerged aquatic
7 Describe the intake of carbon dioxide and
water by plants.
8 Identify and label the cuticle, cellular and
tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf,
as seen in cross-section under the light
4.3 Animal nutrition
1 State what is meant by the term balanced
diet and describe a balanced diet related to
age, sex and activity of an individual.
2 Describe the effects of malnutrition in
relation to starvation, coronary heart disease, constipation and
3 Identify the main regions of the alimentary
canal and associated organs including mouth,
salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, small
intestine: duodenum and ileum, pancreas,
liver, gall bladder, large intestine: colon and
4 Describe the functions of the regions of the
alimentary canal listed above, in relation to
ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation
and egestion of food.
5 Define digestion as the break-down of large,
insoluble food molecules into small, water-
soluble molecules using mechanical and
6 Identify the types of human teeth and
describe their structure and functions.
7 State the causes of dental decay and
describe the proper care of teeth.
8 State the significance of chemical digestion
in the alimentary canal in producing small,
soluble molecules that can be absorbed.
9 Define absorption as movement of digested
food molecules through the wall of the
intestine into the blood.
10 Identify the small intestine as the region for
the absorption of digested food.
5.1 Transport in plants
1 State the functions of xylem and phloem.
2 Identify the positions of xylem tissues as
seen in transverse sections of unthickened,
herbaceous, dicotyledonous roots, stems
3 Identify root hair cells, as seen under the
light microscope, and state their functions.
4 Relate the structure and functions of
root hairs to their surface area and to water and ion uptake.
5 Investigate, using a suitable stain, the
pathway of water through the above-ground
parts of a plant.
6 Define transpiration as evaporation of water
at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells
followed by loss of water vapour from plant
leaves, through the stomata.
7 Describe the effects of variation of
temperature, humidity and light intensity on
5.2 Transport in humans
1 Describe the circulatory system as a system
of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure
one-way flow of blood.
2 Describe the double circulation in
terms of a low pressure circulation to the lungs and a high pressure
circulation to the body tissues and relate these differences to the
different functions of the two circuits.
3 Describe the structure of the heart including
the muscular wall and septum, atria,
ventricles, valves and associated blood
4 Describe coronary heart disease in
terms of the blockage of coronary arteries and state the possible causes
(diet, stress and smoking) and preventive measures.
5 Describe the function of the heart in terms
of muscular contraction and the working of
6 Investigate the effect of physical activity on
7 Investigate, state and explain the
effect of physical activity on pulse rate.
8 Identify red and white blood cells as
seen under the light microscope on
prepared slides, and in diagrams and
9 List the components of blood as red blood
cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma.
10 State the functions of blood:
red blood cells haemoglobin and
white blood cells phagocytosis and
platelets causing clotting (no details),
plasma transport of blood cells, ions,
soluble nutrients, hormones and carbon
6.1 Respiration and energy
1 Define respiration as the chemical reactions
that break down nutrient molecules in living
cells to release energy.
2 State the uses of energy in the body of
humans: muscle contraction, protein
synthesis, cell division, growth, the passage
of nerve impulses and the maintenance of a
constant body temperature.
3 State the word equation for aerobic
4 Define aerobic respiration as the release
of a relatively large amount of energy
in cells by the breakdown of food
substances in the presence of oxygen.
5 State the equation for aerobic respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2
==> 6CO2 +
6.2 Gas exchange
1 Identify on diagrams and name the larynx,
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and
2 List the features of gas exchange
surfaces in animals.
3 Explain the role of mucus and cilia in
protecting the gas exchange system from pathogens and particles.
4 Describe the effects of tobacco smoke
and its major toxic components (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, smoke
particles) on the gas exchange system.
5 State the differences in composition
between inspired and expired air.
6 Use lime water as a test for carbon dioxide
to investigate the differences in composition
between inspired and expired air.
7 Investigate and describe the effects of
physical activity on rate and depth of
8 Explain the effects of physical
activity on rate and depth of breathing.
B7. Coordination and response
1 Define a hormone as a chemical substance,
produced by a gland, carried by the blood,
which alters the activity of one or more
specific target organs and is then destroyed
by the liver.
2 State the role of the hormone adrenaline
in chemical control of metabolic activity,
including increasing the blood glucose
concentration and pulse rate.
3 Give examples of situations in which
adrenaline secretion increases.
7.2 Tropic responses
1 Define and investigate geotropism (as a
response in which a plant grows towards or
away from gravity) and phototropism (as a
response in which a plant grows towards or
away from the direction from which light is
2 Explain the chemical control of plant
growth by auxins including geotropism
and phototropism in terms of auxins
regulating differential growth.
8.1 Asexual and sexual reproduction
1 Define asexual reproduction as the process
resulting in the production of genetically
identical offspring from one parent.
2 Define sexual reproduction as the
process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote
and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring.
8.2 Sexual reproduction in plants
1 Identify and draw, using a hand lens if
necessary, the sepals, petals, stamens,
anthers, carpels, ovaries and stigmas of one,
locally available, named, insect-pollinated,
dicotyledonous flower, and examine the
pollen grains under a light microscope or in
2 Use a hand lens to identify and
describe the anthers and stigmas of one, locally available, named,
3 State the functions of the sepals, petals,
anthers, stigmas and ovaries.
4 Candidates should expect to apply their
understanding of the flowers they have
studied to unfamiliar flowers.
5 Define pollination as the transfer of pollen
grains from the male part of the plant (anther
of stamen) to the female part of the plant
6 Name the agents of pollination.
7 Compare the different structural
adaptations of insect-pollinated and wind- pollinated flowers.
8 Investigate and state the environmental
conditions that affect germination of seeds:
requirement for water and oxygen, suitable
8.3 Sexual reproduction in humans
1 Identify on diagrams of the male
reproductive system, the testes, scrotum,
sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and
penis, and state the functions of these parts.
2 Compare male and female gametes in
terms of size, numbers and mobility.
3 Identify on diagrams of the female
reproductive system, the ovaries, oviducts,
uterus, cervix and vagina, and state the
functions of these parts.
4 Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of
changes in the uterus and ovaries.
5 Describe fertilisation in terms of the joining
of the nuclei of male gamete (sperm) and the
female gamete (egg).
6 Outline early development of the zygote
simply in terms of the formation of a ball of
cells that becomes implanted in the wall of
7 Indicate the functions of the amniotic
sac and amniotic fluid.
8 Describe the function of the placenta
and umbilical cord in relation to exchange of dissolved nutrients, gases
and excretory products (no structural details are required).
9 Describe the advantages and
disadvantages of breast-feeding compared with bottle-feeding using
10 Describe the methods of transmission
of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),
and the ways in which HIV / AIDS can be
prevented from spreading.
11 Outline how HIV affects the immune
system in a person with HIV / AIDS.
B9. Energy flow in ecosystems
1 State that the Sun is the principal source of
energy input to biological systems.
2 Define the terms:
food chain as a chart showing the flow
of energy (food) from one organism
to the next beginning with a producer
(e.g. mahogany tree . caterpillar .
song bird . hawk),
food web as a network of interconnected
food chains showing the energy flow
through part of an ecosystem,
producer as an organism that makes
its own organic nutrients, usually
using energy from sunlight, through
consumer as an organism that gets its
energy by feeding on other organisms,
herbivore as an animal that gets its
energy by eating plants,
carnivore as an animal that gets its
energy by eating other animals.
3 Describe energy losses between trophic
4 Define the terms: decomposer as an
organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter, ecosystem
as a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment, interacting
together, in a given area e.g. decomposing log or a lake, trophic level as
the position of an organism in a food chain or food web.
5 Explain why food chains usually have fewer
than five trophic levels.
6 Describe the carbon cycle.
7 Discuss the effects of the combustion of
fossil fuels and the cutting down of forests on the oxygen and carbon
dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.
B10. Human influences on the ecosystem
1 List the undesirable effects of deforestation
(to include extinction, loss of soil, flooding,
carbon dioxide build up).
2 Describe the undesirable effects of pollution
water pollution by sewage and chemical
air pollution by greenhouse gases
(carbon dioxide and methane)
contributing to global warming.
3 Describe the undesirable effects
of overuse of fertilisers (to include
eutrophication of lakes and rivers).
4 Discuss the causes and effects on
the environment of acid rain, and the
measures that might be taken to reduce
5 Explain how increases in greenhouse gases
(carbon dioxide and methane) are thought to cause global warming.
6 Describe the need for conservation of:
species and their habitats,
natural resources (limited to water and
non-renewable materials including fossil
CHEMISTRY Curriculum Content core & supplement
syllabus-specification Cambridge IGCSE Physical Science 0653
C1.The particulate nature of matter
See P4.1 and P4.2 for details of common
1 Demonstrate understanding of the terms
atom and molecule.
C2. Experimental techniques
2.1 Methods of separation and purification
1 Describe methods of separation and
purification: filtration, crystallisation,
distillation, fractional distillation.
Suggest suitable purification techniques,
given information about the substances
3 Describe paper chromatography.
4 Interpret simple chromatograms.
C3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Physical and chemical changes
1 Identify physical and chemical changes, and
understand the differences between them.
3.2 Elements, compounds and mixtures
1 Describe the differences between elements,
compounds and mixtures.
2 Demonstrate understanding of the
concepts of element, compound and mixture.
3.3 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
1 Describe the structure of an atom in terms of
electrons and a nucleus containing protons
2 Describe the build-up of electrons in
shells and understand the significance of the noble gas electronic
structures and of valency electrons (the ideas of the distribution of
electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not required).
3 State the relative charges and approximate
relative masses of protons, neutrons and
4 Define proton number and nucleon number.
5 Use proton number and the simple structure
of atoms to explain the basis of the Periodic
Table (see section C9), with special reference
to the elements of proton number 1 to 20.
3.4 Ions and ionic bonds
1 Describe the formation of ions by electron
loss or gain.
2 Describe the formation of ionic bonds
between elements from Groups I and VII.
3 Explain the formation of ionic bonds
between metallic and non-metallic
3.5 Molecules and covalent bonds
1 State that non-metallic elements form non-
ionic compounds using a different type of
bonding called covalent bonding involving
shared pairs of electrons.
2 Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to
represent the sharing of electron pairs to form single covalent bonds in
simple molecules, exemplified by H2, Cl2, H2O,
CH4 and HCl.
1 Use the symbols of the elements to write
the formulae of simple compounds.
2 Deduce the formula of a simple compound
from the relative numbers of atoms present.
3 Deduce the formula of a simple compound
from a model or a diagrammatic
4 Construct and use word equations.
Determine the formula of an ionic
compound from the charges on the ions
6 Construct and use symbolic equations
with state symbols.
7 Deduce the balanced equation for
a chemical reaction, given relevant
C5. Electricity and chemistry
1 State that electrolysis is the chemical effect
of electricity on ionic compounds, causing
them to break up into simpler substances,
2 Use the terms electrode, electrolyte, anode
3 Describe electrolysis in terms of the
and cathode. ions present and the reactions at the
4 Describe the electrode products, using inert
5 Predict the products of the electrolysis
electrodes, in the electrolysis of: of a specified binary compound in the
molten state. molten lead(II) bromide, aqueous copper chloride.
C6. Energy changes in chemical reactions
6.1 Energetics of a reaction
1 Relate the terms exothermic and relate
to the transformation of chemical energy to heat (thermal energy), and
2 Demonstrate understanding that
endothermic to the temperature changes exothermic and endothermic changes
observed during chemical reactions.
C7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Speed of reaction
1 Describe the effect of concentration, particle
size, catalysis and temperature on the
speeds of reactions.
2 Describe a practical method for investigating
the speed of a reaction involving gas
Interpret data obtained from experiments
concerned with speed of reaction.
4 Describe and explain the effects of
temperature and concentration in terms
of collisions between reacting particles
(concept of activation energy will not be
5 Define catalyst as an agent which increases
rate but which remains unchanged.
1 Define oxidation and reduction in terms
of oxygen loss / gain, and identify such reactions from given
C8. Acids, bases and salts
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
1 Describe neutrality and relative acidity and
alkalinity in terms of pH (whole numbers
only) measured using full-range indicator and
2 Describe the characteristic reactions
between acids and metals, bases (including
alkalis) and carbonates.
3 Describe and explain the importance of
controlling acidity in the environment (air,
water and soil).
8.2 Preparation of salts
1 Describe the preparation, separation and
purification of salts using techniques
selected from section C2.1 and the reactions
specified in section C8.1.
2 Suggest a method of making a given salt
from suitable starting material, given appropriate information.
8.3 Identification of ions and gases
1 Use the following tests to identify:
copper(II), iron(II), iron(III) and zinc by
means of aqueous sodium hydroxide
and aqueous ammonia as appropriate.
(Formulae of complex ions are not
carbonate by means of dilute acid and
chloride by means of aqueous silver
nitrate under acidic conditions
carbon dioxide by means of limewater
chlorine by means of damp litmus paper
hydrogen by means of a lighted splint
oxygen by means of a glowing splint.
C9. The Periodic Table
1 Describe the way the Periodic Table classifies
elements in order of proton number.
2 Use the Periodic Table to predict
properties of elements by means of
groups and periods.
9.1 Periodic trends
1 Describe the change from metallic to
character across a period.
2 Describe the relationship between Group
number, number of outer-shell (valency) electrons and
9.2 Group properties
1 Describe lithium, sodium and potassium
in Group I as a collection of relatively soft
metals showing a trend in melting point and
reaction with water.
Predict the properties of other elements in
Group I, given data where appropriate.
3 Describe the trends in properties of
chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII including colour, physical
state and reactions with other halide ions.
4 Predict the properties of other
elements in Group VII, given data where appropriate.
9.3 Transition elements
1 Describe the transition elements as a
collection of metals having high densities,
high melting points and forming coloured
compounds, and which, as elements and
compounds, often act as catalysts.
9.4 Noble gases
1 Describe the noble gases as being
2 Describe the uses of the noble gases in
providing an inert atmosphere, i.e. argon
in lamps, helium for filling balloons.
10.1 Properties of metals
1 Distinguish between metals and non-metals
by their general physical and chemical
2 Identify and interpret diagrams that
represent the structure of an alloy.
3 Explain why metals are often used in the
form of alloys.
10.2 Reactivity series
1 Place in order of reactivity: potassium,
sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron,
hydrogen and copper, by reference to the
reactions, if any, of the elements with
water or steam,
dilute hydrochloric acid (except for alkali
Compare the reactivity series to the
tendency of a metal to form its positive
ion, illustrated by its reaction, if any, with:
the aqueous ions of other listed
the oxides of the other listed metals.
3 Deduce an order of reactivity from a given
set of experimental results.
10.3 Extraction of metals
1 Describe the use of carbon in the extraction
of copper from copper oxide.
Describe the essential reactions in the
extraction of iron in the blast furnace.
3 Relate the method of extraction of a
metal from its ore to its position in the reactivity series limited to
Group I and II metals, aluminium, iron and copper.
C11. Air and water
1 Describe a chemical test for water.
2 Describe and explain, in outline, the
purification of the water supply by filtration
3 Describe the composition of clean air as
being a mixture of 78% nitrogen, 21%
oxygen and small quantities of noble gases,
water vapour and carbon dioxide.
4 Explain why the proportion of carbon
dioxide in air is increasing, and why this is important.
5 Describe the formation of carbon dioxide:
as a product of complete combustion of
as a product of respiration,
as a product of the reaction between an
acid and a carbonate.
6 Describe the rusting of iron in terms of a
reaction involving air and water, and simple
methods of rust prevention, including paint
and other coatings to exclude oxygen.
C12. Organic chemistry
1 Recall coal, natural gas and petroleum as
fossil fuels that produce carbon dioxide on
2 Understand the essential principle of
fractional distillation in terms of differing boiling points (ranges) of
fractions related to molecular size and intermolecular attractive
3 Name methane as the main constituent of
4 Describe petroleum as a mixture of
hydrocarbons and its separation into useful
fractions by fractional distillation.
5 State the use of:
refinery gas for bottled gas for heating
gasoline fraction for fuel (petrol) in cars,
diesel oil/gas oil for fuel in diesel engines.
1 Describe the properties of alkanes
(exemplified by methane) as being generally
unreactive, except in terms of burning.
2 State that the products of complete
combustion of hydrocarbons, exemplified by
methane, are carbon dioxide and water.
3 Name, identify and draw the structures of
methane, ethane and ethene.
4 Recognise alkanes and alkenes from
their chemical names or from molecular
5 Describe the manufacture of alkenes by
6 Distinguish between alkanes and alkenes
by the addition reaction of alkenes with bromine.
Notes for use in qualitative analysis
Appendix - Summary of test results for chemical identification
Tests for anions - anion test and results
carbonate (CO32) add dilute acid effervescence, carbon dioxide
acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add
aqueous silver nitrate
add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then
aluminium foil; warm carefully
acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add
aqueous barium nitrate
Tests for aqueous cations
cation effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH(aq)) and effect of aqueous ammonia (NH3(aq))
NaOH(aq) - ammonium (NH4+) ammonia produced on warming
NaOH(aq) - copper(II) (Cu2+) light blue ppt., insoluble in excess
NH3(aq) - copper(II) (Cu2+) light blue ppt., soluble in excess,
giving a dark blue solution
NaOH(aq)/NH3(aq) - iron(II) (Fe2+) green ppt., insoluble in excess
NaOH(aq)/NH3(aq) - iron(III) (Fe3+) red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess
NaOH(aq)/NH3(aq) - zinc (Zn2+) white ppt., soluble in excess, giving a
Tests for gases
gas test and test result
ammonia (NH3) turns damp red litmus paper blue
carbon dioxide (CO2) turns lime water milky
chlorine (Cl2) bleaches damp litmus paper
hydrogen (H2) pops with a lighted splint
oxygen (O2) relights a glowing splint
PHYSICS Curriculum Content core & supplement
syllabus-specification Cambridge IGCSE Physical Science 0653
1 Define speed and calculate speed from
/ total distance
2 Plot and interpret a speed/time graph and a
3 Recognise from the shape of a speed/time
graph when a body is
moving with constant speed,
moving with changing speed.
Recognise linear motion for which the
acceleration is constant and calculate the
5 Recognise motion for which the
acceleration is not constant.
6 Calculate the area under a speed / time
graph to work out the distance travelled for
motion with constant acceleration.
P2. Matter and Forces
2.1 Mass and weight
1 State that weight is a force.
2 Know that the Earth is the source of a
3 Describe, and use the concept of, weight
as the effect of a gravitational field on a
1 Describe an experiment to determine the
density of a liquid and of a regularly shaped solid and make the
using the equation density = mass / volume or d = m / v
2 Describe the determination of the
density of an irregularly shaped solid by the method of displacement,
and make the necessary calculation.
2.3 Effects of forces
1 Know that a force is measured in newtons
2 Describe how forces may change the size,
shape and motion of a body.
3 Plot and interpret extension/load graphs.
4 State Hookes Law and recall and use the
force = constant Χ extension (F = k x).
5 Recognise the significance of the
term limit of proportionality for an
extension / load graph.
P3. Energy, Work and Power
1 Know that energy and work are measured
in joules (J), and power in watts (W).
2 Demonstrate understanding that an object
may have energy due to its motion (kinetic) or its position (potential),
and that energy may be transferred and stored.
3 Recall and use the expressions K.E. = ½ mv2
and P.E. = mgh
4 Give and identify examples of energy
in different forms, including kinetic,
gravitational, chemical, nuclear, thermal
(heat), electrical, light and sound.
5 Give and identify examples of the
conversion of energy from one form to another, and of its transfer from
one place to another.
6 Apply the principle of energy
conservation to simple examples.
3.2 Energy resources
1 Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable
sources of energy.
2 Know that the Sun is the source of
energy for all our energy resources except
geothermal and nuclear.
3 Describe how electricity or other useful
forms of energy may be obtained from:
chemical energy stored in fuel,
water, including the energy stored in
waves, in tides, and in water behind
heat and light from the Sun (solar cells
4 Recall and use the equation: %
efficiency = 100 x useful energy output / energy input
5 Give advantages and disadvantages of
each method in terms of reliability, scale and environmental impact.
6 Demonstrate a qualitative understanding
1 Relate (without calculation) work done to
the magnitude of a force and the distance
2 Describe energy changes in terms of work
3 Recall and use W = F Χ d
1 Relate (without calculation) power to work
done and time taken, using appropriate
2 Recall and use the equation P = E / t in
P4. Simple Kinetic Molecular Model of Matter
4.1 States of matter
1 State the distinguishing properties of solids,
liquids and gases.
4.2 Molecular model
1 Describe qualitatively the molecular
structure of solids, liquids and gases.
2 Relate the properties of solids, liquids and
gases to the forces and distances between
molecules and to the motion of the
3 Interpret the temperature of a gas in terms
of the motion of its molecules.
1 Describe evaporation in terms of the
escape of more-energetic molecules from
the surface of a liquid.
2 Relate evaporation to the consequent
P5. Matter and Thermal Properties
1 Describe qualitatively the thermal
expansion of solids, liquids and gases.
2 Identify and explain some of the everyday
applications and consequences of thermal
3 State the meaning of melting point and
P6.Transfer of thermal energy
1 Describe experiments to demonstrate the
properties of good and bad conductors of
2 Explain heat transfer in solids in terms of
1 Recognise convection as the main method
of heat transfer in liquids and gases.
2 Relate convection in fluids to density
3 Describe experiments to illustrate
convection in liquids and gases.
1 Recognise radiation as the method of heat
transfer that does not require a medium to
2 Describe experiments to show the
properties of good and bad emitters and good and bad absorbers of
3 Identify infra-red radiation as the part of the
electromagnetic spectrum often involved in
heat transfer by radiation.
6.4 Consequences of energy transfer
1 Identify and explain some of the
everyday applications and consequences of conduction, convection and
7.1 General wave properties
1 Describe what is meant by wave motion as
illustrated by vibration in ropes and springs
and by experiments using water waves.
2 Distinguish between transverse and
longitudinal waves and give suitable
3 State the meaning of and use the terms
speed, frequency, wavelength and
4 Recall and use the equation v = f λ
5 Identify how a wave can be reflected off a
plane barrier and can change direction as its
8.1 Reflection of light
1 Describe the formation and give the
characteristics of an optical image by a
2 Perform simple constructions,
measurements and calculations based on reflections in plane mirrors.
3 Use the law
angle of incidence = angle of reflection.
8.2 Refraction of light
1 Describe an experimental demonstration of
the refraction of light.
Identify and describe internal and total
internal reflection using ray diagrams.
3 Describe, using ray diagrams, the passage
of light through parallel-sided transparent
material, indicating the angle of incidence i
and angle of refraction r.
4 State the meaning of critical angle.
5 Describe the action of optical fibres
particularly in medicine and communications technology.
P9. Electromagnetic spectrum
1 Describe the main features of the
2 State that all electromagnetic waves travel
with the same high speed in vacuo.
3 Describe the role of electromagnetic waves
radio and television communications
satellite television and telephones
electrical appliances, remote controllers
for televisions and intruder alarms
medicine and security (X-rays).
4 Demonstrate an awareness of safety issues
regarding the use of microwaves and X-rays.
1 Describe the production of sound by
Describe transmission of sound in air in
terms of compressions and rarefactions.
3 State the approximate human range of
4 Demonstrate understanding that a medium
is needed to transmit sound waves.
5 Describe an experiment to determine the
speed of sound in air.
6 Relate the loudness and pitch of sound
waves to amplitude and frequency.
7 State the order of magnitude of the speed
of sound in air, liquids and solids.
8 Describe how the reflection of sound may
produce an echo.
11.1 Electrical quantities
1 Demonstrate understanding of current,
potential difference and resistance, and use
with their appropriate units.
2 Use and describe the use of an ammeter
and a voltmeter.
11.2 Electric charge
1 Describe simple experiments to show the
production and detection of electrostatic
2 State that there are positive and negative
3 State that unlike charges attract and that
like charges repel.
4 Describe an electric field as a region in
which an electric charge experiences a
5 Distinguish between electrical conductors
and insulators and give typical examples.
11.3 Current and potential difference
1 State that current is related to the flow of
2 Use the term potential difference (p.d.) to
describe what drives the current between
two points in a circuit.
1 State that resistance = p.d. / current and
understand qualitatively how changes in
p.d. or resistance affect current.
Recall and use the equation R = V / I.
3 Relate (without calculation) the resistance
of a wire to its length and to its diameter.
4 Describe an experiment to determine
resistance using a voltmeter and an
11.5 Electrical energy
1 Recall and use the equations
P = I
V and E = I V t
11.6 Dangers of electricity
1 Identify electrical hazards including
overheating of cables,
2 Demonstrate understanding of the use of
P12. Electric circuits
12.1 Circuit diagrams
1 Draw and interpret circuit diagrams
containing sources, switches, resistors
(fixed and variable), lamps, ammeters,
voltmeters and fuses.
12.2 Series and parallel circuits
1 Demonstrate understanding that the
current at every point in a series circuit is
2 Recall and use the fact that the sum of the p.d.s across the components in a series
circuit is equal to the total p.d. across the
3 Calculate the combined resistance of two
or more resistors in series.
4 State that, for a parallel circuit, the current
from the source is larger than the current in
5 Recall and use the fact that the
current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate
branches of a parallel circuit.
6 State that the combined resistance of
two resistors in parallel is less than that of
either resistor by itself.
7 State the advantages of connecting
lamps in parallel in a lighting circuit.
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