AQA GCE Advanced A Level CHEMISTRY

(advanced level chemistry specification syllabus 7405)

PLEASE REMEMBER THAT YOU NEED TO REVISE ALL of the two years work for the final A Level Examination - anything can come up!

 Doc Brown's Unofficial Support for AQA GCE Advanced A Level Chemistry

AQA AS Level Chemistry (separate page)

Doc Brown's Chemistry Clinic - chemistry revision notes for the AQA A level chemistry course from September 2015 - UNOFFICIAL HELP for this AQA A level chemistry UK based Advanced Level Chemistry Courses

First examinations in the summer of 2017 for the full two year A level course

Selected HELP links to my Advanced Level Chemistry revision notes based on the three index pages ...

[ORGANIC CHEMISTRY] * [INORGANIC CHEMISTRY] * [PHYSICAL-THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY]

PLEASE NOTE for students doing the AQA A level chemistry course.

  1. My notes are not in anyway to be an alternative to your teacher, your textbooks or lesson notes for the AQA A level chemistry course.
  2. BUT, sometimes a different presentation of a topic in your AQA A level chemistry course can help your understanding.
  3. SO, a little 'study supplement' to your academic diet is freely available online via doc brown's website.
  4. Scrolling down the page, you will find the links to my notes are organised to fit in with topic/unit/module headings in the order specified in the official syllabus-specification for the AQA A level chemistry course.
  5. More links will be added over the next year and the A level chemistry notes expanded to cover more topics in the AQA A level chemistry course.
  6. When following a link to potentially useful study material, also check out the sub-index links at the top or bottom of page.
  7. You will find the [Google Search Box] at the bottom of the page very useful for looking up aspects of your AQA A level chemistry course.
  8. I don't really have time to deliver extended responses to email questions, and do NOT ask for past papers for the AQA A level chemistry examinations though I will do my best to provide links to past papers as they appear on the AQA A level chemistry exam board website.
  9. I don't mind queries or comments on my web pages irrespective of their usefulness to the AQA A level chemistry examination course.

Summary of AQA GCE Advanced Level Advanced A Level Units and Contents Links

SPECIFICATION CONTENT


1 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)


1.1 Atomic Structure (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Atomic structure, sub-atomic particles, Bohr model and isotopes

Mass spectrometry - introduction (including determination of relative atomic mass, molecular mass)

Electronic Structure of atoms and ionisation energies (7 sections on 3 linked pages) eg

Introduction to s p d f orbitals and electronic energy levels and order of filling of quantum levels

Working out electron configurations for atoms, setting them out in the 'modern' periodic table (also sections on ions and oxidation state)

Hydrogen spectrum, emission/absorption spectra, ionisation energies, evidence for quantum levels

Periodic Table - physical property trends in Period 3

Periodicity graphs for elements Z = 1 to 20. Period 1 to start of Period 4


1.2 Amount of Substance (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Chemical Calculations - Index (lots of pages to browse through, examples and quizzes on the basics!) eg

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

Using moles to calculate empirical formula and deduce molecular formula of a compound/molecule (starting with reacting masses or % composition)

Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law - volumes of gases formed in reactions

Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

PVT calculations and PV = nRT calculations

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

How to do acid-alkali titration calculations, diagrams of apparatus, details of procedures

% purity of a product * % reaction yield * atom economy * dilution of solutions

Acid-base and other non-redox titration questions (2 pages of questions with worked out answers)

Some Advanced A Level Practical Exercises and Calculations


1.3 Bonding (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Chemical bonding: Introduction and index

Electronegativity, bond polarity, type of chemical bonding

Chemical bonding: Ionic Bonding – compounds and properties

More on ionic structures and ionic bonding

Working out electron configurations for atoms and ions

Chemical bonding: Covalent Bonding – small simple molecules and their properties

More on covalent bonding - dative covalent bonding

Introduction to shapes of molecules - VSEPR theory - lots of inorganic molecule/ion examples

Some other shapes of molecules/ions of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine

The shapes and bond angles of organic molecules

Introduction to intermolecular forces - intermolecular bonding

Detailed comparative discussion of boiling points of 8 organic molecules

Boiling point plots for six organic homologous series and explaining the trends and differences

Other case studies of boiling points related to intermolecular forces for a variety of compounds

Evidence and theory for hydrogen bonding in simple covalent hydrides

Chemical bonding: Covalent Bonding: macromolecules and giant covalent structures and  Graphene

Chemical bonding: Metallic Bonding - structure and properties of metals

Types of Crystal Structure and their relative physical properties


1.4 Energetics (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Energetics - introduction to enthalpy changes (4 linked pages including practical methods of calorimetry)

Reversible reactions and energy changes

Activation energy and reaction profiles

Introduction to bond energy/enthalpy calculations

Calorimetry methods and energy transfer calculations from calorimeter results

Energetics - detailed notes on enthalpy changes (6 linked pages and question page)

ΔH Enthalpy Changes

Advanced level introduction to enthalpy changes – enthalpies of reaction, formation, combustion

Thermochemistry – Hess's Law and enthalpy calculations using enthalpies of reaction, combustion & formation

Bond enthalpy calculations

Calorimetric experimental methods for determining enthalpy changes and treatment of results

Some enthalpy data patterns

The combustion of linear alkanes and linear aliphatic alcohols

Energetics - basic enthalpy changes questions with worked out answers


1.5 Kinetics (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Kinetics Index lots of pages to peruse e.g.

How can we measure the speed or rate of a chemical reaction?

Collision theory of chemical reactions (see also individual factors)

Activation energy and reaction profiles

The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular kinetic energies (related to temperature and catalyst rate factors)

Effect on rate of changing the temperature of reactants

Effect on rate of changing reactant concentration in a solution/gas mixture

Effect on rate of changing pressure in reacting gases (gaseous equivalent of concentration)

Effect on rate of using a catalyst in a chemical reaction (See Maxwell-Boltzmann link too)

Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis mechanisms


1.6 Chemical equilibria, Le Chatelier’s principle and Kc (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Chemical equilibria  introduction - reversible reactions, dynamic equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle (practical examples described)

How to write K expressions and the effect of temperature on the equilibrium constant

Chemical equilibria - writing Kc expressions and doing equilibrium expression calculations (examples described including esterification)

Chemical equilibria - applying Le Chatelier's Principle to Industrial Processes


1.7 Oxidation, reduction and redox equations (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Basic introduction to redox reactions (but only the electron definitions important at A level)

Oxidation states and Redox reactions


1.8 Thermodynamics (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Introducing enthalpies of ion hydration, solution, atomisation, lattice energy, electron affinity, solvation

Enthalpy cycles involving a salt dissolving

The Born–Haber Cycle calculations and uses, comparing theoretical and experimental lattice enthalpies

Introduction to Entropy

Examples of entropy values and comments

Feasibility of chemical change, ΔG, free energy change equation, calculations and applications


1.9 Rate equations (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Obtaining rate data, interpreting data, deducing orders of reaction and rate expressions

The Arrhenius equation and calculating the activation energy Ea from kinetics–rates data


1.10 Equilibrium constant Kp for homogeneous systems (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Part 0. Introduction Examples of reversible reactions and Reversible reactions & what we mean by chemical equilibrium

(GCSE/IGCSE level, but a useful simple 'revision' introduction, the links below are all for advanced A level students)

Part 1. Introduction - examples of reversible reactions described, dynamic equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle

Part 2a. How to write equilibrium expressions and the effect of temperature on the equilibrium constant K

Part 2b. How to write Kc equilibrium expressions, units and exemplar Kc calculations including esterification

Part 2c. How to write Kp expressions, units, partial pressures and exemplar Kp equilibrium calculations

Part 3. Applying Le Chatelier's Principle and equilibrium expressions to Industrial Processes


1.11 Electrode potentials and electrochemical cells (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

GCSE/IGCSE/O level Notes on Electrochemistry (lots of basic stuff on several pages)

Half cell equilibria, electrode potential

Simple cells notation and construction

The hydrogen electrode and standard conditions

Half–cell potentials, Electrochemical Series and using Eθcell for reaction feasibility

Electrochemical cells ('batteries') and fuel cell systems


1.12 Acids and bases (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

GCSE 9-1 /IGCSE notes on acids and bases (lots of basic stuff)

Lewis and Bronsted–Lowry acid–base theories

self–ionisation of water and pH scale

strong acids–examples–calculations

weak acids–examples & pH–Ka–pKa calculations

strong bases–examples–pH calculations

weak bases– examples

A level notes on Acids, Bases, Salts, uses of acid–base titrations – upgrade from GCSE!

Acid–base indicator theory, pH curves and titrations

Buffers – definition, formulation and action

Buffer calculations

Case studies of buffer function


2 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)


2.1 Periodicity (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Periodic Table - electronic basis - electron configurations of elements (2 linked pages)

Periodic Table: Describing and explaining the physical property trends in Period 3


2.2 Group 2, the alkaline earth metals (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Periodic Table - s-block including detailed notes on Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals - introduction

Oxides of s–block metals, water reaction & hydroxides, acid reaction & salts, chlorine reaction & halides

Carbonates & hydrogencarbonates, solubility trends, uses of s–block metals and their compounds

Periodic Table - Important trends down a group (including group 2)


2.3 Group 7(17), the halogens (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Periodic table - Group 7/17 Halogens - Introduction 

Halogen displacement reactions and reactivity trend

Reactions of halogens with other elements - halides

Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid

Tests for halogens and halide ions

Uses of halogens & their compounds


2.4 Properties of Period 3 elements and their oxides (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Periodic Table: Survey of Period 3: sodium Na to argon Ar - introduction - physical properties and chemical reactions

Periodic Table: Describing and explaining the physical property trends in Period 3

Period 3 trends in bonding, structure, oxidation state, formulae and reactions of oxides and chlorides with water


2.5 Transition metals (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Periodic Table: 3d-block Transition Metals - Introduction (13 linked pages plus 12 Appendices, mention of Al3+) e.g.

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Chromium

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Manganese

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Iron

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Cobalt

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Nickel

Chemistry of 3d block transition metals - Copper

3d block Transition Metals - Hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes & ligands

3d block Transition Metals - Complexes and isomerism

3d block Transition Metals - Electron configuration & colour theory

3d block Transition Metals - Redox equations, feasibility of a redox reaction, Eø

3d block Transition Metals - Catalysis

3d block Transition Metals - Redox equations

3d block Transition Metals - Stability Constants and entropy changes

3d block Transition Metals - Colorimetric analysis and complex ion formula

Some 3d-block transition metal complexes, oxidation states & electrode potentials

3d block transition metals - Hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations


2.6 Reactions of ions in aqueous solution (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Periodic Table: 3d block transition metals - hydroxide complex precipitate 'pictures', formulae and equations

Periodic Table: 3d block Transition Metals - hydrated salts, acidity of hexa-aqua ions

Qualitative Analysis Tests for inorganic gases, ions (cations and anions) etc. (use alphabetical index)


3 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)


3.1 Introduction to organic chemistry (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Functional Groups, organic molecule structure, styles of representation and organic homologous series

Alkanes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES

Alkanes - Type in name  Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and naming cycloalkanes)

Alkenes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkenes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alkenes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Halogenoalkanes - naming and structure (3 linked pages and quizzes)

Halogenoalkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Halogenoalkanes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Alcohols - molecular structure and naming (2 pages, with quizzes)

Alcohols - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alcohols - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Organic chemistry mechanisms - an introduction and technical terms explained

Isomerism in organic chemistry: introduction, type definitions, examples explained (several useful pages on types of structural and stereoisomerism)

General Quiz on type of organic molecule, recognition based on structure and recognition of functional groups

A bumper multiple choice quiz on naming aliphatic compounds

A bumper type in name quiz on naming aliphatic compounds

Matching pair quiz on hydrocarbon structure

Organic structure: Matching pair Quiz on aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acid and ester structure

Organic structure: Combined Organic Matching Pair Quizzes on classification recognition

Shapes of organic molecules and bond angles


3.2 Alkanes (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Alkanes - molecular structure and naming (with quizzes)

Alkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on the structure and naming (nomenclature) of ALKANES

Alkanes - Type in name  Quiz on the structure & naming of ALKANES (and naming cycloalkanes)

Alkanes - fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions

Alkanes - Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products

Alkanes - complete combustion and incomplete combustion - pollution etc.

Alkanes - free radical chlorination/bromination mechanism to give halogenoalkanes

Alkanes and Petrochemical Industry INDEX

The Molecular Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes

Fractional distillation of crude oil and uses of products

Modification of alkanes by cracking, isomerisation and reforming

Complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes and environmental pollution

Modification of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures and alternative fuels

Chlorination and bromination of alkanes, reaction mechanisms and uses of products


3.3 Halogenoalkanes (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Halogenoalkanes - naming and structure (3 linked pages and quizzes)

Halogenoalkanes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Halogenoalkanes Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Halogenoalkanes - free radical chlorination/bromination mechanism of alkanes to give halogenoalkanes

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by water/hydroxide ion

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by cyanide ion to give a nitrile

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc.

Halogenoalkanes - Elimination of hydrogen bromide to form alkenes

Ozone depletion due to CFCs


3.4 Alkenes (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Alkenes - molecular structure and naming (with quiz)

Alkenes - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alkenes - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Alkenes - introduction to their chemistry and electrophilic addition reactions & polymerisation (5 linked pages)

Polymers - the basics of addition polymer chemistry and uses


3.5 Alcohols (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Alcohols - molecular structure and naming (2 pages, with quizzes)

Alcohols - Multiple choice Quiz on their structure and naming

Alcohols - Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Alcohols - Ethanol, manufacture, physical properties and introduction to its chemical reactions

Biofuels & alternative fuels, hydrogen, biogas, biodiesel

Alcohols - oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids (sections 9.1 to 9.3)

Alcohols - elimination of water to give an alkene


3.6 Organic analysis (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Functional Groups - Qualitative Analysis Tests for organic functional groups (use alphabetical index)

Mass spectrometry - introduction (including determination of molecular mass)


3.7 Optical isomerism (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Isomerism - R/S Optical Isomerism


3.8 Aldehydes and ketones (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Aldehydes & ketones: Their structure and naming

Aldehydes & ketones: Multiple choice on their structure and naming (nomenclature)

Aldehydes & ketones: Type in name Quiz on their nomenclature

Aldehydes & ketones: Carbonyl compounds - introduction to their chemistry

Aldehydes & ketones: Nucleophilic addition of hydrogen cyanide to form a hydroxy-nitrile

Aldehydes & ketones: Addition of hydrogen - reduction with LiAlH4 or NaBH4 to give alcohols


3.9 Carboxylic acids and derivatives (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Their structure and naming (and quizzes)

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and nomenclature

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Type in name Quiz on their structure and  nomenclature

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: common reactions and uses

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Esters, chemistry and uses including perfumes

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Hydrolysis of acid chlorides with water to give a carboxylic acid

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Esterification of acid chlorides with alcohols to give an ester

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Amide formation from reaction of acid chlorides with ammonia or primary amines

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Natural vegetable oils, fats, margarine, soaps


3.10 Aromatic chemistry (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry) e.g. benzene and methylbenzene

Aromatic chemistry: Enthalpies of Hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, evidence of aromatic ring structure in benzene

Aromatic chemistry: Structure and nomenclature

Aromatic chemistry:  Introduction to arene structure and electrophilic substitution mechanisms

Aromatic chemistry: Nitration to give nitro-aromatics like nitrobenzene

Aromatic chemistry: Acylation to give aromatic ketones [Friedel-Crafts reaction]


3.11 Amines (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Organic nitrogen compounds - structure, classification & naming

Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution by ammonia/primary amine to give primary/secondary amines etc.

Carboxylic acids & derivatives: Amide formation from reaction of acid chlorides with ammonia or primary amines


3.12 Polymers (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Polymers - the basics of condensation polymers, nylon, terylene, comparing thermoplastics, fibres, thermosets

Polymers - the basics of addition polymer chemistry and uses, recycling


3.13 Amino acids, proteins and DNA (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)


3.14 Organic synthesis (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)


3.15 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)


3.16 Chromatography (AQA GCE Advanced A Level chemistry)

Chromatography - the basics of paper, thin layer and gas chromatography

 
 

The NEW A Level Chemistry Courses that started in September 2015

AQA AS Chemistry * AQA A Level Chemistry * Edexcel AS Chemistry * Edexcel A level Chemistry

OCR AS Chemistry * OCR A Level Chemistry * Salters AS Chemistry * Salters A Level Chemistry


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