Doc Brown's Advanced Level Chemistry

WJEC Welsh Advanced Level GCE A A2 CHEMISTRY course

PLEASE REMEMBER THAT YOU NEED TO REVISE ALL of the two years work for the final A Level Examination - anything can come up!

Syllabus-specification A2 Chemistry Unit Topic 9 Spectroscopy * 10 Isomerism and Aromaticity * 11.1 Alcohols and phenols * 11.2 Aldehydes and ketones * 11.3 Carboxylic acids and derivatives * 12 Organic compounds containing nitrogen * 13 Organic synthesis and analysis * 15.1 Redox and standard electrode potential * 15.2 Redox reactions * 15.3 Applications * 16 Chemistry of the p-block- General * 16.2 Group 3 (13) * 16.3 Group 4 (14) * 16.4 Group 7 (17) * 17 The d-block Transition elements * 18 Chemical Kinetics * 19.1 Enthalpy changes for solids and solutions * 19.2 Entropy and feasibility of reaction * 20.1 General equilibria * 20.2 Acid-Base Equilibria for My unofficial support for this WJEC GCE A2 Advanced Level Chemistry syllabus-Specification * Scroll down and each module, topic or unit is linked to potentially useful sections on this site [Each link opens up in a new window] [PAST PAPERS] [ALL LINKS SHOULD WORK IF THIS PAGE IS SAVED]

(c) doc b WJEC AS chemistry * (c) doc b WJEC GCSE science-CHEMISTRY

 READ CAREFULLY  My 'A level' chemistry revision notes are far from complete BUT by clicking on the links for [ORGANIC], [INORGANIC], [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL] and [useful UK based GCSE/IGCSE revision notes] you should find things to help on a particular topic.  By following a link you will find some useful information and use the sub-indexes of key words or headings at the top of each page. To return to this page click on the <== back on the browser link bar. All the syllabus-topic-unit titles are taken from the official syllabus. I do not have time to deliver extended responses to email questions BUT I have provided a convenient list to PAST PAPERS and mark schemes.


WJEC GCE A Level Chemistry Summary of A2 Units and Contents Links

CH4 Spectroscopy and Organic Chemistry (Analysing and building molecules)

Topic 9 Spectroscopy * Topic 10 Isomerism and Aromaticity

Topic 11 Organic compounds containing oxygen * 11.1 Alcohols and phenols

11.2 Aldehydes and ketones * 11.3 Carboxylic acids and derivatives

Topic 12 Organic compounds containing nitrogen

Topic 13 Organic synthesis and analysis * Topic 14 How the process of science works

CH5 Physical and Inorganic Chemistry WJEC A2 A level chemistry

Topic 15: 15.1 Redox and standard electrode potential * 15.2 Redox reactions * 15.3 Applications

Topic 16 Chemistry of the p-block: 16.1 General * 16.2 Group 3 (13) * 16.3 Group 4 (14) * 16.4 Group 7 (17)

Topic 17 The d-block Transition elements * Topic 18 Chemical Kinetics * Topic 19 Energy changes

19.1 Enthalpy changes for solids and solutions * 19.2 Entropy and feasibility of reaction

Topic 20 Equilibria: 20.1 General equilibria * 20.2 Acid-Base Equilibria

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WJEC GCE A Level A2 Chemistry

CH4 Spectroscopy and Organic Chemistry (Analysing and building molecules)


 

Topic 9 Spectroscopy (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. SIMPLE introductory NMR problem solving with % composition and infra-red absorption data

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Topic 10 Isomerism and Aromaticity (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry (look for 'general formulae' and links to organic molecular structure and nomenclature/naming pages)

  2. Notes on the Structure and Naming of Aromatic Compounds

  3. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds

  4. Ex. 1. Matching pair Quiz on hydrocarbon structure

  5.  Organic Chemistry (2) STEREOISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  6.  Organic Chemistry (2a) Geometrical Isomerism (E/Z) was called cis/trans) (use sub-index at top of page)

  7.  Organic Chemistry (2b) Optical Isomerism (R/S isomerism) (use sub-index at top of page)

  8. Spotting optical isomers Q (hand written!) (answers)

  9.  MECHANISMS AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms links to various reactions including equation and reaction conditions

  10.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene introduction to electrophilic substitution and nitration to form nitro-aromatic compounds (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given)

  11.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution chlorination to give halogenoarenes  (similar for bromine, just swap Cl with Br) (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given)

  12.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution alkylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction] (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given) MECHANISM NOT REQUIRED

  13.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion (note on comparing alkyl halide/aryl i.e. chloroethane/chlorobenzene halide hydrolysis)

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Topic 11 Organic compounds containing oxygen (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)


 

11.1 Alcohols and phenols (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS Part 1 Classification into primary (prim), secondary (sec) and tertiary (tert) - notes include isomers and other related compounds which may not be needed

  2.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation) MECHANISM NOT NEEDED HERE

  3. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols/aldehydes (section 9.)

  4. Qualitative Analysis: Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.) (alphabetical keyword index at top of page)

  5. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - preparation of an ester (described in section 4a)

  6. Ex. 2. Matching pair Quiz on alcohol, phenol & ether structure

  7. Ex. 3. Matching pair Quiz on alcohols, phenols & ether reactions

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11.2 Aldehydes and ketones (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Carbonyl Compounds Aldehydes and Ketones

  2. Ex. 4. Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure

  3. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols/aldehydes (section 9.)

  4. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including reduction of aldehydes/ketones/carboxylic acids to alcohols (section 8.)

  5. Qualitative Analysis: Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.) (alphabetical keyword index at top of page)

  6.  Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

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11.3 Carboxylic acids and derivatives (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols/aldehydes to carboxylic acids (sections 9.1 to 9.3)

  2. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alkyl-arenes/aromatic compounds to carboxylic acids (section 9.4)

  3. Ex. 4. Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure

  4. Ex. 5 Matching pair quiz on organic molecular structure (combination of Ex. 1., 2. and 4.)

  5. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including reduction of carboxylic acids to primary alcohols (section 8.3)

  6. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - preparation of an ester (described in section 4a)

  7.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to make a nitrile (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation) MECHANISM NOT NEEDED HERE

  8. Reduction of nitriles to primary aliphatic amines in section 8.4

  9.  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - amide formation with ammonia or primary amines (general equations and reaction conditions quoted too) MECHANISM NOT NEEDED HERE

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Topic 12 Organic compounds containing nitrogen (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia or primary amine to make amines (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation) MECHANISM NOT NEEDED HERE

  2. Reduction of nitro-aromatic compounds to aromatic amines for dyestuffs industry in section 8.5

  3.  Some notes on amino acids-proteins-polypeptides-enzymes

  4. Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes - Enzymes

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Topic 13 Organic synthesis and analysis (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. (c) doc b section 8. Using moles to deduce empirical/molecular formula of a compound/molecule starting with reacting masses or % composition by mass

  2. SIMPLE introductory NMR problem solving with % composition and infra-red absorption data

  3. GCSE Mass spectrometry of elements - basic ideas and measurement of molecular mass

  4. Structured Question worksheet on Acid-Base volumetric titration calculations - determining molecular mass of an acids (answers) Questions 15 and 16 relevant

  5. section 9. moles and molar gas volume and Avogadro's Law

  6. Calculations section 6. Reacting masses of reactants and products and actual percent % yield, theoretical yield and atom economy

  7. Calculations section 14. % actual and theoretical yield, how much of reactants are needed? (sub-index near top of page)

  8. GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - An introduction to polymer structure addition and condensation polymers  and GCSE Oil Products Notes - more on polymers (basic ideas revision)

  9. Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes includes section on glc gas-liquid chromatography (section 6.)

  10. Methods of separating mixtures including paper chromatography and t.l.c. (basic revision notes)


 

Topic 14 How the process of science works

  1. -

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WJEC GCE A Level A2 Chemistry

CH5 Physical and Inorganic Chemistry


 

Topic 15 (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)


 

15.1 Redox and standard electrode potential (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Equilibrium Part 7 Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction

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15.2 Redox reactions (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 includes introduction to electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

  2. Inorganic redox reactions - Part 2 analysing and constructing full redox equations from half-cell reactions

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15.3 Applications (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Equilibrium Part 7 Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction

  2. Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 includes introduction to electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

  3. Inorganic redox reactions - Part 2 analysing and constructing full redox equations from half-cell reactions

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Topic 16 Chemistry of the p-block (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)


 

16.1 General (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies"

  2. Part 8 The p-block elements  : 8.1 Group 3/13 Introduction : Boron : Aluminium * 8.2 Group 4/14 Introduction : Carbon : Silicon : Semi-metals like Ge * 8.3 Group 5/15 Introduction : Nitrogen : Phosphorus * 8.4 Group 6/16 Introduction : Oxygen : Sulfur * 8.5 Group 0/18 The Noble Gases

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16.2 Group 3 (13) (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. 8.1 Group 3/13 Introduction : Boron : Aluminium

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16.3 Group 4 (14) (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Group 4/14 Introduction : Carbon : Silicon : Semi-metals like Ge

  2. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and small molecules and their properties

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16.4 Group 7 (17) (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens 9.1 Introduction, trends & Group 7/17 data * 9.2 Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend  * 9.3 Reactions of halogens with other elements * 9.4 Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid * 9.5 Tests for halogens and halide ions * 9.6 Extraction of halogens from natural sources * 9.7 Uses of halogens & compounds * 9.8 Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions * 9.9 Volumetric analysis - titrations involving halogens or halide ions * 9.10 Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links * 9.11 Chemical bonding in halogen compounds * 9.12 Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry

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Topic 17 the d-block Transition elements (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. INORGANIC Part 10 3d block TRANSITION METALS sub-index: 10.1-10.2 Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals * 10.3 Scandium * 10.4 Titanium * 10.5 Vanadium * 10.6 Chromium * 10.7 Manganese * 10.8 Iron * 10.9  Cobalt * 10.10 Nickel * 10.11 Copper * 10.12 Zinc * 10.13 Other Transition Metals e.g. Ag and Pt * Appendix 1. Hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions * Appendix 2. Complexes & ligands * Appendix 3. Complexes and isomerism * Appendix 4. Electron configuration & colour theory * Appendix 5. Redox equations, feasibility, E * Appendix 6. Catalysis * Appendix 7. Redox equations * Appendix 8. Stability Constants and entropy changes * Appendix 9. Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula * Extra Appendix 10 3d block - extended data * Appendix 11 Some 3d-block compounds, complexes, oxidation states & electrode potential chart * Appendix 12 Hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations

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Topic 18 Chemical Kinetics (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction See also computer simulation of Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of kinetic energies

  2. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

  3.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] (introduction to, and example of, nucleophilic substitution in halogenoalkanes)

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Topic 19 Energy changes (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)


 

19.1 Enthalpy changes for solids and solutions (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Thermodynamics Part 2 ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

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19.2 Entropy and feasibility of reaction (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Thermodynamics Part 3 ΔS Entropy and ΔG Free Energy Changes and feasability of reaction


 

Topic 20 Equilibria (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

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20.1 General equilibria (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

  2. Equilibria Part 2 Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

  3. Equilibria Part 3 equilibrium and industrial processes (can ignore the Kp/Kc equilibrium expressions and concentrate on the application of Le Chatelier's Principle to industrial processes if don't need know about them) See also computer simulation of ammonia equilibrium composition

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20.2 Acid-Base Equilibria (WJEC A2 A level chemistry)

  1. Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory (Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry) and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations advanced notes

  2. Equilibria Part 6 Salt hydrolysis, Acid-base titrations-indicators, pH curves and buffers

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