Doc Brown's Chemistry  

SQA Higher Chemistry and SQA Advanced Higher Chemistry

My unofficial help-support for this Scottish Qualifications Authority higher chemistry and advanced higher syllabuses-specifications - Each topic or unit is linked to potentially useful sections on this site e.g. revision notes and exam questions

My page for SQA standard and intermediate grade chemistry

 READ CAREFULLY  PLEASE remember that despite the fact that my 'A level' chemistry notes are far from complete, and as yet, do not even cover all the basics but I think there is enough to start an unofficial support page. By clicking on the text and [ORGANIC], [INORGANIC], [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL] and [useful UK GCSE/IGCSE notes = SQA standard/intermediate grade] icon links you should find things to help on a particular topic.  The notes-quizzes are not just for your particular syllabus, but are designed to cover, eventually, any Chemistry in UK based advanced level pre-university chemistry specification so you need to pick out the bits which are useful for your syllabus. [Each link opens up in a new window]

 SQA HIGHER CHEMISTRY (H)  *  SQA ADVANCED HIGHER CHEMISTRY (AH)


SQA HIGHER CHEMISTRY (H)

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Unit 1 Energy Matters (H)

  1. Notes for the basics of rates of reactions

  2. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts & heterogeneous catalysts, obtaining data

  3. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  4. GCSE Multiple choice quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

  5. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations not sure if this level is needed here?

  6. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 1 "Historical Introduction"

  7. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies" section on ionization energy patterns

  8. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - section on electronegativity

  9. Introduction to BONDING

  10. Revision notes on the basics of Ionic BONDING

  11. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and small molecules and their properties

  12. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and giant structures and their properties and uses

  13. Revision notes on the basics of Metallic BONDING, properties and uses of metals

  14.  Bond polarity in organic molecules, boiling point and intermolecular forces

  15. Chemical Calculations index - 1. to 16. sections of explanation-examples and multiple choice and type in answer quizzes links are built into the notes

  16. section 7. introducing moles

  17. section 9. moles and molar gas volume

  18. (c) doc b section 10. Reacting gas volume ratios

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Unit 2 The World of Carbon (H)

  1. GCSE notes on Oil and useful products - The hydrocarbons from oil and their uses e.g. fuels, polymers/plastics, fossil fuels and environmental problems, fats and oils and soaps See also Alternative and Fossil Fuel Survey and Global warming discussion page.

  2. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

  3. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of alkanes

  4. Type in name Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (does include cycloalkanes)

  5. Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS (including classification into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols) and isomers, does include ethers, epoxy-alkanes which may not be needed

  6. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ethers

  7. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ethers

  8. Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Aldehydes and Ketones, including nomenclature of isomers

  9. Multiple choice on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of Aldehydes and Ketones

  10. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones

  11. Revision notes on the structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES, including nomenclature of isomers

  12. Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

  13. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

  14. Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure (drag and drop/printout version)

  15. Combined matching pair Exercises on organic molecular structure

  16. Notes on the Structure and Naming of Aromatic Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

  17. A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

  18. Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.)

  19. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - Alkane & alkene homologous series 'families', alcohols like ethanol, other organic molecule families e.g. carboxylic acids, esters  Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

  20. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols (use top summary table index)

  21. section 6. on reacting mass and % actual and theoretical yield

  22. section 14. % actual and theoretical yield

  23.  protein-enzyme structure, function and inhibition

  24. Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes - section on enzymes (keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)

  25.  Starter GCSE Notes on reversible reactions, equilibrium, ammonia synthesis

  26. Advanced Chemistry Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

  27. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  28. GCSE Multiple choice quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

  29. click me! Enthalpy and Bond Energy Calculation Questions  (answers)

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Unit 3 Chemical Reactions (H)

  1.  Starter GCSE Notes on reversible reactions, equilibrium, ammonia synthesis

  2. Advanced Chemistry Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

  3. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  4. GCSE Multiple choice quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

  5. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

  6. click me! Enthalpy and Bond Energy Calculation Questions  (answers)

  7. GCSE Aqueous Chemistry Notes - simple acid-base theory Sub-index at top of page

  8. Equilibria Part 3 equilibrium and industrial processes

  9. Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations (calculations not needed here?)

  10. The Reactivity Series of Metals, Corrosion and  Redox Reaction Notes - includes an introduction to oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions

  11. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions

  12. click me! redox titration calculation questions (all with worked out answers) (are these too hard?)

  13. section 13. electrolysis calculations

  14. Radioactivity and Nuclear Power - The structure of atoms linked to the properties and uses of alpha, beta and gamma radiation, radioisotope dating, half-life and explanation of fission/fusion nuclear reactions etc. Sub-index and

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SQA ADVANCED HIGHER CHEMISTRY (AH)


Unit 1 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table (AH)

  1. Planck's Law calculation question (ans)

  2. Advanced Level Inorganic Chemistry Periodic Table Index * Part 1 Periodic Table history * Part 2 Electron configurations, spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, ionisation energies * Part 3 Period 1 survey H to He * Part 4 Period 2 survey Li to Ne * Part 5 Period 3 survey Na to Ar * Part 6 Period 4 survey K to Kr and important trends down a group * Part 7 s-block Groups 1/2 Alkali Metals/Alkaline Earth Metals * Part 8  p-block Groups 3/13 to 0/18 * Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens * Part 10 3d block elements & Transition Metal Series * Part 11 Group & Series data & periodicity plots * All 11 Parts have their own sub-indexes near the top of the pages

  3. Revision notes on shapes and bond angles of simple molecules (VSEPR), ions, transition metal complexes and a section on shape and bond angles in organic molecules

  4. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

  5. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 2 analysing and constructing full redox equations from half-cell reactions

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Unit 2 Principles of Chemical Reactions (AH)

  1. section 9. moles and molar gas volume

  2. section 11. making up solutions, concentration & molarity

  3. section 12. acid-alkali titration calculations - apparatus/analysis

  4. Structured Question worksheet on Acid-Base, silver nitrate for chloride and EDTA volumetric titration calculations (answers)

  5. Structured Question worksheet on Redox Volumetric Titration Calculation Questions (answers and working)

  6. Experimental question style - redox titration (ans) based on Q1 of above

  7. Advanced Chemistry Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

  8. Equilibria Part 2 Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

  9. Equilibria Part 4 Partition and solvent extraction

  10. Methods of separating mixtures including chromatography (use index at top)

  11. Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes - section on chemical analysis e.g. glc gas chromatography, emission spectroscopy (keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)

  12. Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations (I'm not sure what calculations are needed here?)

  13. Equilibria Part 6 Salt hydrolysis, Acid-base titrations-indicators, pH curves and buffers

  14. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  15. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

  16. click me! Enthalpy and Bond Energy Calculation Questions  (answers)

  17. A Level Thermodynamics Part 2 ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

  18. Thermodynamics Part 3 ΔS Entropy and ΔG Free Energy Changes

  19. Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability - includes example of free energy-entropy feasibility calculation

  20. Equilibrium Part 7 Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction, electrolysis and electrochemical series

  21. Notes for the basics of rates of reactions

  22. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts & heterogeneous catalysts, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction

  23. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data

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Unit 3 Organic Chemistry (AH)

  1.  MECHANISM Introduction and terms used in organic chemistry (on the mechanism pages the type of reaction, basic reaction equations and conditions are quoted which may act as a suitable reference, also a reaction index)

  2.  Mechanism of the free radical chlorination/bromination of alkanes to make halogenoalkanes

  3. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

  4.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes to make bromoalkanes (introduction and example of electrophilic addition to alkenes)

  5.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] (introduction to, and example of, nucleophilic substitution in halogenoalkanes)

  6.  Mechanism not needed?: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Elimination of hydrogen bromide to give an alkene

  7.  Mechanism not needed?: Alcohols - elimination of water to make an alkene [acid catalysed dehydration]

  8.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes with pure bromine to make dibromoalkanes

  9.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes using bromine water to make bromo-alcohols

  10.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of water to alkenes to make alcohols [acid catalyst]

  11. Revision notes on the structure and naming of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes notes parts 1-3), including nomenclature of many isomers

  12. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

  13. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

  14. Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.)

  15.  Mechanism: Alcohols - elimination of water to make an alkene [acid catalysed dehydration]

  16. Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS (including classification into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols) and isomers, does include ethers, epoxy-alkanes which may not be needed

  17. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ethers

  18. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ethers

  19. Matching pair Quiz on alcohol, phenol & ether structure (drag and drop/printout version)

  20. Matching pair Quiz on alcohols, phenols & ether reactions (drag and drop printout version)

  21. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols, reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro-aromatic compounds (nitro-arenes) and nitriles (use top summary table index)

  22.  Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile

  23. Revision notes on the Structure, Classification and Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

  24. Multiple choice quiz on the Classification, Structure and Naming (nomenclature) of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

  25. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

  26.  MECHANISMS AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms

  27.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene introduction to electrophilic substitution and nitration to form nitro-aromatic compounds

  28.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution chlorination to give halogenoarenes  (similar for bromine, just swap Cl with Br)

  29.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution alkylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

  30.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution aromatic Sulfonation/sulfonation to give sulphonic/sulfonic acids

  31.  Organic Chemistry (2) STEREOISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  32.  Organic Chemistry (2a) Geometrical Isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  33.  Organic Chemistry (2b) Optical Isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  34. Spotting optical isomers Q (hand written) (answers)

 

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