Doc Brown's Chemistry Unofficial Support for

Zimbabwe Advanced level chemistry syllabus 9189 specification

ZIMBABWE SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

(ZIMSEC A Level chemistry examinations 2013-2017)

 general [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL Chemistry] index

general [INORGANIC Chemistry revision notes] index

general [ORGANIC Chemistry revision notes] index

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PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)


1. ATOMS, MOLECULES and STOICHIOMETRY (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) define the terms relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, based on the carbon-12 scale

(b) define the term mole in terms of the Avogadro constant

(c) analyse mass spectra in terms of isotopic abundances and molecular fragments [knowledge of the working of the mass spectrometer is not required]

(d) calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the relative abundances of its isotopes, or its mass spectrum

(e) define the terms empirical and molecular formulae

(f) calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data or composition by mass

(g) write and/or construct balanced equations

(h) perform calculations, including use of the mole concept, involving:

(i) reacting masses (from formulae and equations)

(ii) volumes of gasses (e.g. in the burning of hydrocarbons)

(iii) volumes and concentrations of solutions

(i) deduce stoichiometric relationship from calculations such as those in (h)

What is relative atomic mass?, relative isotopic mass & calculating relative atomic mass

Mass spectrometry - introduction (including determination of relative atomic mass, molecular mass)

Calculating relative formula/molecular mass of a compound or element molecule

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law - volumes of gases formed in reactions

Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

How to do acid-alkali titration calculations, diagrams of apparatus, details of procedures

How to write word & balance symbol equations, work out formula and name compounds


2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) identify and describe protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative charges and relative masses

(b) deduce the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields

(c) describe the distribution of mass and charges within an atom

(d) deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers (and charge)

(e) (i) describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton number and nucleon number.

(ii) distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of neutrons present

(f) describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals.

(g) describe the shapes of s and p orbitals

(h) state the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number (and charge)

(i) (i) explain and use the term ionisation energy

(ii) explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements

(iii) explain the trends in ionisation energies across a period and down a group of the Periodic Table (see also Section 9)

(j) deduce the electronic configurations of elements from successive ionisation energy data.

(k) interpret successive ionisation energy data of an element in terms of the position of that element within the Periodic Table.

Atomic structure, sub-atomic particles, Bohr model and isotopes

Electronic Structure of atoms and ionisation energies (7 sections on 3 linked pages) eg

Introduction to s p d f orbitals and electronic energy levels and order of filling of quantum levels

Working out electron configurations for atoms, setting them out in the 'modern' periodic table (also sections on ions and oxidation state)

Hydrogen spectrum, emission/absorption spectra, ionisation energies, evidence for quantum levels

Periodic Table - physical property trends in Period 3 (including ionisation energy)

Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20. Period 1 to start of Period 4

Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 38. Period 1 to start of Period 5

Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 96. Period 1 to start of Period 7

Periodic Table - important trends down a group including ionisation energy


3. CHEMICAL BONDING (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) describe ionic (electrovalent) bonding, as in sodium chloride and magnesium oxide, including the use of 'dot-and-cross' diagrams

(b) describe, including the use of 'dot-and-cross' diagrams,

(i) covalent bonding, as in hydrogen; oxygen; chlorine; hydrogen chloride; carbon dioxide; methane; ethene

(ii) co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding, as in the formation of the ammonium ion and in the Al2Cl6 molecule

(c) explain the shapes of, and bond angles in, molecules by using the quantitative model of electron-pair repulsion (including lone pairs), using as simple examples: BF3 (trigonal); CO2 (linear); CH4 (tetrahedral); NH3 (pyramidal); H2O (non-linear); SF6 (octahedral)

(Teachers may use the concept of hybridisation on shapes of some molecules but this will not be examined).

(d) describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overlap, giving σ and π bonds

(e) explain the shape of, and bond angles in, the ethene and benzene molecules in terms of σ and π bonds (see also Section 10.1)

(f) predict the shapes of, and bond angles in, molecules analogous to those specified in (c) and (e)

(g) describe hydrogen bonding, using ammonia and water as simple examples of molecules containing N-H and O-H groups

(h) explain the terms bond energy, bond length and bond polarity and use them to compare the reactivities of covalent bonds [see also 5b(ii)]

(i) describe intermolecular forces (Van der Waals' forces), based on permanent and induced dipoles, as in CHCl3(I); Br2(I) and the liquid noble gases

(j) describe metallic bonding in terms of a lattice of positive ions surrounded by mobile electrons

(k) describe, interpret and/or predict the effect of different types of bonding (ionic bonding; covalent bonding; hydrogen bonding, other intermolecular interactions; metallic bonding) on the physical properties of substances

(l) deduce the type of bonding present from given information

(m) show understanding of chemical reactions in terms of energy transfers associated with the breaking and making of chemical bonds

Chemical bonding: Introduction and index (6 linked pages) eg

Chemical bonding: Ionic Bonding – compounds and properties

Chemical bonding: Covalent Bonding – small simple molecules and their properties

Chemical bonding: Covalent Bonding: macromolecules and giant covalent structures

Chemical bonding: Metallic Bonding - structure and properties of metals

Intermolecular forces/bonding - an introduction

Intermolecular forces/bonding - some further case studies

Intermolecular forces/bonding - boiling point plots for six organic homologous series

Intermolecular forces/bonding - hydrogen bonding in molecules

Molecule shapes and bond angles (3 linked pages, inorganic/organic molecules, complex ions)


4. STATES OF MATTER (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) state the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory as applied to an ideal gas

(b) explain qualitatively in terms of intermolecular forces and molecular size:

(i) the conditions necessary for a gas to approach ideal behaviour

(ii) the limitations of ideality at very high pressures and very low temperatures

(c) state and use the general gas equation pV = nRT in calculations, including the determination of Mr

(d) describe, using a kinetic-molecular model, the liquid state; melting; vaporisation and vapour pressure

(e) describe, in simple terms, the lattice structure of a crystalline solid which is:

(i) ionic, as in sodium chloride, magnesium oxide

(ii) simple molecular, as in iodine

(iii) giant molecular, as in graphite; diamond; silicon (IV) oxide

(iv) hydrogen-bonded, as in ice

(v) metallic, as in copper

[the concept of the 'unit cell' is not required]

(f) explain the strength, high melting point, electrical insulating properties of ceramics in terms of their giant molecular structure


(g) relate the uses of ceramics, based on magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide and silicon (IV) oxide, to their properties (suitable examples include furnace linings; electrical insulators; glass; crockery)

(h) describe and interpret the uses of the metals aluminium including its alloys, and copper, including brass, in terms of their physical properties

(i) recognise that materials are a finite resource and the importance of recycling processes

(j) outline the importance of hydrogen bonding to the physical properties of substances, including ice and water

(k) suggest from quoted physical data the type of structure and bonding present in a substance

States of Matter - particle theory - gas, liquid & solid properties-behaviour, state changes

Gas calculations involving PVT relationships, Boyle's and Charles Laws

Gas calculations involving PV = nRT relationships, deviations from ideal gas behaviour

for structure of solids see sections in

Chemical bonding: Ionic Bonding – compounds and properties

Chemical bonding: Covalent Bonding – small simple molecules and their properties

Chemical bonding: Covalent Bonding: macromolecules and giant covalent structures

Chemical bonding: Metallic Bonding - structure and properties of metals


5. CHEMICAL ENERGETICS (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) explain that some chemical reactions are accompanied by energy changes, principally in the form of heat energy; the energy changes can be exothermic (H, negative) or endothermic (H, positive)

(b) explain and use the terms:

(i) enthalpy change of reaction and standard conditions, with particular reference to: formation; combustion; hydration; solution; neutralisation; atomisation

(ii) bond energy (ΔH positive, i.e. bond breaking)

(iii) lattice energy (ΔH negative, i.e. gaseous ions to solid lattice)

(c) calculate enthalpy changes from appropriate experimental results, including the use of the relationship

enthalpy change = mc Δ T

(d) explain, in qualitative terms, the effect of ionic charge and of ionic radius on the numerical magnitude of a lattice energy

(e) apply Hess' Law to construct simple energy cycles, and carry out calculations involving such cycles and relevant energy terms, with particular reference to:

(i) determining enthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct experiment, e.g an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy changes of combustion

(ii) average bond energies

(iii) the formation of a simple ionic solid and of its aqueous solution

(iv) Born-Haber cycles (including ionisation energy and electron affinity)

(f) construct and interpret a reaction pathway diagram, in terms of the enthalpy change of the reaction and of the activation energy (see Section 8)

Energetics - introduction to enthalpy changes and calorimeters (4 linked pages of basic ideas)

Energetics - detailed notes on enthalpy changes (advanced introduction and 6 linked pages)

Energetics - basic enthalpy changes questions with worked out answers

Energetics - enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity, bond enthalpy related to calculations involving the Born-Haber cycle (3 linked pages)


6. ELECTROCHEMISTRY (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) describe and explain redox processes in terms of electron transfer and/or of changes in oxidation number (oxidation state)

(b) explain, including the electrode reactions, the industrial processes of:

(i) the electrolysis of brine, using a diaphragm cell

(ii) the extraction of aluminium from molten aluminium oxide/cryolite

(iii) the electrolytic purification of copper

(c) define the terms:

(i) standard electrode (redox) potential

(ii) standard cell potential

(d) describe the standard hydrogen electrode

(e) describe methods used to measure the standard electrode potentials of:

(i) metals or non-metals in contact with their ions in aqueous solution

(ii) ions of the same element in different oxidation states

(f) calculate a standard cell potential by combining two standard electrode potentials

(g) use standard cell potentials to:

(i) explain/deduce the direction of electron flow from a simple cell

(ii) predict the feasibility of a reaction

(h) construct redox equations using the relevant half-equations (see Section 9.4)

(i) predict qualitatively how the value of an electrode potential varies with the concentration of the aqueous ion

(j) state the possible advantages of developing other types of cell, e.g. the H2/O2 fuel cell and improved batteries (as in electric vehicles) in terms of smaller size, lower mass and higher voltage

(k) state the relationship, F = Le, between the Faraday constant, the Avogadro constant and the charge on the electron

(l) predict the identity of the substance liberated during electrolysis from the state of electrolyte (molten or aqueous), position in the redox series (electrode potential) and concentration

(m) calculate:

(i) the quantity of charge passed during electrolysis

(ii) the mass and/or volume of substance liberated during electrolysis, including those in the electrolysis of H2SO4(aq); Na2SO4(aq)

(n) describe the determination of a value of the Avogadro constant by an electrolytic method

Half cell equilibria, electrode potential

Simple cells, notation and construction

The hydrogen electrode and standard conditions

Half–cell potentials, Electrochemical Series and using Eθcell for reaction feasibility

Electrochemical cells ('batteries') and fuel cell systems

Electrolysis and the electrochemical series

Electrochemistry Notes Index (9 linked pages of all the basics)

Electrolysis products calculations (negative cathode and positive anode products)

Examples of the industrial use of electrolysis

The electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide - extraction of aluminium from bauxite ore

Anodising aluminium to thicken and strengthen the protective oxide layer

The extraction of sodium from molten sodium chloride using the 'Down's Cell'

The purification of copper by electrolysis

Electroplating coating conducting surfaces with a metal layer

Electrolysis of brine (NaCl) for the production of chlorine, hydrogen & sodium hydroxide

Oxidation numbers & oxidation states and Redox reactions


7. EQUILIBRIA (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) explain, in terms of rates of the forward and reverse, what is meant by a reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium

(b) state Le Chatelier's Principle and apply it to deduce qualitatively (from appropriate information) the effects of changes in temperature, concentration or pressure, on a system at equilibrium

(c) deduce whether changes in concentration, pressure or temperature or the presence of a catalyst affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction

(d) deduce expressions for equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations, Kc, and partial pressures, Kp

[treatment of the relationship between Kp and Kc is not required]

(e) calculate the values of equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or partial pressures from appropriate data

(f) calculate the quantities present at equilibrium, given appropriate data (such calculations will not require the solving of quadratic equations)

(g) describe and explain the conditions used in the Haber process and Contact process, as examples of the importance of an understanding of chemical equilibrium in the chemical industry (see also Section 9.6)

(h) show understanding of, and apply the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases

(i) explain qualitatively the differences in behaviour between strong and weak acids and bases in terms of the extent of dissociation

(j) explain the terms the terms pH; Ka ; pKa; pOH; Kb; pKb; Kw and apply them in calculations

(k) calculate [H+(aq)] and pH values for strong and weak acids and strong bases

(l) explain the choice of suitable indicators for acid-base titrations, given appropriate data

(m) describe the changes in pH during acid-base titrations and explain these changes in terms of the strengths of the acids and bases

(n) (i) explain how buffer solutions control pH

(ii) describe and explain their uses, including the role of HCO3- in controlling pH in blood

(o) calculate the pH and/or pOH of buffer solutions, given appropriate data

(p) show understanding of, and apply, the concept of solubility product, Ksp

(q) calculate Ksp from concentrations and vice versa

(r) show understanding of the common ion effect

Chemical equilibria introduction - reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle

Chemical equilibria: applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Industrial Processes

Chemical equilibria: writing Kc expressions and doing equilibrium expression calculations

Chemical equilibria Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

Chemical equilibrium: Acid–base indicator theory, pH curves and titrations

Chemical equilibrium Buffers – definition, formulation and action

Chemical equilibrium: Buffer calculations

Chemical equilibrium Case studies of buffer function

Solubility product Ksp & common ion effect


8. REACTION KINETICS (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) explain and use the terms: rate of reaction; activation energy; catalysis; rate equation; order of reaction; rate constant; half-life of a reaction; rate determining step (rds)

(b) explain qualitatively, in terms of collisions, the effect of concentration changes on the rate of a reaction

(c) show understanding, including reference to the Boltzmann distribution, of what is meant by the term activation energy

(d) explain qualitatively, in terms of both the Boltzmann distribution and of collision frequency, the effect of temperature change on the rate of a reaction

(e) (i) explain that, in the presence of a catalyst, a reaction has a different mechanism, i.e. one of lower activation energy

(ii) interpret this catalytic effect in terms of the Boltzmann distribution

(f) describe enzymes as biological catalysts (proteins) which may have specific activity

(g) construct and use rate equations of the form rate = k[A]m[B]n (limited to simple cases of single step reactions and of multi-step processes with a rate determining step, for which m and n are 0, 1 or 2), including:

(i) deducing the order of a reaction by the initial rates method

(ii) justifying, for zero - and first - order reactions, the order of reaction from concentration-time graphs

(iii) verifying that a suggested reaction mechanism is consistent with the observed kinetics

(iv) predicting the order that would result from a given reaction mechanism (and vice versa)

(v) calculating an initial rate using concentration data

[integrated forms of rate equations are not required]

(h) (i) show understanding that the half-life of a first-order reaction is independent of concentration

(ii) use the half-life of a first-order reaction in calculations

(i) calculate a rate constant using the initial rates method

(j) devise a suitable experimental technique for studying the rate of a reaction, from given information

(k) outline the different modes of action of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, including:

(i) the Haber process

(ii) the catalytic removal of oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust gases from car engines (see also Section 10.3)

(iii) the catalytic role of atmospheric oxides of nitrogen in the oxidation of atmospheric sulphur dioxide

(iv) catalytic role of Fe3+/Fe2+ in the I-/S2O82- reaction

Kinetics - introduction to factors affecting the rates-speeds of chemical reactions (9 linked pages of basic ideas)

Kinetics - introduction to advanced theory of rates of reactions - rate expressions, orders of reactions etc.

Kinetics - more advanced theory, case studies-rate expressions, Arrhenius equation, calculations etc.

9. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)


9.1 THE PERIODIC TABLE: CHEMICAL PERIODICITY (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should, for the third period (sodium to argon), be able to:

(a) describe qualitatively (and indicate the periodicity in) the variations in atomic radius, ionic radius, melting point and electrical conductivity of the elements (see the Data Booklet)

(b) explain qualitatively the variation in atomic radius and ionic radius

(c) interpret the variation in melting point and in electrical conductivity in terms of the presence of simple molecular, giant molecular or metallic bonding in the elements

(d) explain the variation in first ionisation energy

(e) describe the reactions, if any, of the elements with oxygen (to give Na2O;MgO; Al2O3; P4O6 ; P4O10; SO2; SO3), chlorine (to give NaCl; MgCl2; Al2Cl6; SiCl4; PCl3; PCl5), and water (Na and Mg only)

(f) state and explain the variation in oxidation number of the oxides and chlorides

(g) describe the reactions of the oxides with water

[treatment of peroxides and superoxides is not required]

(h) describe and explain the acid/base behaviour of oxides and hydroxides, including, where relevant, amphoteric behaviour in reaction with sodium hydroxide (only) and acids

(i) describe and explain the reactions of the chlorides with water

(j) interpret the variations and trends in (f), (g), (h) and (i) in terms of bonding and electro negativity

(k) suggest the types of chemical bonding present in chlorides and oxides from observations of their chemical and physical properties

(l) predict the characteristic properties of an element in a given group by using knowledge of chemical periodicity


(m) deduce the nature, possible position in the Periodic Table, and identity of unknown elements from the given information of physical and chemical properties.

Periodic Table: Survey of Period 3: sodium Na to argon Ar - introduction

Periodic Table: explaining physical property trends in Period 3

Period 3 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions

Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20. Period 1 to start of Period 4


9.2 GROUP II  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) describe the reactions of the elements with oxygen and water

(b) describe the behaviour of the oxides with water

(c) describe the thermal decomposition of the nitrates and carbonates

(d) interpret, and make predictions from, the trends in physical and chemical properties of the elements and their compounds

(e) explain the use of magnesium oxide as a refractory lining material and carbonates as a building material

(f) describe the use of lime in agriculture (g) interpret and explain qualitatively the trend in the thermal stability of the nitrates and carbonates in terms of the charge density of the cation and the polarisability of the large anion

(h) interpret and explain qualitatively the variation in solubility of the sulphates in terms of relative magnitudes of the enthalpy change of hydration and the corresponding lattice energy

Periodic Table - s-block including detailed notes on Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - introduction

Oxides of s–block metals, water reaction & hydroxides, acid reaction & salts, chlorine reaction & halides

Carbonates & hydrogencarbonates, solubility trends, thermal decomposition & stability of carbonates & nitrates, uses of s–block metals and their compounds


9.3 GROUP IV  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) outline the variation in melting point and in electrical conductivity of the elements and interpret them in terms of structure and bonding

(b) describe and explain the bonding in, molecular shape and volatility of the tetrachlorides

(c) describe and explain the reactions of the tetrachlorides with water in terms of structure and bonding

(d) describe and explain the bonding, acid-base nature and thermal stability of the oxides of oxidation states II and IV

(e) describe and explain the relative stability of higher and lower oxidation states of the elements in their oxides and aqueous cations, including, - where relevant - Eθ values

(f) recognize the properties and uses of ceramics based on silicon (IV) oxide

Periodic Table - Group 4/14 Introduction : Carbon : Silicon : Semi-metals like Ge


9.4 GROUP VII  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) describe the trends in volatility and colour of chlorine, bromine and iodine

(b) interpret the volatility of the elements in terms of Van der Waals’ forces

( c ) describe and explain the relative reactivity of elements as oxidising agents including their reaction with sodium thiosulphate with reference to Eθ values.

(c) describe and explain the reactions of the elements with hydrogen

(e) (i) describe and explain the relative thermal stabilities of the hydrides,

(ii) interpret these relative stabilities in terms of bond energies

(f) describe and explain the reactions of halide ions with

(i) aqueous silver ions followed by aqueous ammonia,

(ii) concentrated sulphuric acid

(g) outline a method for the manufacture of chlorine from brine by a diaphragm cell (see also Section 6)

(h) describe and interpret in terms of changes of oxidation number the reaction of chlorine with cold, and with hot, aqueous sodium hydroxide

(i) explain the use of chlorine in water purification

(j) recognise the industrial importance and environment significance of the halogens and their compounds, (e.g. for bleaches; pvc; halogenated hydrocarbons as solvents, refrigerants and in aerosols) (see also Section 10.4)

Periodic table - Group 7/17 Halogens - Introduction (9 linked pages) eg sections on ...

Halogen displacement reactions and reactivity trend

Reactions of halogens with other elements - halides

Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid

Tests for halogens and halide ions

Extraction of halogens from natural sources

Uses of halogens & their compounds

Oxidation & Reduction – more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions

Volumetric analysis – titrations involving halogens or halide ions

Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links

Chemical bonding in halogen compounds

Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry


9.5 NITROGEN AND SULPHUR  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) explain the lack of reactivity of nitrogen

(b) describe:

(i) the formation, and structure, of the ammonium ion

(ii) the displacement of ammonia from its salts

(c) describe the Haber process for the manufacture of ammonia from its elements, giving essential operating conditions, and interpret these conditions (qualitatively) in terms of the principles of kinetics and equilibria (see also Sections 7 and 8)

(d) recognise the industrial importance of ammonia and nitrogen compounds derived from ammonia

(e) recognize the environmental consequences of the uncontrolled use of nitrate fertilisers.

(f) describe and explain the occurrence, and catalytic removal, of oxides of nitrogen

(g) explain why atmospheric oxides of nitrogen are pollutants, including their catalytic role in the oxidation of atmospheric sulphur dioxide

(h) describe the formation of atmospheric sulphur dioxide from the combustion of sulphur contaminated carbonaceous fuels

(i) state the role of sulphur dioxide in the formation of acid-rain and describe the main environmental consequences of acid-rain

(j) state the main details of the Contact process for sulphuric acid production (k) recognize the industrial importance of sulphuric acid

(l) describe the use of sulphur dioxide in food preservation

Periodic Table: Group 5/15 Introduction : Nitrogen

Periodic Table - Group 6/16 Introduction : Sulfur

Contact Process for manufacturing sulfuric acid, the importance of sulphuric acid

Chemical equilibria: applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Industrial Processes

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia - nitrogen fixation

Manufacture and uses of fertilisers, preparation of ammonium salts, NPK fertilisers-environmental problems

Air pollution - sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, acid rain

Air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot


9.6 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF TRANSITION ELEMENTS  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry)

You should be able to:

(a) explain what is meant by a transition, in terms of d-block elements forming one or more stable ions with incomplete d orbitals

(b) state the electronic configuration of a first row transition element and of its ions

(c) state that the atomic radii, ionic and first ionisation energies of the transition metals are relatively invariant

(d) contrast, qualitatively, the melting point; density, atomic radius; ionic radius; first ionisation energy and conductivity of the transition elements with those of calcium as a typical s-block element

(e) describe the tendency of transition elements to have variable oxidation states

(f) predict from a given electronic configuration, the likely oxidation states of a transition element

(g) describe and explain the use of Fe3+/Fe2+, MnO4-/Mn2+ and Cr2O72-/Cr3+ as examples of redox systems (see also Section 6)

(h) (i) explain the reactions of transition elements with ligands to form complexes, including the complexes of copper

(II) ions with water and ammonia (ii) describe the formation, and state the colour of, these complexes

(i) predict, using Eθ values, the likelihood of redox reactions

(j) explain qualitatively that ligand exchange may occur, including CO/O2 in haemoglobin

(k) state examples of catalysis by transition metals and/or their compounds

Introduction to the 3d-block of Transition Metals, Data and general trends(13 linked pages and 12 appendices)

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Chromium

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Manganese

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Iron

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes & ligands

3d block Transition Metals - Electron configuration & colour theory

3d block Transition Metals - Redox equations, feasibility of a redox reaction, Eø

3d block Transition Metals - Catalysis

10 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)


10.1 INTRODUCTORY TOPICS  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) interpret, and use the nomenclature, general formulae and displayed formulae of the following classes of compound:

(i) alkanes, alkanes and arenes

(ii) halogenoalkanes and halogenoarenes

(iii) alcohols (including primary, secondary and tertiary) and phenols

(iv) aldehydes and ketones

(v) carboxylic acids, esters and acyl chlorides

(vi) amines (primary only), nitriles, amides and amino acids

(b) interpret, and use the following terminology associated with organic reactions:

(i) functional group

(ii) homolytic and heterolytic fission

(iii) free radical, initiation, propagation, termination

(iv) nucleophile, electrophile

(v) addition, substitution, elimination, hydrolysis

(v) oxidation and reduction.

(c) (i) describe the shapes of the  ethane and benzene molecules

(ii) predict the shapes of other related molecules

(d) explain the shapes of the ethane, ethene and benzene molecules in terms of σ and π carbon-carbon bonds

(e) describe structural isomerism

(f) describe cis-trans isomerism in alkenes, and explain its origin in terms of restricted rotation due to the presence of π bonds

(g) explain what is meant by a chiral centre and that such a centre gives rise to optical isomerism

(h) deduce the possible isomers for an organic molecule of known molecular formula

(i) identify chiral centres and/or cis-trans isomerism in a molecule of given structural formula

Organic structure: Summary of homologous series, functional groups

Organic chemistry reactions & mechanisms - an introduction and technical terms explained

Functional Groups - Qualitative Analysis Tests for organic functional groups (use alphabetical index)

Isomerism - structural isomerism - general definition - examples of types

Molecular structure - shapes of organic molecules and bond angles

Isomerism - introduction to stereoisomerism

Isomerism - E/Z and cis/trans stereoisomerism

Isomerism - R/S Optical Isomerism

Spotting Optical Isomers (sorry, hand written!) (answers)

Alkanes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES

Alkanes - Type in name  Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and naming cycloalkanes)

Alkenes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkenes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alkenes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Aromatic chemistry: Structure of molecules and nomenclature

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

Matching pair quiz on hydrocarbon structure

Halogenoalkanes - naming and structure (3 linked pages and quizzes, haloalkanes = halogenoalkanes!)

Halogenoalkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Halogenoalkanes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Alcohols (and ethers) - molecular structure and naming (2 linked pages, with quizzes)

Alcohols - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alcohols - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Their structure and naming (and quizzes)

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and nomenclature

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and  nomenclature

Structure, Classification & Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

Multiple choice quiz on the classification, structure and naming of organic nitrogen compounds


10.2 HYDROCARBONS  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) be aware of the general unreactivity of alkanes, including towards polar reagents

(b) describe the chemistry of alkanes as exemplified by the following reactions of ethane:

(i) combustion    and    (ii) substitution by chlorine and by bromine

(c) describe the mechanism of free-radical substitution at methyl groups with particular reference to the initiation, propagation and termination reactions

(d) describe the chemistry of alkenes as exemplified, where relevant, by the following reactions of ethene:

(i) addition of hydrogen, steam, hydrogen halides and halogens

(ii) oxidation by cold, dilute manganate(VII) ions to form the diol

(iii) oxidation by hot, concentrated manganate(VII) ions leading to the rupture of the carbon-to-carbon double bond in order to determine the position of alkene linkages in larger molecules

(iv) polymerisation (see also section 10.8)

(e) describe the mechanism of electrophilic addition in alkenes, using bromine/ethene as an example

(f) explain the use of crude oil as a source of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons

(g) suggest how ‘cracking’ can be used to obtain more useful alkanes and alkenes of lower Mr from larger hydrocarbon molecules

(h) describe and explain how the combustion reactions of alkanes lead to their use as fuels in industry, in the home and in transport

(i) recognise the environmental consequences of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and unburnt hydrocarbons arising from the internal combustion engine and of their catalytic removal

(j) describe the chemistry of arenes as exemplified by the following reactions of benzene and methylbenzene:

(i) substitution reactions with chlorine and with bromine

(ii) nitration

(iii) oxidation of the side-chain to give a carboxylic acid

(k) (i) describe the mechanism of electrophilic substitution in arenes, using the mono-nitration of benzene as an example

(ii) describe the effect of the delocalisation of electrons in arenes in such reactions

(l) predict whether halogenation will occur in the side-chain or aromatic nucleus in arenes depending on reaction conditions

(m) apply the knowledge of positions of substitution in the electrophilic substitution of arenes

Alkanes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES

Alkanes - Type in name  Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and naming cycloalkanes)

Alkanes - fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions (the basics)

Alkanes - saturated hydrocarbons combustion reactions

Air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot

Air pollution - sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, acid rain

Alkanes - Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products (the basics)

Alkanes - complete combustion and incomplete combustion - pollution etc. (the basics)

Alkanes - free radical chlorination/bromination mechanism to give halogenoalkanes

Alkanes - free radical mechanism for cracking hydrocarbons to give shorter alkanes and alkenes

Alkenes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkenes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alkenes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Alkenes - introduction to their chemistry and electrophilic addition reactions & polymerisation (5 linked pages)

Alkenes: Electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide [HBr(conc. aq) and HBr(g/non-polar solvent)] to form halogenoalkanes

Alkenes: Electrophilic addition of bromine with pure bromine or in non-polar solvent (non-aqueous Br2(l/solvent)) to give dibromoalkanes AND addition using bromine water [aqueous Br2(aq)] to give bromo-alcohols

Alkenes: Electrophilic addition of sulphuric acid AND electrophilic addition of water [acid catalyst] to form alcohols

Alkenes: Free radical polymerisation to give poly(alkene) polymers e.g. ethene ==> poly(ethene)

Alkenes: Hydrogenation to give saturated alkanes

Aromatic chemistry: Structure of arene molecules and nomenclature

Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

Aromatic chemistry:  Introduction to arene structure and electrophilic substitution mechanisms

Aromatic chemistry: Nitration to give nitro-aromatics like nitrobenzene

Aromatic chemistry: Chlorination to chloro-aromatics like chlorobenzene


10.3 HALOGEN DERIVATIVES  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) recall the chemistry of halogenoalkanes as exemplified by

(i) the following nucleophilic substitution reactions of bromoethane: hydrolysis; formation of nitriles; formation of primary amines by reaction with ammonia

(ii) the elimination of hydrogen bromide from 2-bromopropane

(b) describe the mechanism of nucleophilic substitution in halogenoalkanes

(c ) interpret the different reactivities of halogenoalkanes and chlorobenzene with particular reference to hydrolysis and to the relative strengths of the C-Hal bonds eg CFCs; anaesthetics; flame retardants; plastic

(d) explain the uses of fluoroalkanes and fluorohalogenoalkanes in terms of their relative chemical inertness

(e) recognise the concern about the effect of chlorofluoroalkanes on the ozone layer

Halogenoalkanes - naming and structure (3 linked pages and quizzes, haloalkanes = halogenoalkanes!)

Halogenoalkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Halogenoalkanes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Halogenoalkanes - introduction to the chemistry of haloalkanes/alkyl halides

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion to give alcohols

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to give a nitrile

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc.

Halogenoalkanes - Elimination of hydrogen bromide to form alkenes

Halogenoalkanes - free radical chlorination/bromination mechanism of alkanes to give halogenoalkanes

Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links


10.4 HYDROXY COMPOUNDS  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) recall the chemistry of alcohols, exemplified by ethanol:

(i) combustion

(ii) substitution to give halogenoalkanes

(iii) reaction with sodium

(iv) oxidation to carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids

(v) dehydration to alkenes

(vi) ester formation

(b) classify hydroxy compounds into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

(c) suggest characteristic distinguishing reactions, e.g. mild oxidation

(d) deduce the presence of CH3CH(OH)– group in an alcohol from its reaction with alkaline aqueous iodine to form tri-iodomethane

(e) recall the chemistry of phenol, as exemplified by the following reactions:

(i) with bases

(ii) with sodium

(iii) nitration of, and bromination of, the aromatic ring

(f) explain the relative acidities of water, phenol and ethanol

Alcohols (and ethers) - molecular structure and naming (2 linked pages, with quizzes)

Alcohols - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alcohols - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Alcohols - Ethanol, manufacture, physical properties and introduction to its chemical reactions (the basics)

Alcohols - oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids (sections 9.1 to 9.3)

Alcohols - elimination of water to give an alkene

Alcohols - conversion of an alcohol to a halogenoalkane

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Esterification of acid chlorides with alcohols to give an ester


10.5 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) describe

(i) the formation of aldehydes and ketones from primary and secondary alcohols respectively using Cr2O72-/H+

(ii) the reduction of aldehydes and ketones using NaBH4

(b) describe the mechanism of the nucleophilic addition reactions of hydrogen cyanide with aldehydes and ketones

(c) describe the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) to detect the presence of carbonyl compounds

(d) deduce the nature (aldehyde or ketone) of an unknown carbonyl compound from the results of simple tests (i.e. Fehling’s and Tollens’ reagents; ease of oxidation)

(e) describe the reaction of CH3CO- compounds with alkaline aqueous iodine to give tri-iodomethane

Aldehydes & ketones: Their structure and naming (plus quizzes)

Aldehydes & ketones: Multiple choice on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Aldehydes & ketones: Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Aldehydes & ketones: Carbonyl compounds - introduction to their chemistry

Aldehydes & ketones: Nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to form a hydroxy-nitrile

Alcohols - oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids (sections 9.1 to 9.3)


10.6 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols, aldehydes and nitriles

(b) describe the reactions of carboxylic acids in the formation of

(i) salts,   (ii) esters     and   (iii) acyl chlorides

(c) explain the acidity of carboxylic acids and of chlorine-substituted ethanoic acids in terms of their structures

(d) describe the hydrolysis of acyl chlorides

(e) describe the reaction of acyl chlorides with alcohols, phenols and primary amines

(f) explain the relative ease of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides, alkyl chlorides and aryl chlorides

(g) describe the formation of esters from carboxylic acids or acyl chlorides, using ethyl ethanoate and phenyl benzoate as examples

(h) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of esters

(i) describe the formation of polyesters (see also Section 10.8)

(j) state the major commercial uses of esters e.g: solvents; perfumes; flavouring

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Their structure and naming (and quizzes)

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and nomenclature

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and  nomenclature

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Esters, chemistry and uses including perfumes (the basics)

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Hydrolysis of acid chlorides with water to give a carboxylic acid

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Esterification of acid chlorides with alcohols to give an ester


10.7 NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of ethylamine (by nitrile reduction – see also Section 10.4) and of phenylamine (by the reduction of nitrobenzene)

(b) explain the basicity of amines

(c) explain the relative basicities of ammonia, ethylamine and phenylamine in terms of their structures

(d) describe the reaction of phenylamine with:

(i) aqueous bromine

(ii) nitrous acid to give the diazonium salt and phenol

(e) describe the coupling of benzenediazonium chloride and phenol and the use of similar reactions in the formation of dyestuff

(f) describe the formation of amides from the reaction between RNH2 and R'COCl

(g) describe amide hydrolysis on treatment with aqueous alkali or acid

(h) describe the acid/base properties of amino acids and the formation of zwitterions

(i) describe the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids and, hence, explain protein formation

(j) describe the hydrolysis of proteins

(k) describe the formation of polyamides (see also Section 10.8)

Structure, Classification & Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

Multiple choice quiz on the classification, structure and naming of organic nitrogen compounds

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc.

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Amide formation from reaction of acid chlorides with ammonia or primary amines

Protein-enzyme structure, function and inhibition (see also Enzymes and Biotechnology)


10.8 POLYMERISATION  (Zimbabwe Advanced Level Chemistry 9189)

You should be able to:

(a) describe the characteristics of addition polymerisation as exemplified by poly(ethene) and pvc

(b) recognise the difficulty of the disposal of polyalkenes, i.e. non-biodegradability and harmful combustion products

(c) describe the characteristics of condensation polymerisation

(i) in polyesters as exemplified by Terylene

(ii) in polyamides as exemplified by peptides, proteins, nylon 6 and nylon 66

(d) predict the type of polymerisation reaction for a given monomer or pair of monomers

(e) deduce the repeat unit of a polymer obtained from a given monomer or pair of monomers

(f) deduce the type of polymerisation reaction which produces a given section of a polymer molecule

(g) identify the monomer(s) present in a given section of a polymer molecule

Polymers - the basics of addition polymer chemistry and uses, recycling

Polymers - the basics of condensation polymers, nylon, terylene, comparing thermoplastics, fibres, thermosets

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