Doc Brown's Chemistry

Cambridge International Level 3 Pre-U Certificate in Chemistry (Principal syllabus A Level Chemistry syllabus 9791)

My unofficial support for this Cambridge pre-U Chemistry syllabus-specification * Scroll down and each module, topic or unit is linked to potentially useful sections on this site

 READ CAREFULLY  My 'A level' chemistry notes are far from complete BUT by clicking on the links for [ORGANIC], [INORGANIC], [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL] and [useful UK based GCSE/IGCSE revision notes] you should find things to help on a particular topic.  By following a link you will find some useful information and use the sub-indexes of key words or headings at the top of each page. To return to this page click on the <== back on the browser link bar. All the syllabus-topic-unit titles are taken from the official syllabus. I do not have time to deliver extended responses to email questions and do NOT ask for past papers. [Each link opens up in a new window] [ALL LINKS SHOULD WORK IF THIS PAGE IS SAVED]


Cambridge International Level 3 Pre-U Certificate in Chemistry: syllabus-specification sections

1. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : PART A A1.0 Assumed Knowledge * A1.1 Atomic Structure * A1.2 Chemical forces * A1.3 Energy Changes

.. 1. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : PART B B1.4 Free Energy and Entropy * B1.5 Equilibrium * B1.6 Gases and Kinetics * B1.7 Chemical Models and Evidence

.. 2. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY : Part A A2.1 Periodic Table * A2.2 Main Group Chemistry (except Group 14)

.. 2. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY : Part B B2.3 From Non-metals to Metals Group 14 * B2.4 Transition Elements * B2.5 Crystal Structures

.. 3. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : PART A A3.1 Preliminaries * A3.2 Functional Group Level * A3.3 Lower Functional Group Level Reactions - Alcohol Level * A3.4 Lower Functional Group Level Reactions - Carbonyl Level * A3.5 Addition and Elimination Reactions * A3.6 Green Chemistry

.. 3. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : PART B B3.7 Higher Functional Group Level - Carboxylic Acid Level * B3.8 Higher Functional Group Level - Carbon Dioxide Level * B3.9 Mechanisms * B3.10 Aromatic Chemistry * B3.11 Basicity and Acidity * B3.12 Stereochemistry

.. 4. ANALYSIS : Part A A4.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis * A4.2 Mass Spectrometry * A4.3 Electronic Spectroscopy * A4.4 Infra-red * A4.5 Carbon-13 NMR

.. 4. ANALYSIS : Part B B4.6 NMR of other spin nuclei

1. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : PART A (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)


A1.0 Assumed Knowledge (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. How to understand and write chemical equations including ionic equations and work out molecular and ionic formulae from valencies or ion charges (some basic revision notes)

  2. click me! Structured question worksheet on Acid Reaction word equations and symbol equations (word equation answers * symbol equation answers)

  3. Chemical Calculations index - 1. to 16. sections of explanation-examples and multiple choice quizzes and type in answer quizzes links are built into the notes, designed up to higher GCSE and basic GCE-AS/IB calculations e.g.

  4. GCSE Atomic Structure Notes including mass spectrometry of elements - the structure of atoms, isotopes, nuclear structure notation, 'simple' electronic structure and the Periodic Table and mass spectrometry for isotope analysis and calculation of relative atomic mass (Ar) and measurement of molecular mass

  5. GCSE multiple choice quiz on  Atomic structure, isotopes & 'simple' electronic structure of atoms

  6. Introduction to BONDING the following sections cover the basic ideas, but some of the advanced concepts are NOT dealt with yet

  7. Revision notes on the basics of Ionic BONDING and an ionic lattice

  8. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and small molecules and their properties

  9. Revision notes on the basics of Covalent BONDING and giant structures and their properties and uses

  10. Revision notes on the basics of Metallic BONDING, properties and uses of metals

  11. doc b GCSE Quiz on the Structure, Properties and Chemical Bonding of Materials

  12.  Starter GCSE Introductory notes on reversible reactions, equilibrium e.g. ammonia synthesis

  13. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  14. GCSE Multiple choice revision quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions a bit of basic revision!

  15. States of Matter: gas-liquid-solid revision notes

  16. doc b GCSE Quiz on States of Matter (gases, liquids & solids) and State Changes

  17.  States of Matter Part II More advanced topics on the Ideal Gas Laws, p-V-T and PV=nRT calculations, kinetic particle model-theory and ideal and non-ideal real gas behaviour (compressibility factors and Van der Waals equation)

  18. GCSE Notes for the basics of Rates of Reactions - chemical kinetics!

  19. doc b GCSE Quiz on the Rates of Chemical Reactions

  20. Extra GCSE notes on Electrochemistry - an introduction to electrolysis, theory, electrolysis cells, industrial electrolysis process links summary, experimental methods for electrolysis, electrode equations, simple cells/batteries, fuel cells etc. basic ideas only


A1.1 Atomic Structure (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. GCSE Atomic Structure Notes

  2. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies" - Electron arrangements - electron configurations and the Periodic Table - s, p, d and f blocks - ionization energy patterns, section on hydrogen spectrum and emission spectroscopy (3 linked pages)


A1.2 Chemical forces (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. The shapes and bond angles of simple molecules (VSEPR), ions, transition metal complexes and a section on shape and bond angles in organic molecules

  2.   Equilibria Part 8 includes bond polarity in organic molecules, boiling point and intermolecular forces

  3. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - includes sections on bond length and bond order [section 1.4b(i)]

  4.  Some notes on amino acids-proteins-polypeptides-enzymes


A1.3 Energy Changes (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Basic notes of exothermic and endothermic reactions and calculation of enthalpy changes from 'simple' calorimetry experiments and resulting data

  2. GCSE Multiple choice revision quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions a bit of basic revision!

  3. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Calorimetry experiments - Enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion and bond dissociation are explained with exemplar calculations

  4. click me! Enthalpy and Bond Energy Calculation Questions  (answers)

  5. Thermodynamics Part 2 ΔH Enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity and the Born-Haber cycle

  6. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, catalysts See also computer simulation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies


1. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : PART B (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)


B1.4 Free Energy and Entropy (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Thermodynamics Part 3 ΔS Entropy and ΔG Free Energy Changes and feasibility of reaction


B1.5 Equilibrium (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Equilibria Part 1. Dynamic molecular equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle

  2. Equilibria Part 2 Kc and Kp equilibrium expressions and calculations

  3. Equilibria Part 3 equilibrium and industrial processes (can ignore the Kp/Kc equilibrium expressions and concentrate on the application of Le Chatelier's Principle to industrial processes if don't need know about them) See also computer simulation of ammonia equilibrium composition

  4. Equilibria Part 5 pH, weak-strong acid-base theory (Lewis and Bronsted-Lowry) and Ka, kb and Kw equilibrium calculations advanced notes

  5. Equilibria Part 6 Salt hydrolysis, Acid-base titrations-indicators, pH curves and buffers

  6. Inorganic redox reactions - Part 1 includes introduction to electronegativity, explaining oxidation and reduction reactions and oxidation state/oxidation number changes

  7. Inorganic redox reactions - Part 2 analysing and constructing full redox equations from half-cell reactions

  8. Equilibrium Part 7 Redox equilibria, half-cell electrode potentials, predicting feasibility of a reaction,  ΔG free energy changes (use top index)


B1.6 Gases and Kinetics (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. States of Matter: gas-liquid-solid revision notes

  2.  States of Matter Part II More advanced topics on the Ideal Gas Laws, p-V-T and PV=nRT calculations, kinetic particle model-theory and ideal and non-ideal real gas behaviour (compressibility factors and Van der Waals equation)

  3. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: temperature effect and activation energy, homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts, obtaining data, rate expressions and orders of reaction, deducing orders of reaction See also computer simulation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies

  4. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions and calculations, deriving the activation energy Ea from kinetics-rates data and Kinetic versus thermodynamic stability


B1.7 Chemical Models and Evidence (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1.  States of Matter Part II More advanced topics on the Ideal Gas Laws, p-V-T and PV=nRT calculations, kinetic particle model-theory and ideal and non-ideal real gas behaviour (compressibility factors and Van der Waals equation)

  2. KINETICS - advanced rates of reactions revision notes: Selected case studies of kinetics and rate expressions CASE STUDY 4.1 Hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes


2. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY : Part A (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)


A2.1 Periodic Table (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. click me! Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20 Period 1 to start of Period 4

  2.  Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 38 Period 1 to start of Period 5

  3.  Periodicity graph for elements Z = 1 to 96 Period 1 to start of Period 7

  4. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 4 "Survey of Period 2 Elements and Trends" (3 linked pages)

  5. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 5 "Survey of Period 3 Elements and Trends" (3 linked


A2.2 Main Group Chemistry (except Group 14) (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Part 9 Group 7/17 The Halogens 9.1 Introduction, trends & Group 7/17 data * 9.2 Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend  * 9.3 Reactions of halogens with other elements * 9.4 Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid * 9.5 Tests for halogens and halide ions * 9.6 Extraction of halogens from natural sources * 9.7 Uses of halogens & compounds * 9.8 Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions * 9.9 Volumetric analysis - titrations involving halogens or halide ions * 9.10 Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links * 9.11 Chemical bonding in halogen compounds * 9.12 Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry

  2. Redox analysis of the reaction of chlorine with sodium hydroxide (Redox Part 2, Example 5.14) and other examples involving halogen reactions: 5.2, 5.12, 6.2, 6.6, 6.10, 6.11and 6.12 (there is an index for the redox reactions described.

  3. p-block elements - Group 6 - section on sulphuric acid

  4. Extra GCSE Industrial Chemistry Notes - section on limestone and decomposition of carbonates (index at top of page)

  5. Periodic Table: detailed Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 7 Group 1 Alkali Metals and Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - section of decomposition of carbonates and explanation of stability trend (section 7.11)

  6. Thermodynamics Part 1: Thermochemistry - Discussion of halogen and halogen bond enthalpies [section 1.4b


2. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY : Part B (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)


B2.3 From Non-metals to Metals Group 14 (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Group 4/14 Introduction : Carbon : Silicon : Semi-metals like Ge


B2.4 Transition Elements (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. INORGANIC Part 10 3d block TRANSITION METALS sub-index: 10.1-10.2 Introduction 3d-block Transition Metals * 10.3 Scandium * 10.4 Titanium * 10.5 Vanadium * 10.6 Chromium * 10.7 Manganese * 10.8 Iron * 10.9  Cobalt * 10.10 Nickel * 10.11 Copper * 10.12 Zinc * 10.13 Other Transition Metals e.g. Ag and Pt

  2. TRANSITION METALS continued: Appendix 1. Hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions * Appendix 2. Complexes & ligands * Appendix 3. Complexes and isomerism * Appendix 4. Electron configuration & colour theory * Appendix 5. Redox equations, feasibility, E * Appendix 6. Catalysis * Appendix 7. Redox equations * Appendix 8. Stability Constants and entropy changes * Appendix 9. Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula * Appendix 10 3d block - extended data * Appendix 11 Some 3d-block compounds, complexes, oxidation states & electrode potential chart * Appendix 12 Hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations


B2.5 Crystal Structures (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. -


3. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : PART A (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)


A3.1 Preliminaries (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. The shapes and bond angles of simple molecules - section on bond angles in organic molecules

  2. A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry (look for 'general formulae' and links to organic molecular structure and nomenclature/naming pages)

  3. The structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES (and cycloalkanes) nomenclature of isomers

  4. Revision notes on the structure & naming (nomenclature) of ALKENES (and cycloalkanes) notes

  5. Notes on the Structure and Naming of Aromatic Compounds

  6. Revision notes on the structure and naming of HALOGENOALKANES/HALOALKANES and classification into primary (prim)/secondary (sec)/tertiary (tert)

  7. Revision notes on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of aliphatic ALCOHOLS Part 1 Classification into primary (prim), secondary (sec) and tertiary (tert)

  8. Revision notes on the Structure and Naming of Carbonyl Compounds Aldehydes and Ketones

  9. Revision notes on the structure and naming of CARBOXYLIC ACIDS and DERIVATIVES

  10. Revision notes on the Structure, Classification and Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds

  11.  Organic Chemistry ISOMERISM general definition and links to types of isomerism notes (use sub-index at top of page)

  12.  Organic Chemistry (1) STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  13.  Organic Chemistry (1a) Chain isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  14.  Organic Chemistry (1a) Chain isomerism (Ex 1a.1 discusses alkane isomers, intermolecular forces and boiling point)

  15.  Organic Chemistry (1b) Positional isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  16.  Organic Chemistry (1c) Functional group isomerism (use sub-index at top of page)

  17.  Organic Chemistry (2) STEREOISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  18.  Organic Chemistry (2a) Geometrical Isomerism (E/Z) was called cis/trans) (use sub-index at top of page)

  19.  Organic Chemistry (2b) Optical Isomerism (R/S isomerism) (use sub-index at top of page)

  20.  ORGANIC CHEMISTRY MECHANISMS INDEX - Including an introduction to TYPES of ORGANIC REACTION and terms used in organic chemistry

Alkanes and Petrochemical Industry INDEX

The Molecular Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes

Fractional distillation of crude oil and uses of products

Modification of alkanes by cracking, isomerisation and reforming

Complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes and environmental pollution

Modification of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures and alternative fuels

Chlorination and bromination of alkanes, reaction mechanisms and uses of products

 


A3.2 Functional Group Level (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. A summary of homologous series, functional group names and structure in Organic Chemistry (look for 'general formulae' and links to organic molecular structure and nomenclature/naming pages)

  2. Organic synthesis redox reactions - includes discussion of functional group level in Appendix 1.


A3.3 Lower Functional Group Level Reactions - Alcohol Level (Pre-U chemistry)

  1.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] (introduction to, and example of, nucleophilic substitution in halogenoalkanes) (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  2.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to make a nitrile (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  3.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia or primary amine to make amines (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  4. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including oxidation of alcohols/aldehydes (section 9.1 etc.)


A3.4 Lower Functional Group Level Reactions - Carbonyl Level (Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Qualitative Analysis: Tests for organic functional groups notes (use alphabetical index for homologous series, reagents etc.) (alphabetical keyword index at top of page)

  2.  Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  3. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including reduction of aldehydes/ketones (section 8.2)


A3.5 Addition and Elimination Reactions (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Organic synthesis redox reactions - reduction of alkenes to alkanes (section 8.1)

  2.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes to make bromoalkanes (introduction and example of electrophilic addition to alkenes) (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  3.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes with pure bromine to make dibromoalkanes  (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  4.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes using bromine water to make bromo-alcohols (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  5.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of water to alkenes to make alcohols [acid catalyst] (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  6.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Elimination of hydrogen bromide to give an alkene (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  7. GCSE notes on Oil polymers of alkenes to make plastics

  8. Extra GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - An introduction to polymer structure addition and condensation polymers  (basic ideas in sections 4b and 4c


A3.6 Green Chemistry (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Calculations section 6. Reacting masses of reactants and products and actual percent % yield, theoretical yield and atom economy

  2. Calculations section 14. More on % actual and theoretical yield and atom economy (sub-index near top of page)


3. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : PART B (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)


B3.7 Higher Functional Group Level - Carboxylic Acid Level (Pre-U chemistry)

  1.  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - hydrolysis with water to give a carboxylic acid (general equations and reaction conditions quoted too)

  2.  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - esterification with alcohols (general equations and reaction conditions quoted too)

  3.  Mechanism: Acid chlorides/acyl chlorides - nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions - amide formation with ammonia or primary amines (general equations and reaction conditions quoted too)

  4. GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - An introduction to addition polymers

  5. GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - comparing addition and condensation polymers 

  6. GCSE Organic Chemistry Notes - preparation of an ester (described in section 4a)

  7. Organic synthesis redox reactions - including reduction of aldehydes/carboxylic acids nitriles (section 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4)


B3.8 Higher Functional Group Level - Carbon Dioxide Level (Pre-U chemistry)

  1. -


B3.9 Mechanisms (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes/alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion [SN1 or SN2, hydrolysis to alcohol] (introduction to, and example of, nucleophilic substitution in halogenoalkanes) (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation) AND  extra notes on kinetics, rds, molecularity, activated complex etc.

  2.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to make a nitrile (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  3.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia or primary amine to make amines (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  4.  Mechanism: Halogenoalkanes (haloalkanes, alkyl halides) Elimination of hydrogen bromide to give an alkene (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  5.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes to make bromoalkanes (introduction and example of electrophilic addition to alkenes) (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  6.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes with pure bromine to make dibromoalkanes  (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  7.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of bromine to alkenes using bromine water to make bromo-alcohols (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  8.  Mechanism of electrophilic addition of water to alkenes to make alcohols [acid catalyst] (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)

  9.  Mechanism: Carbonyl compounds - aldehydes/ketones nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to give a hydroxynitrile (includes reagents, reaction conditions and exemplar balanced equations showing product formation)


B3.10 Aromatic Chemistry (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Enthalpies of hydrogenation as evidence for benzene ring structure in section 1.4d

  2.  AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - introduction to arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms links to various reactions including equation and reaction conditions MECHANISM's NOT NEEDED

  3.  Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene introduction to electrophilic substitution and nitration to form nitro-aromatic compounds (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given) MECHANISM's NOT NEEDED

  4.  Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution chlorination to give halogenoarenes  (similar for bromine, just swap Cl with Br) (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given) MECHANISM's NOT NEEDED

  5.  Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution alkylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction] (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given) MECHANISM's NOT NEEDED

  6.  Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution acylation [Friedel-Crafts reaction] (basic equation, reagents and reaction conditions given) MECHANISM's NOT NEEDED

  7.  Aromatic hydrocarbons - arene electrophilic substitution mechanisms - the orientation of products in aromatic substitution


B3.11 Basicity and Acidity (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Revision notes on the Structure, Classification and Naming of Organic Nitrogen Compounds


B3.12 Stereochemistry (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1.  Organic Chemistry (2) STEREOISOMERISM general definition (use sub-index at top of page)

  2.  Organic Chemistry (2b) Optical Isomerism (R/S isomerism) (use sub-index at top of page)


4. ANALYSIS : Part A (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)


A4.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS: Chemical Identity Tests - Gives descriptions of lots of tests for gases, ions - cations and anions, organic functional groups/homologous series etc. (keyword alphabetical index at top of page)

  2. section 7. Introducing moles - the connection of moles, mass and formula mass

  3. (c) doc b section 8. Using moles to deduce empirical/molecular formula of a compound/molecule starting with reacting masses or % composition by mass

  4. section 9. moles and molar gas volume and Avogadro's Law

  5. (c) doc b section 10. Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law

  6. section 11. Making up solutions - concentration & molarity

  7. section 12. Volumetric acid-alkali titration easy calculations - apparatus/analysis

  8. Structured Question worksheet including acid-base volumetric titration calculations (answers)


A4.2 Mass Spectrometry (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. GCSE Mass spectrometry of elements - mass spectrometers - basic ideas and measurement of molecular mass


A4.3 Electronic Spectroscopy (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. Periodic Table Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Notes Part 2 "Electronic Structure and Ionisation Energies"  section on hydrogen spectrum and emission spectroscopy (section 2.6)


A4.4 Infra-red (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. SIMPLE introductory NMR problem solving with % composition and infra-red absorption data


A4.5 Carbon-13 NMR (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. -


4. ANALYSIS : Part B (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

B4.6 NMR of other spin nuclei (Cambridge Pre-U chemistry)

  1. -


Appendix 1 Practical Assessment

-


Cambridge Pre-U-CHEMISTRY

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