Doc Brown's Chemistry

US K12 honors (K-12 honours) Advanced Chemistry

US pre-university Grade 11 and Grade 12 chemistry syllabuses

Some sections may be useful for AP and other elective chemistry courses in the USA

Each topic or unit is linked to potentially useful sections on this site e.g. revision notes

 READ CAREFULLY  PLEASE remember that despite the fact that my 'advanced level' pre-university chemistry notes are far from complete, and as yet, do not even cover all the basics, but I think there is enough to start a on-site links page. By clicking on the text and [ORGANIC CHEMISTRY], [INORGANIC CHEMISTRY] and [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY] icon links you should find things to help on a particular topic.  The notes-quizzes are not just for your particular syllabus, but are designed to cover, eventually, any advanced level pre-university chemistry specification so you need to pick out the bits which are useful for your syllabus.  [Each link opens up in a new window] [ALL LINKS SHOULD WORK IF THIS PAGE IS SAVED]


 

 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

ALKANES and OIL:

  1. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

  2. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of alkanes

  3. Type in name Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and nomenclature of cycloalkanes)

  4. General Test on "Development of Fuels"

  5. Quiz on the Petrochemical Industry

  6. Matching pair Quiz on hydrocarbon structure (Drag and drop/printout version)

ALKENES

  1. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

  2. Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES

  3. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of ALKENES

HALOGENOALKANES

  1. Revision notes on the structure and naming of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes notes parts 1-3), including nomenclature of many isomers

  2. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

  3. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

ALCOHOLS an ETHERS

  1. Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS (including classification into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols), ETHERS, epoxy-alkanes (parts 1-2), including isomers

  2. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ETHERS

  3. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ETHERS

  4. Matching pair Quiz on alcohol, phenol & ether structure (drag and drop/printout version)

  5. Matching pair Quiz on alcohols, phenols & ether reactions (drag and drop printout version)

ALDEHYDES and KETONES

  1. Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Aldehydes and Ketones, including nomenclature of isomers

  2. Multiple choice on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of Aldehydes and Ketones

  3. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

  1. Revision notes on the structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES, including nomenclature of isomers

  2. Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

  3. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

  4. Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure (drag and drop/printout version)

  5. Combined matching pair Exercises on organic molecular structure

ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  1. Revision notes on the Structure, Classification and Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

  2. Multiple choice quiz on the Classification, Structure and Naming (nomenclature) of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

  3. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

AROMATIC CHEMISTRY

  1. Notes on the Structure and Naming of Aromatic Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

  2. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds

ISOMERISM and STEREOCHEMISTRY

  1.  Organic Chemistry ISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  2.  Organic Chemistry (1) STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  3.  Organic Chemistry (1a) Chain isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  4.  Organic Chemistry (1b) Positional isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  5.  Organic Chemistry (1c) Functional group isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  6.  Organic Chemistry (1d) Tautomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  7.  Organic Chemistry (2) STEREOISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  8.  Organic Chemistry (2a) Geometrical Isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  9.  Organic Chemistry (2b) Optical Isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  10. Spotting optical isomers Q (hand written) (answers)

  11.  (2c) Other organic stereochemistry including amino acids-proteins-polypeptides-enzymes (including enzyme inhibition) & isotactic/atactic/syndiotactic poly(propene)

  12.  chiral auxiliaries and  combinational chemistry

  13.  protein-enzyme structure, function and inhibition

ORGANIC SYNTHESIS and REACTION MECHANISMS

  1.  MECHANISM Introduction and terms used in organic chemistry (on the mechanism pages the type of reaction, basic reaction equations and conditions are quoted which may act as a suitable reference, also a reaction index)

  2.  Mechanism of the free radical chlorination/bromination of alkanes to make halogenoalkanes

  3.  Mechanism of the free radical thermal cracking of alkanes

  4.  Mechanism of the ionic catalytic cracking of alkanes

  5.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes to make bromoalkanes

  6.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes with pure bromine to make dibromoalkanes

  7.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes using bromine water to make bromo-alcohols

  8.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of sulphuric acid to alkenes

  9.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of water to alkenes to make alcohols [acid catalyst]

  10.  Mechanism of free radical polymerisation of alkenes to form a poly(alkene) polymer

  11.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] and  extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, activated complex etc.

  12.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to make a nitrile

  13.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia or primary amine to make amines

  14.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Elimination of hydrogen bromide to give an alkene

  15.  Mechanism: Alcohols - conversion to halogenoalkane

  16.  Mechanism: Alcohols - elimination of water to make an alkene [acid catalysed dehydration]

  17.  Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile

  18.  Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones addition of hydrogen - reduction with LiAlH4 or NaBH4 to give an alcohol

  19.  Mechanism of the iodination of ketones e.g. a 2-one like propanone (a methyl ketone)

  20.  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - hydrolysis with water to give a carboxylic acid

  21.  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - esterification with alcohols

  22.  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - amide formation with ammonia or primary amines

  23.  MECHANISMS AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms

  24.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene introduction to electrophilic substitution and nitration to form nitro-aromatic compounds

  25.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution chlorination to give halogenoarenes  (similar for bromine, just swap Cl with Br)

  26.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution alkylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

  27.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution acylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

  28.  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution aromatic Sulfonation/sulfonation to give sulphonic/sulfonic acids

  29.  Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms - the orientation of products in aromatic substitution

Some general ORGANIC links

  1. A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

  2. General test on type of Organic Molecule Recognition based on examples of structure and recognition of functional groups, including isomers, so the quiz is mainly on recognition of types of molecules and their structural features and classification

  3. Revision notes on molecule shapes - section added on the bond angles of organic molecules

  4. ALIPHATIC ORGANIC STRUCTURE and NOMENCLATURE BUMPER MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ

  5. Type in name ALIPHATIC ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE BUMPER QUIZ - on most of aliphatic nomenclature based on 6 combined quizzes: alkanes, alkenes, haloalkanes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives (amides, acid chlorides, esters etc.)

  6. Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.)

  7. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols, reduction of aldehydes & ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro-aromatic compounds (nitro-arenes) and nitriles (use top summary table index)


 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

  1. click me! Part 1 "Historical Introduction to the Periodic Table"

  2. click me! Part 2 "Electronic Structure, Hydrogen Spectrum Ionisation Energies" (7 sections over 3 pages after re-editing)

  3. Electron configurations of elements (Z = 1 to 56), ions and the Periodic Table

  4. Spectroscopy, hydrogen spectrum, evidence of quantum levels, ionisation energy patterns

  5. click me! Part 3 "Survey of Period 1: hydrogen H to helium He" (1 page only)

  6. click me! Part 4 "Survey of Period 2: lithium Li to neon Ne" (3 pages)

  7. click me! Period 2 trends & explanations of physical properties

  8. click me! Period 2 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions

  9. click me! Part 5 "Survey of Period 3: sodium Na to argon Ar" (3 pages)

  10. click me! Period 3 trends & explanations of physical properties

  11. click me! Period 3 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions

  12. Part 5 Survey of Period 4 elements

  13. 6.2 Period 4 trends in physical properties

  14. 6.3 Period 4 trends in bonding and formulae

  15. 6.4 Important trends down Groups

  16. click me! Part 7 "Groups 1 Alkali Metals and Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals"

  17. Part 8 The p-block elements  : 8.1 Group 3/13 Introduction : Boron : Aluminium * 8.2 Group 4/14 Introduction : Carbon : Silicon : Semi-metals like Ge * 8.3 Group 5/15 Introduction : Nitrogen : Phosphorus * 8.4 Group 6/16 Introduction : Oxygen : Sulfur * 8.5 Group 0/18 The Noble Gases

  18. Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens 9.1 Introduction, trends & Group 7/17 data * 9.2 Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend  * 9.3 Reactions of halogens with other elements * 9.4 Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid * 9.5 Tests for halogens and halide ions * 9.6 Extraction of halogens from natural sources * 9.7 Uses of halogens & compounds * 9.8 Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions * 9.9 Volumetric analysis - titrations involving halogens or halide ions * 9.10 Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links * 9.11 Chemical bonding in halogen compounds * 9.12 Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry

  19. click me! Part 10 3d block TRANSITION METALS: 10.1-10.2 Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals and Data * 10.3 Scandium * 10.4 Titanium * 10.5 Vanadium * 10.6 Chromium * 10.7 Manganese * 10.8 Iron * 10.9  Cobalt * 10.10 Nickel * 10.11 Copper * 10.12 Zinc * 10.13 Other Transition Metals e.g. Ag and Pt * Appendix 1. Hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions * Appendix 2. Complexes & ligands * Appendix 3. Complexes and isomerism * Appendix 4. Electron configuration & colour theory * Appendix 5. Redox equations, feasibility, E * Appendix 6. Catalysis * Appendix 7. Redox equations * Appendix 8. Stability Constants and entropy changes * Appendix 9. Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula * Extra Appendix 10 3d block - extended data * Appendix 11 Some 3d-block compounds, complexes, oxidation states & electrode potentials * Appendix 12 Hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations

  20. click me! Part 11A: Data  tables on Groups 1-7,0, 3d-block-Transition Metals Series, (Groups 1-18) & Periods 2-4

  21. click me! 11B(i) Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20 Period 1 to start of Period 4 (all re-edited)

  22.  11B(ii) Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 38 Period 1 to start of Period 5 (all re-edited)

  23.  11B(iii) Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 96 Period 1 to start of Period 7 (all re-edited)

  24.  11B(iv) DATA for the Periodicity plots


PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY

CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS

  1. GCSE Atomic Structure Notes including mass spectrometry of elements - the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure notation, 'simple' electronic structure and the Periodic Table and mass spectrometry for isotope analysis and calculation of relative atomic mass (Ar)

  2. Chemical Calculations index - 1. to 16. sections of explanation-examples and quizzes built into the notes, designed up to higher GCSE and basic GCE-AS/IB calculations

  3. section 1. relative atomic mass

  4. section 2. formula mass

  5. section 3. simple reacting mass calculations

  6. section 4. % composition by mass of a compound

  7. section 5. empirical formula

  8. section 6. on reacting mass and % & theoretical yield

  9. section 7. introducing moles

  10. (c) doc b section 8. Using moles to deduce empirical/molecular formula of a compound/molecule

  11. section 9. moles and molar gas volume

  12. (c) doc b section 10. Reacting gas volume ratios

  13. section 11. making up solutions, concentration & molarity

  14. section 12. acid-alkali titration calculations - apparatus/analysis

  15. Structured Question worksheet including Acid-Base volumetric titration calculations (answers)

  16. section 13. electrolysis calculations

  17. section 14. % & theoretical yield, volumetric apparatus & dilution calculations

  18. (c) doc b section 16. Gas calculations involving PVT relationships, PV = nRT and determining molecular mass of a volatile liquid

  19. Structured Question worksheet on Acid-Base, silver nitrate for chloride and EDTA volumetric titration calculations (answers)

  20. Structured Question worksheet on Redox Volumetric Titration Calculation Questions (answers and working)

  21. Experimental question style - redox titration (ans) based on Q1 of above

Spectroscopy

  1. NMR problem solving

  2. Planck's Law calculation question (ans)

Equilibria

  1. Advanced Chemistry Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

  2. Equilibria Part 2 Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

  3. Equilibria Part 3 equilibrium and industrial processes

  4. Equilibria Part 4 Partition and solvent extraction, solubility product and ion-exchange

  5. Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations

  6. Equilibria Part 6 Salt hydrolysis, Acid-base titrations-indicators, pH curves and buffers

  7. Equilibrium Part 7 Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction, electrolysis and electrochemical series

  8. Equilibria Part 8 Phase equilibria-vapour pressure, organic molecule examples - bond polarity, boiling point and intermolecular forces

Atomic structure, bonding, molecule shapes and states of matter

  1. Atomic Structure Notes including mass spectrometry of elements - the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure notation, 'simple' electronic structure and the Periodic Table and mass spectrometry for isotope analysis and calculation of relative atomic mass (Ar)

  2. Multiple choice quiz on  Atomic structure, isotopes & 'simple' electronic structure of atoms

  3. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies" - Electron arrangements - electron configurations and the Periodic Table - s, p, d and f blocks - ionization energy patterns

  4. Introduction to BONDING

  5. Revision notes on the basics of Ionic BONDING

  6. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and small molecules

  7. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and giant structures

  8. Revision notes on the basics of Metallic BONDING

  9. Revision notes on shapes and bond angles of simple molecules (VSEPR), ions, transition metal complexes and a section on shape and bond angles in organic molecules

  10. States of Matter: gas-liquid-solid revision notes

  11.  States of Matter Part II More advanced topics on the Ideal Gas Laws, p-V-T and PV=nRT calculations, kinetic particle model-theory and ideal and non-ideal real gas behaviour (compressibility factors and Van der Waals equation)

  12.  Section on bond polarity in organic molecules, boiling point and intermolecular forces

Part 5 Energetics

  1. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  2. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

  3. click me! Enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion and Bond Energy Calculation Questions  (answers)

  4. A Level Thermodynamics Part 2 ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

  5. Thermodynamics Part 3 ΔS Entropy and ΔG Free Energy Changes

  6. Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability - includes a free energy-entropy calculation example

Part 6 Rates - Kinetics

  1. Notes for the basics of rates of reactions

  2. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts & heterogeneous catalyst, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction

  3. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

  4. Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

Part 7 Oxidation and reduction - REDOX REACTIONS

  1. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

  2. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 2 analysing and constructing full redox equations from half-cell reactions

  3. click me! redox titration calculation questions (all with worked out answers)

 

 
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