OCR GCE SALTERS A-LEVEL CHEMISTRY B

(advanced level specification syllabus H433)

PLEASE REMEMBER THAT YOU NEED TO REVISE ALL of the two years work for the final A Level Examination - anything can come up!

 Doc Brown's Unofficial Support for Salters A-Level Chemistry

(currently under constant development!)

Salters AS Chemistry (separate page)

Doc Brown's Chemistry Clinic - chemistry revision notes for the Salters A level chemistry course from September 2015

UNOFFICIAL HELP for this Salters A level chemistry UK based Advanced Level Chemistry Courses

First examinations in the summer of 2017 for A level

Selected links to my Advanced Level Chemistry revision notes based on the three index pages ...

[ORGANIC CHEMISTRY] * [INORGANIC CHEMISTRY] * [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY]

PLEASE NOTE for students doing the Salters A level chemistry course.

  1. My notes are not in anyway to be an alternative to your teacher, your textbooks or lesson notes for the Salters A level chemistry course.
  2. BUT, sometimes a different presentation of a topic in your Salters A level chemistry course can help your understanding.
  3. SO, a little 'study supplement' to your academic diet is freely available online via doc brown's website.
  4. Scrolling down the page, you will find the links to my notes are organised to fit in with topic/unit/module headings in the order specified in the official syllabus-specification for the Salters A level chemistry course.
  5. More links will be added over the next year and the A level chemistry notes expanded to cover more topics in the Salters A level chemistry course. There will be plenty of links ready for September 2015!
  6. When following a link to potentially useful study material, also check out the sub-index links at the top or bottom of page.
  7. You will find the [Google Search Box] at the bottom of the page very useful for looking up aspects of your Salters A level chemistry course.
  8. I don't really have time to deliver extended responses to email questions, and do NOT ask for past papers for the Salters A level chemistry examinations though I will do my best to provide links to past papers as they appear on the Salters A level chemistry exam board website.
  9. I don't mind queries or comments on my web pages irrespective of their usefulness to the Salters A level chemistry examination course.

Storylines Topics

Elements of life

Developing fuels

Elements from the sea

The ozone story

What’s in a medicine?

The chemical industry

Polymers and life

Oceans

Developing metals

Colour by design


ELEMENTS OF LIFE (EL) (Elements of life, Salters A-level chemistry)

EL Formula, equations and amount of substance (Elements of life, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Chemical Calculations - Index (lots of pages to browse through, examples and quizzes on the basics!) eg

What is relative atomic mass?, relative isotopic mass & calculating relative atomic mass

Calculating relative formula/molecular mass of a compound or element molecule

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

How to do acid-alkali titration calculations, diagrams of apparatus, details of procedures

Acid-base and other non-redox titration questions (2 pages of worked out answers)

% purity of a product * % reaction yield * atom economy * dilution of solutions

Equations and formulae - the basics of working them all out


EL Atomic structure (Elements of life, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Atomic structure, Bohr model and isotopes

Electronic Structure of atoms and ionisation energies (7 sections on 3 linked pages)

Atomic structure - nuclear fusion


EL Bonding and structure (Elements of life, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Chemical bonding - introduction and index (6 linked pages) eg

Chemical bonding: Ionic Bonding – compounds and properties

Chemical bonding: Covalent Bonding – small simple molecules and their properties

Chemical bonding: Covalent Bonding: macromolecules and giant covalent structures and  Graphene

Chemical bonding: Metallic Bonding - structure and properties of metals

Molecule shapes and bond angles (3 linked pages)


EL Inorganic chemistry and the periodic table (Elements of life, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Periodic Table - Introduction

Periodic Table - electronic basis - electron configurations of elements

Periodic Table - Physical property trends in Period 2

Periodic Table - Physical property trends in Period 3

Periodic Table - s-block including detailed notes on Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals (3 linked pages)

Equations AND formulae - the basics of working them all out and a simple m/c quiz on balancing equations

Formulae - some common inorganic compound formulae


EL Equilibria (acid-base) (Elements of life, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Acids, Bases, Salts, pH, titrations - all the basics (8 linked pages of all the basic reactions and formulae) eg

Reactions of acids with metals/oxides/hydroxides/carbonates, neutralisation reactions

Summary of selected tests for ions, flame tests, emission spectra

Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - oxides and hydroxides

% purity of a product * % reaction yield


EL Energy and matter (Elements of life, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, emission and absorption spectrum

Summary of selected tests for ions, flame tests, emission spectra


EL Modern analytical techniques (Elements of life, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Mass spectrometry - introduction (including determination of relative atomic mass)


DEVELOPING FUELS (DF) (Salters A-level chemistry)

DF Formulae, equations and amount of substance (developing fuels, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Chemical Calculations - Index (lots of pages to browse through, examples and quizzes on the basics!)

Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law

Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

PVT calculations and PV = nRT calculations


DF Bonding and structure

Molecule shapes and bond angles (3 linked pages)


DF Energetics (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

Energetics - introduction to enthalpy changes and calorimeters (4 linked pages of basic ideas)

Energetics - detailed notes on enthalpy changes (advanced introduction and 6 linked pages)

Energetics - basic enthalpy changes questions with worked out answers


DF Kinetics (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

Kinetics - introduction to factors affecting the rates-speeds of chemical reactions (9 linked pages of basic ideas)

Kinetics - advanced theory

Cracking hydrocarbons


DF Inorganic chemistry and the table (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

POLLUTION, carbon monoxide, sulfur/nitrogen oxides, acid rain, climate change


DF Organic functional groups (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

Functional Groups and a summary of organic homologous series

Alkanes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES

Alkanes - Type in name  Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and naming cycloalkanes)

Alkenes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkenes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alkenes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Alcohols - molecular structure and naming (2 pages, with quizzes)

Alcohols - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alcohols - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature


DF Organic reactions (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

Alkanes - complete combustion and incomplete combustion - pollution etc.

Alkenes - introduction to their chemistry and addition reactions (5 linked pages)

Electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide [HBr(conc. aq) and HBr(g/non-polar solvent)] to form halogenoalkanes

Electrophilic addition of bromine with pure bromine or in non-polar solvent (non-aqueous Br2(l/solvent)) to give dibromoalkanes AND addition using bromine water [aqueous Br2(aq)] to give bromo-alcohols

Electrophilic addition of water [acid catalyst] to form alcohols

Hydrogenation to give saturated alkanes


DF Polymers (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

Polymers - the basics of addition polymer chemistry and uses


DF Organic mechanisms (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

Organic mechanisms - an introduction to reaction mechanisms and technical terms explained

Alkenes - introduction to their chemistry and addition reactions (5 linked pages)

Electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide [HBr(conc. aq) and HBr(g/non-polar solvent)] to form halogenoalkanes

Electrophilic addition of bromine with pure bromine or in non-polar solvent (non-aqueous Br2(l/solvent)) to give dibromoalkanes AND addition using bromine water [aqueous Br2(aq)] to give bromo-alcohols

Electrophilic addition of water [acid catalyst] to form alcohols


DF Isomerism (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

Isomerism - introduction-definition and examples of each type explained (several useful pages)

Isomerism - structural isomerism - general definition - examples of types

Isomerism - introduction to stereoisomerism

Isomerism - E/Z and cis/trans stereoisomerism


DF Sustainability (developing fuels, Salters A-level chemistry)

Fuels - a survey of biofuels & alternative fuels, hydrogen, biogas, biodiesel


ELEMENTS OF THE SEA (ES)

ES Formulae, equations and amount of substance (Elements of the sea, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Chemical Calculations - Index (lots of pages to browse through, examples and quizzes on the basics!)

atom economy


ES Redox (Elements of the sea, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Oxidation numbers & oxidation states and Redox reactions

Electrolysis and cells (lots of linked pages, theory, apparatus, examples explained etc.) eg

INTRODUCTION to electrolysis - electrolytes, non-electrolytes, electrode equations

Electrolysis of acidified water (dilute sulfuric acid) and some sulfate salts and alkalis

Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine)

Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution and electroplating

Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide (and other molten ionic compounds)

Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution

Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid


ES Inorganic chemistry and the periodic table (Elements of the sea, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Periodic table The Group 7/17 halogens (9 linked pages)


ES Equilibria (Elements of the sea, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Chemical equilibria  introduction - reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle

Chemical equilibria - applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Industrial Processes

Chemical equilibria - writing Kc expressions and doing equilibrium expression calculations


THE OZONE STORY (OZ)

OZ Bonding and structure (The ozone story, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Periodic Table - Physical property trends in Period 2

Periodic Table - Physical property trends in Period 3

Periodic Table - Important trends down a group

Intermolecular forces/bonding - an introduction

Intermolecular forces/bonding - some further case studies

Intermolecular forces/bonding - boiling point plots for six organic homologous series

Intermolecular forces/bonding - hydrogen bonding in molecules


OZ Kinetics (The ozone story, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Kinetics - introduction to factors affecting the rates-speeds of chemical reactions (9 linked pages)

Kinetics - advanced theory (2 linked pages)

Ozone depletion due to CFCs


OZ Inorganic chemistry and the periodic table (The ozone story, Salters A-Level chemistry)

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OZ Organic functional groups (The ozone story, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Halogenoalkanes - naming and structure (3 linked pages and quizzes, haloalkanes = halogenoalkanes!)

Halogenoalkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Halogenoalkanes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Functional Groups, organic molecule structure & representation & organic homologous series

Organic nitrogen compounds - structure, classification & naming


OZ Organic reactions and OZ organic mechanisms

Intermolecular forces/bonding - some further case studies

Intermolecular forces/bonding - boiling point plots for six organic homologous series

Organic chemistry mechanisms - an introduction and technical terms explained

Halogenoalkanes - introduction to the chemistry of haloalkanes/alkyl halides

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion to give alcohols

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc.

Alkanes - free radical chlorination/bromination mechanism to give halogenoalkanes

Ozone depletion due to CFCs


OZ Sustainability (The ozone story, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Ozone depletion due to CFCs


OZ Energy and matter (The ozone story, Salters A-Level chemistry)

Planck's Law calculation question and answers


WHAT'S IN A MEDICINE? (WM)

WM Organic functional groups (What's in a medicine, Salters A Level Chemistry)

Functional Groups, organic molecule structure & representation & organic homologous series

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Their structure and naming (and quizzes)

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and nomenclature

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and  nomenclature

Alcohols and ethers - molecular structure and naming (2 pages, with quizzes)


WM Organic reactions (What's in a medicine, Salters A Level Chemistry)

Organic synthesis - preparation of an ester

Alcohols - oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids (sections 9.1 to 9.3)

Alcohols - elimination of water to give an alkene

Alcohols - conversion of an alcohol to a halogenoalkane


WM Reaction mechanisms (What's in a medicine, Salters A Level Chemistry)

Organic chemistry mechanisms - an introduction and technical terms explained

Alcohols - elimination of water to give an alkene


WM Modern analytical techniques (What's in a medicine, Salters A Level Chemistry)

Mass spectrometry - introduction (including determination of relative molecular mass, i.d. of compounds)


Further topics NOT for AS chemistry, only for the full 2 year A Level Salters chemistry course


THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY (CI) (Salters A level chemistry)

CI Kinetics (The chemical industry, Salters A level chemistry)

Kinetics - introduction to advanced theory of rates of reactions - rate expressions, orders of reactions etc.

Kinetics - more advanced theory, case studies-rate expressions, Arrhenius equation, calculations etc.


CI Equilibrium (The chemical industry, Salters A level chemistry)

Chemical equilibria introduction - reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle

Chemical equilibria: applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Industrial Processes

Chemical equilibria: writing Kc expressions and doing equilibrium expression calculations

Chemical equilibria Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations


CI Inorganic chemistry and the periodic table (The chemical industry, Salters A level chemistry)

Periodic table - Group 5/15 Chemistry of nitrogen


CI Sustainability (The chemical industry, Salters A level chemistry)

Sustainability - some basic ideas

Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industry Economics & Sustainability, Life Cycle Assessment, Recycling

Products of the Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industries & Impact on Us

The Principles & Practice of Chemical Production - Synthesising Molecules


POLYMERS AND LIFE (PL) (Polymers and life, Salters A level chemistry)

PL Structure and bonding (Polymers and life, Salters A level chemistry)

Organic nitrogen compounds - structure, classification & naming

Protein-enzyme structure, function and inhibition

Chromatography - the basics of paper chromatography


PL Kinetics (Polymers and life, Salters A level chemistry)

Kinetics - more advanced theory, case studies-rate expressions

Enzymes and Biotechnology


PL Organic functional groups (Polymers and life, Salters A level chemistry)

Functional Groups, organic molecule structure & representation & organic homologous series

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Their structure and naming (and quizzes)

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and nomenclature

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and  nomenclature

Aldehydes & ketones: Their structure and naming (plus quizzes)

Aldehydes & ketones: Multiple choice on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Aldehydes & ketones: Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Organic structure: Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure

Organic structure: Combined Organic Matching Pair Quizzes on classification recognition

Organic nitrogen compounds - structure, classification & naming


PL Organic reactions (Polymers and life, Salters A level chemistry)

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Esterification of acid chlorides with alcohols to give an ester

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Amide formation from reaction of acid chlorides with ammonia or primary amines


PL Polymers (Polymers and life, Salters A level chemistry)

Polymers - the basics of addition polymer chemistry and uses, recycling

Polymers - the basics of condensation polymers, nylon, terylene, comparing thermoplastics, fibres, thermosets


PL Isomerism (Polymers and life, Salters A level chemistry)

Isomerism - introduction to stereoisomerism

Isomerism - R/S Optical Isomerism

Spotting Optical Isomers (sorry, hand written!) (answers)


PL Modern analytical techniques (Polymers and life, Salters A level chemistry)

Analysis - combined techniques (some 'simple' examples of determining structure) and answers


OCEANS (O) (Oceans, Salters A level chemistry)

O Energetics (Oceans, Salters A level chemistry)

Energetics - enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity, bond enthalpy related to calculations involving the Born-Haber cycle (3 linked pages)

Energetics - ΔS Entropy (5 linked pages)

Solubility product Ksp & common ion effect


O Equilibria (acid-base) (Oceans, Salters A level chemistry)

Chemical equilibria: acid-base theory, pH scale, strong/weak acids/bases, titrations - pH curves, buffers, worked out calculations (4 linked pages)

O Energy and matter (Oceans, Salters A level chemistry)

The greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint


DEVELOPING METALS (DM) (Developing metals, Salters A level chemistry)

DM Formulae, equations and amount of substance (Developing metals, Salters A level chemistry)

Redox titrations - calculation questions and worked out answers (including manganate(VII) titrations)


DM Bonding and structure (Developing metals, Salters A level chemistry)

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes & ligands

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes and isomerism

Molecule shapes and bond angles (last section on complex ions)


DM Redox (Developing metals, Salters A level chemistry)

Oxidation numbers & oxidation states and Redox reactions

Redox titrations - calculation questions and worked out answers

Electrode potentials, hydrogen electrode, cells etc.  (6 linked pages) eg

Simple cells, notation and construction

RUSTING the basics on causes and prevention


DM Inorganic chemistry and the periodic table (Developing metals, Salters A level chemistry)

Periodic Table: 3d-block, transition metals, chemistry, complexes, reactions of ions etc. (13 linked pages plus 12 Appendices, mention) eg

Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals and Data

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Iron

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Copper

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes & ligands

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes and isomerism

3d block Transition Metals - Catalysis

3d block Transition Metals - Electron configuration & colour theory


DM Energy and Matter (Developing metals, Salters A level chemistry)

3d block Transition Metals - Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula


COLOUR BY DESIGN (CD) (Colour by design, Salters A level chemistry)

CD Bonding and structure (Colour by design, Salters A level chemistry)

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CD Organic functional groups (Colour by design, Salters A level chemistry)

Natural vegetable oils, fats, margarine, emulsions and soap (some basic ideas)

Aromatic chemistry: Structure of molecules and nomenclature

Functional Groups, organic molecule structure & representation & organic homologous series

Organic structure: Combined Organic Matching Pair Quizzes on classification recognition

Organic structure: Quiz on type of organic molecule, recognition based on structure and recognition of functional groups

Functional Groups - Qualitative Analysis Tests for organic functional groups (use alphabetical index)


CD Organic reactions (Colour by design, Salters A level chemistry)

Aromatic chemistry:  Introduction to arene structure and electrophilic substitution mechanisms

Aromatic chemistry: Nitration to give nitro-aromatics like nitrobenzene

Aromatic chemistry: Chlorination to chloro-aromatics like chlorobenzene

Aromatic chemistry: Alkylation to give alkyl-aromatics like methylbenzene [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

Aromatic chemistry: Acylation to give aromatic ketones [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

Aromatic chemistry: Sulfonation to give a sulfonic acid like benzenesulfonic acid

Alcohols - oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids

Aldehydes & ketones: Their structure and naming (plus quizzes)

Aldehydes & ketones: Multiple choice on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Aldehydes & ketones: Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Aldehydes & ketones: Carbonyl compounds - introduction to their chemistry

Aldehydes & ketones: Nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to form a hydroxy-nitrile


CD Reaction mechanisms (Colour by design, Salters A level chemistry)

Organic chemistry reactions & mechanisms - an introduction and technical terms explained

Aldehydes & ketones: Nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to form a hydroxy-nitrile


CD Energy and matter (Colour by design, Salters A level chemistry)

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CD Modern analytical techniques (Colour by design, Salters A level chemistry)

Chromatography - the basics of gas chromatography

ALPHABETICAL SITE INDEX for chemistry     

Salters AS Chemistry (separate page)

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