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Syllabus content

sections in bold are higher only and [reference links to pages within this site]

 For quizzes: F = UK Foundation-easier and H = UK Higher-harder!

top1. Principles of chemistry

  • 1(a) Atoms: Candidates should be able to:

    • recall simple experiments leading to the idea of the smallness of particles and to their motion including dilution of coloured solutions, diffusion experiments.

    • define an element, and an atom as the particle of which elements are composed

    • recall that atomic masses are the masses of atoms relative to 12C = 12 and are referred to as relative atomic masses

    • understand a mole of atoms as a number of atoms equal to the Avogadro constant.

  • 1(b) Atomic Structure: Candidates should be able to:
    • recall the structure of an atom in terms of a central nucleus of protons and neutrons, surrounded by orbiting electrons
    • state the relative mass and relative charge of a proton, neutron and electron
    • explain the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass (A)
    • calculate the relative atomic mass of an element from the relative abundances of its isotope
    • recall the electron configuration of the first twenty elements of the Periodic Table
    • relate periodicity to electronic configuration
    • relate similarity of electron configuration to similarity of the chemical properties of the Group 1 elements (2.1; 2.8.1; 2.8.8.1) and the Group 7 elements (2.7; 2.8.7; 2.8.18.7; 2.8.18.18.7)
    • link electron configuration and ionic charge
    • appreciate the importance of the noble gas electron configurations (2; 2.8; 2.8.8; 2.8.18.8; 2.8.18.18.8).
  • 1(c) Relative formula masses and molar volumes: Candidates should be able to:

    • calculate the relative formula masses (Mr) from relative atomic masses (Ar)

    • recall that the mole is an amount of substance which can also be expressed as the Avogadro constant number of particles (atoms, molecules, formulae, ions or electrons) or as a relative formula mass in grams

    • understand the significance of the molar volume of a gas

    • use the molar volume of a gas at stp and rtp

  • top1(d) Chemical formulae and chemical equations: Candidates should be able to:

    • recall experiments to find the formulae of simple compounds such as copper(II) oxide and water

    • recall that the formulae of other compounds have been obtained experimentally

    • apply the idea of a mole of atoms in finding the chemical formulae

    • calculate empirical formulae and molecular formulae

    • calculate percentage yield

    • recall quantitative experiments, including direct mass determination, the use of standard solutions and the measurement of volumes in reactions involving gases, to determine the relative numbers of particles involved in chemical reactions

    • write word equations to represent the reactions studied in the syllabus

    • write chemical equations that do not require balancing to represent the reactions studied in this syllabus

    • use the state symbols (l), (s), (g) and (aq) are used in chemical equations to represent liquids, solids, gases and aqueous solutions respectively.

    • write balanced chemical equations to represent the reactions studied in this syllabus

  • 1(e) Ionic compounds: Candidates should be able to: 
    • describe the formation of ions by gain or loss of electrons
    • link electronic configuration and ionic charge
    • use the dot and cross model to explain the formation of an ionic compound by electron transfer, limited to combinations of Li+, Na+, Mg2+, F-, Cl- and O2- 
    • recall that
      • ionic compounds such as NaCl and MgO have high melting points and high boiling points because of strong electrostatic forces between ions
      • MgO has a much higher melting/boiling point than NaCl because of the higher charges on its ions
    • recall that there is a strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, called ionic bonding, and this extends throughout the ionic structure
    • topdescribe an ionic crystal as a giant three-dimensional ionic structure held together by attraction between oppositely charged ions.
  • 1(f) Covalent compounds: Candidates should be able to:
    • describe how covalent bonds involve the sharing of electron pairs between outer electron shells of atoms and these bonds are strong
    • recall that the covalent bond is the result of attraction between the bonding pair of electrons and the nuclei of the atoms involved in the bond
    • use dot and cross diagrams to represent single covalent bonds in hydrogen, water, methane and hydrogen chloride
    • describe the electron arrangement in more complex covalent molecules such as nitrogen, ethane and carbon dioxide
    • describe the shapes of carbon dioxide, methane
    • describe and explain the physical properties of a typical simple covalent compound e.g. appreciate that weak intermolecular forces result in low melting points and boiling points
    • recall that diamond and graphite are allotropes of carbon
    • describe and explain the giant molecular covalent crystal structures of diamond and graphite and relate their structures to their use - graphite as a lubricant and diamond in cutting
    • understand that atoms in diamond and graphite are held together by strong covalent bonds which result in high sublimation points.
  • 1(g) Electrolysis: Candidates should be able to:
    • recall simple experiments to distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes
    • understand an electric current as a flow of electrons or ions
    • recall the charges on common ions met in the syllabus
    • recall that one Faraday represents one mole of electrons
    • calculate the amounts of the products of the electrolysis of molten salts and aqueous solutions
    • write ionic half-equations representing the reaction at each electrode during electrolysis
    • recognise oxidation and reduction as the loss and gain of electrons respectively
  • 1(h) Metallic crystals: Candidates should be able to: 

top2. Chemistry of the elements

  • 2(a) The Periodic Table: Candidates should be able to:

    • appreciate the Periodic Table as the arrangement of elements in a table according to atomic number

    • classify elements as 'metals' and 'non-metals' on the basis of their properties and be aware that some elements exhibit a mixture of the properties of metals and non-metals

    • recall families of elements including the alkali metals (Group 1), the alkaline earth metals (Group 2) and the halogens (Group 7)

    • describe the correlation of charges of ions with the position of an element in the Periodic Table

    • recall the relative reactivities of the elements in groups 1, 2 and 7

    • recall the noble gases (Group 0) as a family of inert gases

    • understand the relationship between group number, number of outer electrons and metallic-non metallic character across the periods

  • 2(b) The Group 1 elements lithium, sodium and potassium: Candidates should be able to:
    • describe the action of these elements on water
    • recognise that the reactivities of these elements with water provides a basis for their recognition as a family of elements
    • discuss the simple physical and chemical properties of the hydroxides, halides, sulphates, nitrates and carbonates of these elements in terms of general patterns of behaviour
    • make predictions about other elements and their compounds in this group.
  • top2(c) The Group 2 elements magnesium and calcium: Candidates should be able to: 
  • 2(d) The Group 7 elements chlorine, bromine and iodine: Candidates should be able to: 
    • recall the physical states and colours of the elements at room temperature
    • recall the inter-conversion of halogen and halide ion
    • understand the difference between hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid
    • describe the properties of solutions of hydrogen chloride in water and in methylbenzene
    • describe the laboratory preparation of chlorine from hydrochloric acid
    • state a simple chemical test for chlorine   
    • describe similarities in the chemistry of these elements which establish them as a family of elements
    • recall that a more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive halogen from a solution of one of its salts
    • make predictions about the properties of other halogens
  • 2(e) Oxygen and oxides: Candidates should be able to: 
    • recall the gases present in air and their approximate percentage by volume
    • recall the industrial extraction of oxygen, by fractional distillation, from liquid air
    • describe the reactions with oxygen in air of magnesium, iron, copper, carbon, sulphur and methane
    • recall how to determine the percentage by volume of oxygen in the air from at least one of the above reactions  
    • understand oxidation and reduction as the addition and removal of oxygen respectively
    • recall the acidic nature of sulphur dioxide and its reactions with water and alkalis
    • describe the laboratory preparation of carbon dioxide  
    • recall uses of carbon dioxide limited to carbonating drinks and in fire extinguishers
    • recall the reaction of nitrogen with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide
    • recall the conditions under which iron rusts
    • describe how rusting of iron and mild steel may be prevented by grease, oil, paint, plastic and galvanising
    • understand the reduction of oxides in terms of the reactivity of elements.
  • 2(f) Sulphur and nitrogen: Candidates should be able to: 
    • describe the physical characteristics of sulphur including its allotropes
    • describe the reaction of sulphites with dilute acids
    • recall the industrial extraction of nitrogen, by fractional distillation, from liquid air
    • recall the importance of the inert nature of nitrogen in protecting food
    • describe the laboratory preparation of ammonia
    • recall the physical properties of ammonia
    • describe  the simple chemistry of aqueous ammonia, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate
  • 2(g) Hydrogen: Candidates should be able to: 
    • recall the effect of dilute hydrochloric and dilute sulphuric acids on magnesium, aluminium, zinc and iron
    • describe the laboratory preparation of hydrogen
    • describe the combustion of hydrogen to form water
    • describe a simple chemical test for water
    • describe the combustion of hydrogen with oxygen to form water
    • describe a physical test to show if water is pure
    • describe the reaction of hydrogen with chlorine.  
  • 2(h) The transition metals iron and copper: Candidates should be able to: 
    • describe the action of steam, hydrogen chloride and chlorine on iron
    • topdiscuss the formation of iron(II) and iron(III) hydroxides from salt solutions
    • describe the redox reaction of nitric acid on copper
    • describe the simple chemical and physical properties of copper(II) oxide, hydroxide, nitrate, sulphate, carbonate, and chloride
    • recall the existence of copper(I) compounds such as copper(I) oxide
    • describe the reaction of copper(II) ions with ammonia to form the complex ion [Cu(H20)2(NH3)4]2+ 
    • understand that the study of these two metals and their compounds illustrates typical transition metal properties of variable valency, formation of coloured compounds and formation of complex ions. 
  • 2.(i) Reactivity series: Candidates should be able to:
    • understand that the reactivity of elements can be used to order elements
    • relate the pattern in the reactions of the elements and their compounds which are specified elsewhere in the syllabus to a reactivity series
    • recall reactions used to establish the following order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, (hydrogen) and copper
    • establish position within a reactivity series using displacement reactions involving metals and their compounds in aqueous solutions.
    • describe the sacrificial protection of iron and mild steel in terms of the reactivity series
  • 2.(j) Preparing and analysing: Candidates should be able to:
    • recall simple tests for the cations 
      • Li+, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ using flame tests
      • NH4+ using aqueous sodium hydroxide and identifying the ammonia evolved
      • topCu2+, Fe2+ and Fe2+ using aqueous sodium hydroxide
    • recall simple tests for the anions
      • chloride, bromide and iodide using dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate solution
      • sulphate using dilute hydrochloric acid and barium chloride solution
      • sulphite using dilute hydrochloric acid and identifying the sulphur dioxide evolved
      • carbonate using dilute hydrochloric acid and identifying the carbon dioxide evolved
    • recall simple tests for the gases: ammonia, carbon dioxide, chlorine, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur dioxide
    • GCSE Revision Quiz on Qualitative Analysis - chemical test methods and deductions

    • recall the general rules that describe the solubility of common types of salt in water
      • all common sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are soluble
      • all nitrates are soluble
      • common sulphates are soluble except barium and calcium
      • common carbonates and hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and ammonium
    • understand that insoluble salts can be formed as precipitates by the reaction of suitable reagents in solution
    • use information on solubility to predict methods of preparing salts

top3. Organic chemistry

  • 3(a) Alkanes: Candidates should be able to:
    • recall that alkanes as saturated hydrocarbons
    • explain the terms homologous series and general formula
    • recall that, in alkanes, the four bonds on each carbon atom are directed to the corners of a tetrahedron
    • draw displayed formulae for alkanes
    • explain the term isomerism
    • draw displayed formulae of alkanes containing up to five carbon atoms where they exist, and name them (including isomers)
    • describe the chlorination of methane
  • 3(b) Alkenes: Candidates should be able to:
    • recall that alkenes as unsaturated hydrocarbons
    • recall that, in alkenes, the three bonds on each carbon atom are directed to the corners of an equilateral triangle
    • draw displayed formulae for alkenes up to 4 carbon atoms in a molecule
    • describe the addition of halogens to alkenes, including the decolorising of bromine water as a test for alkenes
    • (e) recall that e1hane-l,2-diol is made from ethene.
  • 3(c) Ethanol: Candidates should be able to:
    • recall the industrial preparation by
      • by fermentation of sugars
      • passing ethene and steam over a heated phosphoric acid catalyst
    • evaluate the factors which are relevant to the choice of method to be used in the manufacture of ethanol e.g. the relative availability of sugar cane and crude oil
    • describe the reaction of ethanol with sodium
    • describe the oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid
    • describe the dehydration of ethanol to ethene
    • describe the reaction of ethanol with carboxylic acids, such as ethanoic acid, to form esters
    • recall that many esters have distinct pleasant smells

top4. Physical chemistry

This section deals with some of the physical aspects of chemistry.

  • 4(a) States of matter: Candidates should be able to:

    • recall that there are three States of matter; gas, liquid and solid

    • describe the interconversion of gas, liquid and solid

    • understand the differences between mixtures and compounds

    • recall techniques for separation including distillation, fractional distillation, filtration, crystallisation, paper chromatography

    • discuss the states of matter in terms of the kinetic theory

    • explain how heats of vaporisation can be used to compare the energy needed to separate the same number of different particles.

  • 4(b) Acidity, alkalinity and neutralisation: Candidates should be able to: 
    • recall how to test for acidity and alkalinity using suitable indicators
    • recall the colours produced by the following indicators in acidic solution and alkaline solution: litmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange and universal indicator
    • describe the pH scale, running from 0-14, as a scale of acidity and alkalinity
    • describe solutions which have a pH value less than 7 as acidic and those with a pH value of more than 7 as alkaline solutions with a pH of 7 are neutra1
    • define acids and alkalis in terms of proton transfer
    • describe how to prepare salts using neutralisation reactions including the reaction of excess metal oxide/metal carbonate and dilute acid.
    • describe how to carry out acid-alkali titrations in which concentrations are given in mol dm-3 
    • carry out calculations involving solutions whose concentrations are given in mol dm-3 
    • topexplain the terms 'weak' and 'strong' when applied to acids and alkalis in terms of dissociation
  • 4(c) Energetics: Candidates should be able to: 
    • recall that chemical reactions are accompanied by energy changes, which in solution may be detected as a temperature change
    • recall that processes may be described as exothermic when heat is given out and endothermic when heat is absorbed
    • recall that energy changes accompanying combustion, solution, neutralisation
    • explain the term 'enthalpy change'
    • recall the use of H notation
    • recall the Principle of Conservation of Energy
    • recall that the breaking of bonds is endothermic and that the making of bonds is exothermic
    • understand that heats of reaction are the result of energy changes when bonds are broken and formed
    • draw energy profiles for exothermic and endothermic reactions
    • use average bond dissociation energies to calculate the energy change during a simple chemical reaction.
  • 4(d) Rates of Reactions: Candidates should be able to: 
    • describe the effect  of surface area, concentration, temperature and the use of a catalyst
    • describe experiments to investigate the effects of temperature, concentration and surface area of a solid on the rate of a reaction
    • explain the effects of particle size, concentration and temperature in terms of effective collisions using a simple kinetic model
  • 4(e) Equilibria in Chemistry: Candidates should be able to: 
    • discuss the idea of a simple reversible reaction, such as the hydration of heated anhydrous copper(II) sulphate or the effect of heating ammonium chloride
    • describe other reversible reactions
    • explain the concept of dynamic equilibrium and the use of the symbol in equations
    • predict the effects of changing the conditions (pressure and temperature) on reversible reactions including the industrial reactions outlined in section 5d

top5. Chemistry in society

  • 5(a) The extraction and uses of metals: Candidates should be able to: 
    • describe and explain the extraction of aluminium from purified aluminium oxide by electrolysis , including: use of molten cryolite, need to replace the positive electrodes and cost of the electricity as a major consideration
    • write ionic half-equations for the reactions at the electrodes in aluminium extraction
    • describe the reaction of carbon with metal oxides
    • recall how iron is extracted from iron ore in a blast furnace using the raw materials: iron oxide ore, coke, limestone and air
    • describe and explain the main reactions involved in the extraction of iron, including the role of carbon dioxide and limestone
    • describe the extraction of zinc by both electrolysis and reduction by carbon monoxide
    • describe the extraction of chromium by the Thermite process
    • explain how the methods of extraction of the metals in this section to their positions in the reactivity series
    • describe and explain the purification of copper by electrolysis using impure copper as the positive electrode, pure copper as the negative electrode in a solution of copper(II) sulphate
    • recall some important uses of the metals in this section and relate the uses to specified properties
  • 5(b) Natural oil and gas: Candidates should be able to: 
    • recall that crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons
    • describe how crude oil is separated into hydrocarbon fractions by fractional distillation
    • recall that the fractions obtained from crude oil are refinery gases, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and bitumen
    • describe the physical properties and uses of the different fractions
    • recall that incomplete combustion of fuels mat produce carbon monoxide
    • recall that carbon monoxide is poisonous because it reduces the capacity of blood to carry oxygen
    • recall that fractional distillation of crude oil produces more long-chain hydrocarbons and fewer short-chain than required
    • describe how long-chain hydrocarbons are cracked to give more short-chain hydrocarbons
    • topdiscuss the damage to the environment that may arise from the spillage of crude oil and the release of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere.
  • 5(c) Synthetic polymers: Candidates should be able to: 
    • recall that a polymer is formed by joining up many small molecules of monomer
    • recall that polymers may be made by two different processes, addition and condensation
    • recall that ethene is used in the manufacture of the addition polymer poly( ethene) (polyethene)
    • describe the formation of poly( ethene ) and draw its structure, showing the repeating unit
    • apply the principles of addition polymerisation to other addition polymers poly(propene) and poly(chloroethene)
    • recall the uses of polymers: poly(ethene), poly(propene) and poly(chloroethene) and be able to link the properties to its use
    • recall the types of monomers used in the manufacture of the condensation polymer nylon
    • describe the formation of nylon and draw its structure in a block diagram format
    • apply the principles of condensation polymerisation to other condensation polymers, including Terylene
  • 5(d) The manufacture of some important chemicals: Candidates should be able to: 
    • recall how nitrogen, from air, and hydrogen, from natural gas or the cracking of hydrocarbons are used in the manufacture of ammonia
    • recall the conditions used in the Haber process: temperature of about 450oC, a pressure of about 200 atmospheres, an iron catalyst, and how the ammonia produced is liquified and any unused hydrogen and nitrogen gases are recycled through the reactor
    • recall the important uses of ammonia, including the manufacture of nitric acid and NPK fertilisers
    • topdescribe the industrial manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia
    • recall the sources of sulphur
    • recall the raw materials used in the industrial manufacture of sulphuric acid
    • describe the industrial manufacture of sulphuric acid by the Contact Process, including essential conditions
    • recall important uses of sulphuric acid, to illustrate its economic importance
    • understand that sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are pollutant gases which contribute to acid rain
    • discuss some of the problems associated with acid rain
    • describe the industrial manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine) in a diaphragm cell
    • recall some important uses of sodium hydroxide (manufacture of soap, paper, ceramics) and chlorine (in bleach and sterilising water supplies)

Some further guidance on the specification content  

Calculations

topCandidates will be expected to perform a range of calculations as part of the specification. These will include:

          • finding empirical and molecular formulae from experimental data

(c) doc bclick me!5. Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

(c) doc bclick me!8. Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

          calculating percentage purity and percentage yield

(c) doc bclick me!14. Other calculations e.g. % purity, % percentage & theoretical yield,

          • mass/mass and mass/volume calculations i.e. calculating the mass of solid or volume of gas in a chemical equation, given data about the mass or volume of another reactant

(c) doc bclick me!7. Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass).

          • using Avogadro’s Law to equate the ratio of the number of moles and the volumes of reacting gases

(c) doc bclick me!10. Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

          topstandard acid / alkali titrations

(c) doc bclick me!12. Volumetric titration calculations e.g. acid-alkali titrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

          conversion of gdm-3 to moldm-3 for solutions

(c) doc bclick me!11. Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

          electrolysis calculations involving the expression Q = It and Faraday constant

(c) doc bclick me!13. Electrolysis products calculations (negative cathode and positive anode products)

          bond energy calculations

(c) doc bclick me!15. Energy transfers in physical/chemical changes - section on bond energies

 

top“The simple physical and chemical properties of compounds of Group 1 and Group 2 elements”

Candidates will be expected to know the following information:

          • the solubility of the hydroxides, halides, sulfates, nitrates and carbonates of the elements of Group 1

          • Group 1 oxides react with water to form solutions containing hydroxide ions

          • Group 1 hydroxides dissolve in water to form alkaline solutions

          the solubility of the hydroxides, sulfates, nitrates and carbonates of the elements of Group 2

          Group 2 oxides react with water to form hydroxides

          Group 2 hydroxides are slightly soluble in water, forming alkaline solutions

          the thermal decomposition of carbonates of Group 2 elements

 

top“The simple physical and chemical properties of copper(II) compounds”

Candidates will be expected to know the following information:

          • the color and solubility of copper(II) oxide, hydroxide, chloride, sulfate(IV, nitrate and carbonate

          the thermal decomposition of copper(II) carbonate and nitrate

          • the reduction of copper(II) oxide to copper

 

top“Physical properties and simple chemistry of ammonia and its compounds”

Candidates will be expected to know the following information:

          • the solubility of ammonia in water; and that the solution formed is alkaline

          • a simple test for ammonia (using damp litmus)

          • that ammonia is colourless, less dense than air and has a pungent odour

          • the reaction of ammonium ions with an alkali, such as sodium hydroxide, to produce ammonia

          • ammonium salts are soluble

top

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