Doc Brown's Chemistry

International Baccalaureate Chemistry - Diploma Programme of IB Chemistry

My unofficial support for this IB chemistry syllabus-specification

Links to revision note pages that may help with the core and option topics for Standard Level (SL) and Additional Higher Level (AHL), from which there are links to notes and quizzes etc. - Each topic or unit is linked to potentially useful sections on this site

 READ CAREFULLY  PLEASE remember that despite the fact that my 'A level' chemistry notes are far from complete, and as yet, do not even cover all the basics, but I think there is enough to start an unofficial support page. By clicking on the text and [ORGANIC], [INORGANIC], [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL] and [useful GCSE/IGCSE O level notes] icon links you should find things to help on a particular topic.  The notes-quizzes are not just for your particular syllabus, but are designed to cover, eventually, any Chemistry in UK based advanced level pre-university chemistry specification so you need to pick out the bits which are useful for your syllabus. [Each link opens up in a new window] [ALL LINKS SHOULD WORK IF THIS PAGE IS SAVED]


INDEX of syllabus-specification section links

Core Topics 1 to 12 for Standard Level and Additional Higher Level

Topic 1 Quantitative Chemistry    Topic 2 Atomic structure    Topic 3 Periodicity

Topic 4 Bonding    Topic 5 Energetics    Topic 6 Kinetics    Topic 7 Equilibrium

Topic 8 Acids and bases    Topic 9 Oxidation and reduction

Topic 10 Organic Chemistry    Topic 11 Measurement and Data Processing

Additional Higher Level Topics 12 to 20 SL and HL Options

Topic 12 Atomic structure    Topic 13 Periodicity    Topic 14 Bonding    Topic 15 Energetics

Topic 16 Kinetics    Topic 17 Equilibrium    Topic 18 Acids and Bases

Topic 19 Oxidation and reduction    Topic 20 Organic Chemistry


Core Topics 1 to 12 for Standard Level and Additional Higher Level


Topic 1 Quantitative Chemistry  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Chemical Calculations index - 1. to 16. sections of explanation-examples and quizzes built into the notes, designed up to higher GCSE and basic GCE-AS/IB calculations

  2. section 7. introducing moles

  3. (c) doc b section 8. Using moles to deduce empirical/molecular formula of a compound/molecule

  4. How to understand and write chemical equations including ionic equations and work out molecular and ionic formulae from valencies or ion charges

  5. section 9. moles and molar gas volume

  6. section 6. on reacting mass and % & theoretical yield

  7. section 14. % & theoretical yield, volumetric apparatus & dilution calculations

  8. (c) doc b section 16. Gas calculations involving PVT relationship and PV = nRT

  9. section 11. making up solutions, concentration & molarity

  10. section 12. acid-alkali titration calculations - apparatus/analysis

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Topic 2 Atomic structure  (IB Chemistry)

  1. GCSE Atomic Structure Notes including mass spectrometry of elements - the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure notation, 'simple' electronic structure and the Periodic Table and mass spectrometry for isotope analysis and calculation of relative atomic mass (Ar)

  2. GCSE multiple choice quiz on  Atomic structure, isotopes & 'simple' electronic structure of atoms

  3. Radioactivity and Nuclear Power - includes properties and uses of alpha, beta and gamma radiation, radioisotope dating, half-life etc.

  4. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies" - includes section on hydrogen spectrum and emission spectroscopy

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Topic 3 Periodicity  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Summary of the Periodic Table - A basic introduction: Explanation and overview of Groups, Periods, Series etc. with links to more detailed notes on the Group 1 Alkali Metals, Group 7 Halogens, Group 0 Noble Gases and Transition Metals.

  2. Periodic Table Notes Part 11: Compiled tables of data on Groups 1-7,0 and 3d-block-Transition Metals

  3. click me! Data-periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20 Period 1, Period 2, Period 3 and start of Period 4

  4.  periodicity graph for elements Z = 1-38 Period 1, Period 2, Period 3, Period 4 and start of Period 5

  5. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 section on electronegativity

  6. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 7 Group 1 Alkali Metals and Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - detailed revision notes

  7. Multiple choice Quiz on Group 1 Alkali Metals and Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals (easy start!)

  8. Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens 9.1 Introduction, trends & Group 7/17 data * 9.2 Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend  * 9.3 Reactions of halogens with other elements * 9.4 Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid * 9.5 Tests for halogens and halide ions * 9.6 Extraction of halogens from natural sources * 9.7 Uses of halogens & compounds * 9.8 Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions * 9.9 Volumetric analysis - titrations involving halogens or halide ions * 9.10 Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links * 9.11 Chemical bonding in halogen compounds * 9.12 Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry

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Topic 4 Bonding  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Introduction to BONDING

  2. Revision notes on the basics of Ionic BONDING

  3. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and small molecules

  4. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and giant structures

  5. Revision notes on the basics of Metallic BONDING

  6. Revision notes on shapes and bond angles of simple molecules (VSEPR), ions, transition metal complexes and a section on shape and bond angles in organic molecules

  7. States of Matter: gas-liquid-solid revision notes

  8.   Section on bond polarity in organic molecules, boiling point and intermolecular forces

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Topic 5 Energetics  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  2. GCSE Multiple choice quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

  3. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

  4. click me! Enthalpy and Bond Energy Calculation Questions  (answers)

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Topic 6 Kinetics  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Notes for the basics of rates of reactions

  2. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts & heterogeneous catalyst, obtaining data

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Topic 7 Equilibrium  (IB Chemistry)

  1.  Starter GCSE Notes on reversible reactions, equilibrium, ammonia synthesis

  2. Advanced Chemistry Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

  3. Equilibria Part 2 Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

  4. Equilibria Part 3 equilibrium and industrial processes

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Topic 8 Acids and Bases  (IB Chemistry)

  1. GCSE Notes on Acids, Bases, Alkalis, pH, Neutralisation and Salts - includes theory, lots of formulae and word and balanced symbol equations, salt preparations and equations.

  2. Extra GCSE Aqueous Chemistry Notes - simple acid-base theory, salt preparations.  Use sub-index at top of page.

  3. Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations

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Topic 9 Oxidation and reduction  (IB Chemistry)

  1. The Reactivity Series of Metals, Corrosion and  Redox Reaction Notes - The reactions of metals with oxygen, water and acids, displacement reactions, rusting of iron and preventing its corrosion, plus an introduction to oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, simple cells etc.  The notes on each metal are listed in reactivity order.

  2. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

  3. Revision notes on Inorganic redox reactions - Part 2 analysing and constructing full redox equations from half-cell reactions

  4. Extra GCSE notes on Electrochemistry - an introduction to electrolysis, theory, electrolysis cells, industrial electrolysis process links summary, experimental methods for electrolysis, electrode equations, simple cells/batteries, fuel cells etc.

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Topic 10 Organic chemistry  (IB Chemistry)

  1. A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry

  2. General test on type of Organic Molecule Recognition based on examples of structure and recognition of functional groups, including isomers, so the quiz is mainly on recognition of types of molecules and their structural features and classification

  3.  Organic Chemistry ISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  4.  Organic Chemistry (1) STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  5.  Organic Chemistry (1a) Chain isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  6.  Organic Chemistry (1b) Positional isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  7.  Organic Chemistry (1c) Functional group isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  8. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

  9. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of alkanes

  10. Type in name Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and nomenclature of cycloalkanes)

  11. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES (and cycloalkanes) notes, including nomenclature of isomers

  12. Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES

  13. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of ALKENES

  14. Revision notes on the structure and naming of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes notes parts 1-3), including nomenclature of many isomers

  15. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

  16. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of HALOGENOALKANES (haloalkanes)

  17. Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS (including classification into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols) and isomers, does include ethers, epoxy-alkanes which may not be needed

  18. Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ethers

  19. top Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of aliphatic ALCOHOLS and ethers

  20. Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Aldehydes and Ketones, including nomenclature of isomers

  21. Multiple choice on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of Aldehydes and Ketones

  22. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones

  23. Revision notes on the structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES, including nomenclature of isomers

  24. Multiple choice Quiz on the Structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

  25. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS & DERIVATIVES

  26. Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure (drag and drop/printout version)

  27. Combined matching pair Exercises on organic molecular structure

  28. GCSE notes on Oil and useful products - The hydrocarbons from oil and their uses e.g. fuel combustion, fossil fuels and environmental problems, polymerisation, polymers etc.

  29.  MECHANISM Introduction and terms used in organic chemistry (on the mechanism pages the type of reaction, basic reaction equations and conditions are quoted which may act as a suitable reference, also a reaction index)

  30.  Mechanism of the free radical chlorination/bromination of alkanes to make halogenoalkanes

  31. ALIPHATIC ORGANIC STRUCTURE and NOMENCLATURE BUMPER MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ - on most of aliphatic nomenclature based on 6 combined quizzes: alkanes, alkenes, haloalkanes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives (amides, acid chlorides, esters etc.)

  32. Type in name ALIPHATIC ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE BUMPER QUIZ - on most of aliphatic nomenclature based on 6 combined quizzes: alkanes, alkenes, haloalkanes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives (amides, acid chlorides, esters etc.)

  33. Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.)

  34. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - Alkane & alkene homologous series 'families', alcohols like ethanol, other organic molecule families e.g. carboxylic acids, esters, polymers Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

  35. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols (use top summary table index)

  36.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] and  extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, activated complex etc.


Topic 11 Measurements and data processing  (IB Chemistry)

  1. -

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Additional Higher Level Topics 12 to 20  (IB Chemistry)

Topic 12 Atomic structure  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies" - Electron arrangements - electron configurations and the Periodic Table - s, p, d and f blocks

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Topic 13 Periodicity  (IB Chemistry)

  1. click me! Part 4 "Survey of Period 2: lithium Li to neon Ne" (3 pages)

  2. click me! Period 2 trends & explanations of physical properties

  3. click me! Period 2 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions

  4. click me! Part 5 "Survey of Period 3: sodium Na to argon Ar" (3 pages)

  5. click me! Period 3 trends & explanations of physical properties

  6. click me! Period 3 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions

  7. Periodic Table Notes Part 11: Compiled tables of data on Groups 1-7,0 and 3d-block-Transition Metals

  8.  periodicity graph for elements Z = 1-38 Period 1, Period 2, Period 3, Period 4 and start of Period 5

  9. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 4 "Survey of Period 2 Elements and Trends" (3 linked pages)

  10. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 5 "Survey of Period 3 Elements and Trends" (3 linked pages)

  11. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 10a "3d block Transition Metals Series Introduction and Elements Sc to Mn on Period 4 - detailed revision notes

  12. INORGANIC Part 10 3d block TRANSITION METALS sub-index: 10.1-10.2 Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals * 10.3 Scandium * 10.4 Titanium * 10.5 Vanadium * 10.6 Chromium * 10.7 Manganese * 10.8 Iron * 10.9  Cobalt * 10.10 Nickel * 10.11 Copper * 10.12 Zinc * 10.13 Other Transition Metals e.g. Ag and Pt

  13. TRANSITION METALS continued: Appendix 1. Hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions * Appendix 2. Complexes & ligands * Appendix 3. Complexes and isomerism * Appendix 4. Electron configuration & colour theory * Appendix 5. Redox equations, feasibility, E * Appendix 6. Catalysis * Appendix 7. Redox equations * Appendix 8. Stability Constants and entropy changes * Appendix 9. Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula * Extra Appendix 10 3d block - extended data * Appendix 11 Some 3d-block compounds, complexes, oxidation states & electrode potential chart * Appendix 12 Hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations

  14.  Starter GCSE Notes on reversible reactions, equilibrium, ammonia synthesis

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Topic 14 Bonding  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Revision notes on shapes and bond angles of simple molecules (VSEPR), ions, transition metal complexes and a section on shape and bond angles in organic molecules

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Topic 15 Energetics  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  2. GCSE Multiple choice quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

  3. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

  4. A Level Thermodynamics Part 2 ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

  5. Thermodynamics Part 3 ΔS Entropy and ΔG Free Energy Changes

  6. Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability - includes example of free energy-entropy feasibility calculation

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Topic 16 Kinetics  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Notes for the basics of rates of reactions

  2. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts & heterogeneous catalyst, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction

  3. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability

  4.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] and  extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, activated complex etc.

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Topic 17 Equilibrium  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Equilibria Part 8 Phase equilibria-vapour pressure, organic molecule examples - bond polarity, boiling point and intermolecular forces

  2. Equilibria Part 2 Kc equilibrium expressions and calculations

  3. Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations

  4. Equilibria Part 6 Salt hydrolysis, Acid-base titrations-indicators, pH curves and buffers

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Topic 18 Acids and Bases  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations

  2. Equilibria Part 6 Salt hydrolysis, Acid-base titrations-indicators, pH curves and buffers

  3. Part 10c Appendices on Transition Metals: Appendix 1. Acidity of hexa-aqua ions

  4. Structured Question worksheet on Acid-Base volumetric titration calculations (answers)

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Topic 19 Oxidation and reduction  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Equilibrium Part 7 Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction, electrolysis and electrochemical series

  2. Extra GCSE notes on Electrochemistry - an introduction to electrolysis, theory, electrolysis cells, industrial electrolysis process links summary, experimental methods for electrolysis, electrode equations, simple cells/batteries, fuel cells etc.

  3. section 13. electrolysis calculations

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Topic 20 Organic Chemistry  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Revision notes on the Structure, Classification and Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds, including nomenclature of isomers

  2. Multiple choice quiz on the Classification, Structure and Naming (nomenclature) of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

  3. Type in name Quiz on the nomenclature of Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

  4.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] and  extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, activated complex etc.

  5.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to make a nitrile

  6.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia to make a primary amine

  7. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including reduction of nitriles (use top summary table index)

  8.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Elimination of hydrogen bromide to give an alkene

  9. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - brief notes organic molecule families e.g. carboxylic acids, esters, polymers  Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

  10.  Organic Chemistry (2) STEREOISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  11.  Organic Chemistry (2a) Geometrical Isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  12.  Organic Chemistry (2b) Optical Isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  13. Spotting optical isomers Q (hand written) (answers)


Options Standard Level/Higher Level: SL and HL Options

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A Modern Analytical Chemistry  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies" -  section on hydrogen spectrum and emission spectroscopy

  2. NMR problem solving

  3. Methods of separating mixtures including chromatography (use index at top)

  4. Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes - short section on chemical analysis e.g. glc gas chromatography, emission spectroscopy and section on chemical economics etc. (use the keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)

  5. HL only Part 10c Appendices on Transition Metals: Sections on:  Electron configuration and colour theory * Colorimetry - quantitative analysis and determining the formula of a complex ion

  6. HL only NMR problem solving

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B Human Biochemistry  (IB Chemistry)

  1.  (2c) Other organic stereochemistry including amino acids-proteins-polypeptides-enzymes (including enzyme inhibition)

  2. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes -  carbohydrates, sugars Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

  3. HL only KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations including enzymes

  4. HL only Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes - section on enzymes (use the keyword alphabetical index near top of the

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C Chemistry in industry and technology  (IB Chemistry)

  1. The Mining of Minerals and the Extraction of Metals - the extraction of aluminium, chromium, copper (and electrolysis  purification), iron, sodium, titanium and zinc, method details and equations, and method related to reactivity of metal and environmental and economic issues. (use the keyword alphabetical index near top of the page)

  2. Revision notes on the basics of Metallic BONDING, properties and uses of metals

  3.  (2c) Other organic stereochemistry including isotactic/atactic/syndiotactic poly(propene)

  4. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes - section on homogeneous catalysts & heterogeneous catalysts

  5. HL only  Mechanism of free radical polymerisation of alkenes to form a poly(alkene) polymer

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D Medicines and drugs  (IB Chemistry)

  1. HL only Part 10b 3d-block Transition Metals Fe to Zn - detailed revision notes + brief notes on other transition elements - mention of cis-platin

  2. HL only  Organic Chemistry (2) STEREOISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  3. HL only  Organic Chemistry (2a) Geometrical Isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  4. HL only  Organic Chemistry (2b) Optical Isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  5. HL only Spotting optical isomers Q (hand written) (answers)

  6. HL only  Organic stereochemistry including section 2b.4 on Thalidomide

  7. HL only  chiral auxiliaries and  combinational chemistry

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E Environmental chemistry  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - short section on CFC's, Ozone layer and free radicals.  Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

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F Food Chemistry  (IB Chemistry)

  1. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - a few 'bits' on natural fats & oils, hydrogenation of fats, food additives  Use sub-index and keyword list at top of page.

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G Further organic chemistry  (IB Chemistry)

  1.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes to make bromoalkanes

  2.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes with pure bromine to make dibromoalkanes

  3.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes using bromine water to make bromo-alcohols

  4.  Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile

  5.  Mechanism: Alcohols - elimination of water to make an alkene [acid catalysed dehydration]

  6.  MECHANISMS AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms

  7. HL only  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - hydrolysis with water to give a carboxylic acid

  8. HL only  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - esterification with alcohols

  9. HL only  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - amide formation with ammonia or primary amines

  10. HL only  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene introduction to electrophilic substitution and nitration to form nitro-aromatic compounds

  11. HL only  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution chlorination to give halogenoarenes  (similar for bromine, just swap Cl with Br)

  12. HL only  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution alkylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

  13. HL only  Mechanism: Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution acylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction]

 


PAST PAPERS practice paper links  (IB Chemistry)

Higher Papers http://www.freeexampapers.com/past_papers.php?l=Past_Papers%2FIB%2FChemistry%2FHigher/

Standard papers http://www.freeexampapers.com/past_papers.php?l=Past_Papers%2FIB%2FChemistry%2FStandard/

Chemistry Higher Level 3 example from 2004 http://www.ibo.org/diploma/curriculum/examples/samplepapers/documents/gp4_chemistyhl3.pdf


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