OCR Level 1/2 GCSE (Grade
91) in
Physics A
(Gateway Science) (J249) Foundation Tier Paper 1/Higher Tier Paper 3
and OCR Level 1/2 GCSE (Grade
91) in
Combined Science A (Gateway Science) (J250) FT Paper 5/HT Paper 11
Physics
Syllabusspecification CONTENT INDEX of revision summary notes
INDEX
for all links
These are my
NEW revision summaries for Y10 starting in September 2016, first
exams from MayJune 2018 onwards. ALL my unofficial GCSE (Grade 91)
revision help is based on the NEW 2016 official OCR Gateway Science
(Grade 91) GCSE physics/combined science specifications
Make sure you know whether
you are doing separate OCR Gateway Science GCSE grade 91 PHYSICS OR
OCR Gateway Science GCSE grade 91 Combined Science physics, BOTH are covered on this page and one other!
(OCR Gateway Combined Science course students do NOT need to know
sections on this page  all such sections are indicated e.g. GCSE
PHYSICS ONLY)
The Google [SEARCH]
box at the bottom of the page should also prove useful
Syllabusspecification CONTENT INDEX for OCR GCSE
Gateway Science A
(HT only) means higher
tier only (NOT FT), (GCSE physics only) means NOT for GCSE Combined
Science physics
Revision summaries for OCR GCSE Physics A
FT Paper 1 or HT Paper 3 (this page for Topics P1 to P4 + P9)
AND GCSE
Combined Science FT Paper 5 or HT Paper 11 (this page for Topics P1 to P3 +
CS7)
Revision SUMMARY
for Topic P1 Matter
Containing sections
P1.1 The particle model,
P1.2 Changes of state,
P1.3 Pressure (GCSE Physics only)
Revision SUMMARY
for Topic P2: Forces
Containing sections P2.1 Motion,
P2.2 Newton’s Laws,
P2.3 Forces in action
Revision SUMMARY for Topic P3 Electricity
(GCSE Physics only)
Containing sections P3.1 Static and charge,
P3.2 Simple circuits
Revision SUMMARY for Topic P4: Magnetism and magnetic fields
(GCSE Physics only)
Containing sections P4.1 Magnets and magnetic fields,
P4.2 Uses of magnetism
Revision
SUMMARY for Topic P3 Electricity and Magnetism (GCSE Combined Science only)
This Combined Science Topic combines parts of Topic 3 and
Topic 4 in the separate science GCSE Physics course.
Containing sections P3.1
Static and charge, P3.2
Simple circuits, P3.3 Magnets and
magnetic fields
Revision summaries for OCR GCSE Physics A
FT Paper 2 or HT Paper 4 (separate page for
Topics P5 to P8 with assumed knowledge from Topics P1 to P4 + P9)
AND GCSE
Combined Science FT Paper 6 or HT Paper 12 (separate page
for Topics P4 to P6 + CS7 with assumed knowledge from P1 to P3)
Revision
SUMMARY for Topic P4 Waves and Radioactivity (GCSE Combined Science only)
This Combined Science topic includes sections
from Topic P5 and Topic P6 from the GCSE Physics course.
Contains sections P4.1 Wave behaviour,
P4.2 The electromagnetic spectrum, P4.3 Radioactivity
Revision SUMMARY
for Topic P5: Waves in matter: (GCSE Physics only)
Containing sections P5.1 Wave behaviour, P5.2 The electromagnetic spectrum, P5.3 Wave interaction
Revision SUMMARY
for
Topic P6: Radioactive decay – waves and particles: (GCSE Physics
only)
Containing sections P6.1 Radioactive
emissions, P6.2 Uses and hazards
Revision
SUMMARY
for Topic P7:
Energy
(GCSE Physics) & Topic 5 Energy (GCSE Combined Science)
Containing sections P7.1/5.1 Work done, P7.2/5.2 Power and efficiency
Revision SUMMARY
for Topic P8: Global challenges (GCSE Physics) & Topic 6 (GCSE Combined Science)
Sections P8.1/6.1 Physics on the move, P8.2/6.2 Powering Earth, P8.3 Beyond Earth
(GCSE Physics only)
Revision summaries for OCR GCSE Physics A
FT Paper 1 or HT Paper 3
AND
Combined Science FT Paper 5 or HT Paper 11
Topic P1: Matter
for OCR GCSE Physics A FT Paper 1 or HT Paper 3 AND
Combined Science FT Paper 5 or HT Paper 11
P1.1 The particle model
Appreciate that knowledge and understanding
of the particle nature of matter is fundamental to Physics and an appreciation
of matter in its different forms. You must also be aware of the subatomic
particles, their relative charges, masses and positions inside the atom.
The
structure and nature of atoms is essential to the further understanding of
physics and is needed to explain many phenomena, for example those involving
charge and transfer of charges, as well as radioactivity.
You should be aware of a simple atomic model, and that atoms are examples
of particles and know the difference between atoms, molecules and
compounds.
You should understand how density can be affected by the state
materials are in.
Beware of confusing the different types of particles (subatomic particles,
atoms and molecules) and making errors when converting between different units.
Be able to use different units in the measurement of volume. Know and be able to apply the equation: density (kg/m^{3}) = mass (kg)/volume (m^{3})
P1.1a Be able to describe how and why the atomic model has changed over time including
the
Thomson, Rutherford (alongside Geiger and Marsden) and Bohr models. Check out
the timeline showing the development of atomic theory
and discussion of the different roles played in developing the atomic model and how
different scientists worked together.
P1.1b Be able to describe the atom as a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively
charged electrons, with the nuclear radius much smaller than that of the atom
and with almost all of the mass in the nucleus.
P1.1c Know the typical size (order of magnitude) of atoms and small molecules
typically 1x10^{10}m
Atomic Structure
 nucleus, electrons, isotopes, history etc.
P1.1d
Be able to define density. From measurements of length, volume and mass be able
to calculate density. See also the investigation of Archimedes’ Principal using eureka cans.
P1.1e Be able to explain the differences in density between the different states of matter in
terms of the arrangements of the atoms and molecules.
P1.1f Be able to apply the relationship between density, mass and volume to changes where mass is
conserved.
The density of materials and the particle model of matter
P1.2 Changes of state
A clear understanding of the foundations of
the physical world forms a solid basis for further study of Physics.
Understanding of the relationship between the states of matter helps to explain
different types of everyday physical changes that we see around us.
You should be familiar with the structure of
matter and the similarities and differences between solids, liquids and gases.
You should have a simple idea of the particle model and be able to use it to
model changes in particle behaviour during changes of state. You should be
aware of the effect of temperature in the motion and spacing of particles and an
understanding that energy can be stored internally by materials.
Common
misconceptions  assuming
atoms are always synonymous with particles, there is actually nothing between the particles,
so its wrong to ‘fill’ the gaps with ‘air’ or
‘vapour’. Its not always easy to visualise the 3 dimensional arrangement of
particles in all states of matter. You may find it challenging to
understand how kinetic theory applies to heating materials and how to use the term temperature correctly,
regularly confusing the terms temperature and heat.
Be able to apply the following equations with the correct units:
change in thermal energy = mass x specific heat capacity x change in
temperature
thermal energy for a change in state = mass x specific latent heat
P1.2a Be able to describe how mass is conserved when
substances melt, freeze, evaporate, condense or sublimate. Use of a data
logger to record change in state and mass at different temperatures.
Demonstration of the distillation to show that mass is conserved during
evaporation and condensation.
P1.2b Be able to describe that these physical changes differ from chemical changes
because the
material recovers its original properties if the change is reversed.
P1.2c
Be able to describe how heating a system will change the energy stored within the system
and raise its temperature or produce changes of state.
Observation of the crystallisation of salol in water under a microscope.
Use of thermometer with a range of
10 110°C, to record the temperature changes of ice as it is heated.
P1.2d
Be able to define the term specific heat capacity and distinguish between it and the term
specific latent heat.
Investigation of the specific heat capacity of different metals or water using
electrical heaters and a joulemeter.
P1.2e
Be able to apply the relationship between change in internal energy of a material and its
mass, specific heat capacity and temperature change to calculate the energy
change involved.
Specific heat capacity: How to determine it, use of data,
calculations and thermal energy stores
P1.2f Be able to apply the relationship between specific latent heat and
mass to calculate the energy change involved in a change of state.
Measurement
of the specific latent heat of vaporisation of water.
Measurement of the specific latent heat of stearic acid.
Particle theory models, internal energy, heat transfer in state changes and
latent heat and particle motion in gases
(written more from a 'physics' point of view)
P1.2g (Combined Science only here,
dealt with in Topic 1.3 for GCSE Physics) Be able to explain how the motion of
the molecules in a gas is related both to its temperature and its pressure 
application to closed systems only.
Demonstration of the difference in pressure
in an inflated balloon that has been heated and frozen.
Building manometers and
using them to show pressure changes in heated/cooled volumes of gas.
P1.2h (Combined Science only here,
dealt with in Topic 1.3 for GCSE Physics) Be able to explain the relationship
between the temperature of a gas and its pressure at constant volume
(qualitative only).
Demonstration of the exploding can experiment. Building of
AlkaSeltzer rockets with film canisters.
P1.3 Pressure (GCSE Physics only,
not combined science)
This section
develops the understanding of pressure in gases and liquids. Pressure in gases
builds on the particle model, and in liquids the increase in pressure with depth
is explained as the weight of a column of liquid acting on a unit
area.
You should be aware of the
change in pressure in the atmosphere and in liquids with height (qualitative
relationship only). You should have an understanding of floating and sinking
and the effect of upthrust.
You should know that pressure is measured by a
ratio of force over area which is acting at a normal to the surface.
Common
misconceptions  floating and sinking,
based on the premise that light or small objects float and heavy or large
objects sink. You may misunderstand the role of pressure difference and suction
e.g. the collapsing can and the forcing of air into the lungs during inhalation.
Be able to apply: for gases:
pressure (Pa) x volume (m^{3}) = constant (for a given mass of
gas and at a constant temperature)
pressure due to a column of liquid (Pa) = height of column (m) x density
of liquid (kg/m^{3}) x g (N/kg)
P1.3a Be able to explain how the motion of the molecules in a gas is related both to its
temperature and its pressure  application to closed systems only.
Demonstration of the difference in
pressure in an inflated balloon that has been heated and frozen.
Building manometers and using them to show pressure changes in heated/cooled
volumes of gas.
P1.3b Be able to explain the relationship between the temperature of a gas and its pressure at
constant volume (qualitative only).
Demonstration of the exploding can experiment.
Building of AlkaSeltzer rockets with film canisters.
P1.3c Know that gases can be compressed or expanded by pressure changes and that the
pressure produces a net force at right angles to any surface.
Practicals: Compressing
syringes containing sand, water and air.
Demonstration of the collapsing can experiment.
Demonstration of the Cartesian diver experiment.
P1.3d Be able to explain how increasing the volume in which a gas is contained, at constant
temperature can lead to a decrease in pressure
behaviour  with reference to particle velocity and collisions.
Demonstration of the behaviour of marshmallows in a vacuum.
P1.3e (HT only) Be able to explain how doing work on a gas can increase its temperature
eg action of a bicycle pump.
Demonstration of heat production in a bicycle inner tube as it is pumped up.
P1.3f Be able to describe a simple model of the Earth’s atmosphere and of atmospheric pressure

an assumption of uniform density. Knowledge of layers is not expected.
P1.3g Be able to explain why atmospheric pressure varies with height above the surface of the
planet.
P1.3h (HT only) Be able to describe the factors which influence floating and sinking
P1.3i (HT only) Be able to explain why pressure in a liquid varies with depth and density and how this
leads to an upwards force on a partially submerged object.
Discussion of buoyancy of a ping pong ball in water.
P1.3j (HT only)
Be able to calculate the differences in pressure at different depths in a liquid
including knowledge that g is the strength of the gravitational field and has a value of
10N/kg near the Earth’s surface
Demonstration of differences in water pressure using a pressure can with holes.
Particle theory models, internal energy, heat transfer in state changes and
latent heat and particle motion in gases
(written more from a 'physics' point of view)
PVT pressurevolumetemperature gas
laws and calculations (for physicists or chemists!)
Topic P2: Forces
for OCR GCSE Physics A FT Paper 1 or HT Paper 3 AND
Combined Science FT Paper 5 or HT Paper 11
P2.1 Motion
Having looked at the nature of matter
which makes up objects, we move on to consider the effects of forces. The
interaction between objects leads to actions which can be seen by the observer,
these actions are caused by forces between the objects in question. Some of the
interactions involve contact between the objects, others involve no contact.
You
need to consider the importance of the direction in which forces act to allow
understanding of the importance of vector quantities when trying to predict the
action. You should have a basic knowledge of the mathematical relationship
between speed, distance and time. You should also be able to represent this
information in a distancetime graph and have an understanding of relative
motion of objects.
Common misconceptions  you may find the concept of action
at a distance challenging, there is a tendency to believe that a velocity must
have a positive value and have difficulty in associating a reverse in direction
with a change in sign. It is therefore important to make sure you are
knowledgeable about the vector / scalar distinction. You need to be able to differentiate between scalar and vector quantities
and
the idea of objects with a changing direction not having a constant vector
value. For example, objects moving in a circle. This issue also arises when
trying to handle momentum and changes in momentum of objects colliding.
Know and be able to apply the following
formulae:
distance travelled (m) = speed (m/s) x
time (s)
acceleration(m/s^{2}) = change in speed (m/s) / time (s)
kinetic energy (J) = 0.5 x mass (kg) x
(speed (m/s))^{2}
Be able to apply:
(final velocity (m/s))^{2}  (initial velocity (m/s))^{2} = 2 x acceleration
(m/s^{2}) x distance (m)
P2.1a Be able to describe how to measure distance and time in a range of scenarios
P2.1b Be able to describe how to measure distance and time and
be able to use these to calculate speed .
Calculations of the speeds of walkers and run a measured
distance.
Investigation of trolleys on ramps at an angle and whether this affects speed.
P2.1c
Be able to make calculations using ratios and proportional reasoning to convert units and
to compute rates including
conversion from nonSI to SI units
P2.1d Be able to explain the vector scalar distinction as it applies to displacement and
distance, velocity and speed
P2.1e
Be able to relate changes and differences in motion to appropriate distancetime, and
velocitytime graphs, and interpret lines, slopes.
P2.1f (HT only) Be able to interpret
enclosed area in velocitytime graphs and enclosed areas in such graphs
P2.1g Be able to
calculate average speed for nonuniform motion.
P2.1h
Be able to apply formulae relating distance, time and speed, for uniform motion, and for
motion with uniform acceleration. Practical  investigation of acceleration
P2.2 Newton’s Laws
Newton’s laws of motion essentially define
the means by which motion changes and the relationship between these changes in
motion with force and mass.
You
should have an understanding of contact and noncontact forces influencing the
motion of an object. You should be aware of Newtons and that this is the
measure of force.
The new work here involves studying Newton's three laws of
motion (his contribution to physics is recognised by have the unit of force
named after him!).
You are expected to be able to use force arrows and have an understanding
of balanced and unbalanced forces.
Common misconceptions  objects needing a net force for them to continue to move
steadily and to understand that stationary objects also have forces
acting on them. Be able to differentiate
between scalar and vector quantities and the idea of objects with a changing
direction not having a constant vector value, for example, objects moving in a
circle. This issue also arises with the concept of momentum and changes in
momentum of colliding objects.
Know and be able to apply the following
equations:
force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (m/s^{2}),
F = ma
work done(J) = force(N) x distance(m) (along
the line of action of the force)
power(W) = work done(J) / time(s)
(HT only) momentum (kgm/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s)
P2.2a
Know examples of ways in which objects interact
electrostatics, gravity, magnetism and by contact (including normal contact
force and friction)
P2.2b Be able to describe how such examples involve interactions between pairs of objects which
produce a force on each object
P2.2c
Be able to represent such forces as vectors including drawing free body force diagrams to demonstrate understanding of forces acting
as vectors
Measurement of the velocity of ball bearings in glycerol at different
temperatures or with ball bearings of differing sizes.
P2.2d Be able to apply Newton’s First Law to
explain the
motion of an object moving with uniform velocity and also an object where the
speed and/or direction change including looking at forces on one body and resultant forces
and their effects (qualitative only).
Demonstration of the behaviour
of colliding gliders on a linear air track. Use of balloon gliders to consider the effect of a force on a body.
P2.2e (HT only) Be able to use vector diagrams to illustrate resolution of forces, a net force
(resultant force), and
equilibrium situations 
scale drawings.
P2.2f (HT only) Be able to describe examples of the forces acting on an isolated solid object or system
 examples of objects that reach terminal velocity for example skydivers and
applying similar ideas to vehicles.
Practical to design and build a parachute for a mass, and measure its terminal
velocity as it is dropped.
P2.2g (HT only) Be able to describe, using free body diagrams, examples where two or more forces lead to a
resultant force on an object.
P2.2h (HT only) Be able to describe, using free body diagrams, examples of the special case where forces
balance to produce a resultant force of zero (qualitative only).
P2.2i
Be able to apply Newton's Second Law in calculations relating forces, masses and
accelerations.
Practicals  use of light gates, weights and trolleys to investigate the link between force
and acceleration.
P2.2j (HT only) Be able to explain that inertia is a measure of how difficult it is to change the velocity
of an object and that the mass is defined as the ratio of force over
acceleration.
Practical using light gates, weights and trolleys to investigate
the link between force and acceleration.
P2.2k (HT only) Be able to define
momentum and be able to describe examples of momentum in collisions  an idea of
the conservation of momentum in elastic collisions.
Practicals  use of light
gates, weights and trolleys to measure momentum of colliding trollies. Use of a water rocket to demonstrate that the explosion propels the water down
with the same momentum as the rocket shoots up.
P2.2l (GCSE Physics only)
Be able to apply formulae relating force, mass, velocity and acceleration to
explain how
the changes involved are interrelated
P2.2m/l Be able to use the relationship between work done, force, and distance moved along the line
of action of the force and be able to describe the energy transfer involved.
Practical  measurement of work done by learners lifting weights or walking up stairs.
P2.2n/m
Be able to calculate relevant values of stored energy and energy transfers; convert between newtonmetres and joules
P2.2o/n Be able to explain, with reference to examples, the definition of power as the rate at
which energy is transferred.
P2.2p/o Know and Be able to apply Newton’s Third Law
 application to situations of equilibrium and non equilibrium
P2.2q/p (HT only) Be able to explain why an object moving in a circle with a constant speed has a changing
velocity (qualitative only).
Practical demonstration of spinning a rubber bung on a string.
P2.3 Forces in action
Know that forces acting on an object can result in a
change of shape or motion. Having looked at the nature of matter, we can now
introduce the idea of fields and forces causing changes. This develops the idea
that force interactions between objects can take place even if they are not in
contact. They can also still result in an object changing shape or motion.
You should be familiar with forces associated with deforming objects, with
stretching and compressing (springs).
You should have an understanding of forces acting to deform objects and to
restrict motion. You should already be familiar with Hooke’s Law and the idea
that when work is done by a force; this results in an energy transfer and leads
to energy being stored by an object. You are expected to know that there is
a force due to gravity and that gravitational field strength differs on other
planets and stars. You should be aware of moments acting as a turning
force.
Common misconceptions  students commonly have difficulty understanding
that the weight of an object is not the same as its mass from the use of the
term ‘weighing’. The concept of force multipliers can also be challenging even
though the basic concepts are ones covered at KS3.
Be able to recall and apply:
force exerted by a spring (N) = extension (m) x spring
constant (N/m)
gravity force (N) = mass (kg) x gravitational field strength,
g (N/kg)
in a gravity field: potential energy (J) = mass (kg) x height
(m) x gravitational field strength, g (N/kg)
pressure (Pa) = force normal to a surface (N) / area of that
surface (m^{2}) (GCSE Physics only)
moment of a force (Nm)= force (N) x distance (m) (normal to
direction of the force) (GCSE Physics only)
Be able to apply:
energy transferred in stretching (J)= 0.5 x spring constant (N/m) x
(extension (m))^{2}
P2.3a Be able to explain that to stretch, bend or compress an object, more than one force has to
be applied  apply to real life situations
Practicals:
Use of a liquorice bungee or spring to explore extension and stretching.
P2.3b Be able to describe the difference between elastic and plastic deformation (distortions)
caused by stretching forces.
Practical  comparisons of behaviour of springs and elastic bands when loading and unloading
with weights.
P2.3c Be able to describe the relationship between force and extension for a spring and other
simple systems  graphical representation of the extension of a spring.
Investigation of forces on springs – Hooke’s law
P2.3d Be able to describe the difference between linear and nonlinear relationships between
force and extension.
Investigation of the
elastic limit of springs and other materials.
P2.3e
Be able to calculate a spring constant in linear cases
P2.3f Be able to calculate the work done in stretching
Use of data from stretching an elastic band with weights to plot a graph to
calculate the work done.
P2.3g Be able to describe that all matter has a gravitational field that causes attraction, and
the field strength is much greater for massive objects
P2.3h
Be able to define weight and describe how it is measured and
describe the relationship between
the weight of an object and the gravitational field strength (g). Know that the
gravitational field strength is known as g and has a value of 10N/kg. Know that weight (N) = mass (kg) x g (N/kg).
Be able to calculate weight on different planets.
P2.3i
Know the acceleration in free fall
P2.3jo are GCSE PHYSICS only, NOT required for the GCSE
Combined Science
P2.3j
(GCSE Physics only) Be able to apply formulae relating force, mass and relevant physical constants, including
gravitational field strength (g), to explore how changes in these are
interrelated
P2.3k (GCSE Physics only) Be able to describe examples in which forces cause rotation location of pivot points and whether a resultant turning force will be in a
clockwise or anticlockwise direction.
P2.3l (GCSE Physics only) Be able to define and calculate the moment of the force in such examples.
Application of the principle of moments which are balanced.
Investigation of moments using a meter ruler, pivot and balancing masses.
P2.3m (GCSE Physics only) Be able to explain how levers and gears transmit the rotational effects of forces
 an understanding of ratios and how this enables gears and levers to work as
force multipliers
P2.3n (GCSE Physics only) Know that the pressure in fluids (gases and liquids) causes a net force at
right angles to any surface.
Demonstration of balloons being pushed onto a single drawing pin versus many
drawing pins.
P2.3o (GCSE Physics only) Be able to use the relationship between the force, the pressure and the area in contact
 an understanding of how simple hydraulic systems work
Topic P3: Electricity
(GCSE Physics only)
for OCR GCSE Physics A FT Paper 1 or HT Paper 3
P3.1 Static and charge
(GCSE Physics only)
This topic considers the interactions between matter and electrostatic
fields.
These interactions are derived from the structure of matter which was
considered in the previous section. The generation of charge is considered.
Charge is a fundamental property of matter.
There are two types of charge which
are given the names 'positive' and 'negative'. The effects of these charges are
not normally seen as objects often contain equal amounts of positive and
negative charge so their effects cancel each other out.
You should be aware of electron transfer leading to objects
becoming statically charged and the forces between them and also be
aware of the existence of an electric field.
Common misconceptions  classifying
which materials act as insulators or act as conductors  the
role of insulators should not be neglected. Also, remember
that positive charge does not move to make a material positive, rather it is the
movement of negative electrons.
Know and be able to apply the equation: charge flow (C,
Coulombs) = current (A, amps) x time (s, seconds)
Sometimes abbreviated
to: Q = I x t
P3.1a Be able to describe that charge is a property of all matter and that there are positive and
negative charges. The effects of the charges are not normally seen on bodies
containing equal amounts of positive and negative charge, as their effects
cancel each other out. Practicals:
Use of charged rods to repel or attract one another.
Use of a charged rod to deflect water or pick up paper.
Discussion of why charged balloons are attracted to walls.
P3.1b Be able to describe the production of static electricity, and sparking, by rubbing
surfaces, and evidence that charged objects exert forces of attraction or
repulsion on one another when not in contact. Know and understand that static charge only builds up on insulators.
Demonstration of, and uses of a Van de Graaff generator.
P3.1c Be able to explain how transfer of
electrons between objects can explain the phenomena of
static electricity.
Use of the gold leaf electroscope and a charged rod to observe and discuss
behaviour.
P3.1d Be able to explain the concept of an
electric field and how it helps to explain the
phenomena of static electricity
how electric fields relate to the forces of attraction and repulsion.
Demonstration of semolina on castor oil to show electric fields.
P3.1e/d Know that current is a rate of flow of charge (electrons) and the conditions
needed for charge to flow
conditions for charge to flow including the source of potential difference and a closed
circuit.
P3.1f/e Know that current has the same
value at any point in a single closed loop
P3.1g/f Know and be able to use the relationship between quantity of charge, current and time
P3.2 Simple circuits
(GCSE Physics only)
Know that electrical currents depend on the movement of
charge and the interaction of electrostatic fields. The electrical current,
potential difference and resistance are all covered in this topic. The
relationship between them is considered and you will represent this, using
circuits.
You should have been
introduced to the measurement of conventional current and potential difference
in circuits.
You will have an understanding of how to assemble series and
parallel circuits and a basic understanding of how they differ with respect to
conventional current and potential difference.
You are expected to have an
awareness of the relationship between potential difference, current and
resistance and the units in which they are measured.
Common misconceptions
 the concept of potential difference may be very difficult to grasp. You may
find it difficult to understand the behaviour of charge in circuits and through
components and how this relates to energy or work done within a circuit
Know and be able to apply the following
equations:
potential difference (V) = current (A) x resistance (Ω),
V = I x R
power (W) = potential difference (V) x current (A) = (current
(A))^{2} x resistance (Ω), P = V x I = I^{2} R
energy transferred (J) = charge (C) x potential difference (V)
energy transferred (J, kWh) = power (W, kW) x time (s, h)
P3.2a Be able to describe the differences between series and parallel circuits

position of measuring instruments in circuits and descriptions of the behaviour
of energy, current and potential difference
Practical  building of circuits to measure potential difference and current in both series
and parallel circuits.
P3.2b
Be able to represent d.c. circuits with the conventions of positive and negative terminals,
and the symbols that represent common circuit elements  diodes, LDRs and thermistors, filament lamps, ammeter, voltmeter, resistors
Practical building circuits from diagrams.
P3.2c Know that current (I) depends on both resistance (R) and potential difference
(V) and the units in which these are measured including
the definition of potential difference
Practical  recording of p. d. across and current through different components and calculate
resistances.
P3.2d Know and be able to apply the relationship between I, R and V, and that for some
resistors the value of R remains constant but that in others it can change as
the current changes.
Investigation of resistance in a wire.
Investigation of the effect of length on resistance in a wire.
P3.2e Be able to explain that for some
resistors the value of R remains constant but that in others it can change as
the current changes
P3.2f Be able to explain the design and use of circuits to explore such effects
including components such as wire of varying resistance, filament lamps, diodes, thermistors and LDRs
P3.2g Be able to use graphs to explore whether circuit elements are linear or nonlinear.
Investigation of IV characteristics of circuit elements.
P3.2h Be able to use graphs and relate the curves
produced to the function and properties of circuit elements including
components such as wire of varying resistance, filament lamps, diodes, thermistors and LDRs
Use of wires, filament lamps, diodes, in simple circuits. Alter p.d. and keep
current same using variable resistor. Record and plot results.
P3.2i Be able to explain why, if two resistors are in series the net resistance is increased,
whereas with two in parallel the net resistance is decreased (qualitative
explanation only).
Investigation of the brightness of bulbs in series and parallel.
P3.2j Be able to calculate the currents, potential differences and resistances in d.c. series and
parallel circuits
including components such as wire of varying resistance, filament lamps, diodes,
thermistors and LDRs. Investigation of resistance of a thermistor in a
beaker of water being heated.
Investigation of resistance of an LDR with
exposure to different light intensities.
Investigation of how the power of a photocell depends on its surface area and
its distance from the light source.
P3.2k Be able to explain the design and use of such circuits for measurement and testing purposes
P3.2l Be able to explain how the power transfer in any circuit device is related to the potential
difference across it and the current, and to the energy changes over a given
time.
P3.2m
Be able to apply the equations relating potential difference, current, quantity of charge,
resistance, power, energy, and time, and solve problems for circuits which
include resistors in series, using the concept of equivalent resistance.
Topic P4: Magnetism and magnetic fields
(GCSE Physics A only)
for OCR GCSE Physics A FT Paper 1 or HT Paper 3
P4.1 Magnets and magnetic fields
Having an understanding of how charge can be
generated and its effects, we can now consider the effects of movement of charge
in magnetism.
You will look at magnets and magnetic fields around
magnets and currentcarrying wires. You should have been introduced to magnets and the idea of attractive and
repulsive forces and have an idea of the shape of the fields around bar
magnets.
You are expected to have an awareness of the magnetic effect of a
current and electromagnets.
Common misconceptions  larger magnets will always be stronger magnets.
You may
have difficulty understanding the concept of field line density being an
indicator of field strength. You should know that the geographic and
magnetic poles are not located in the same place.
P4.1a Be able to describe the attraction and repulsion between unlike and like poles for
permanent magnets including diagrams of magnetic field patterns around bar
magnets to show attraction and repulsion.
Use of suspended magnets to show attraction and repulsion.
P4.1b Be able to describe the difference between permanent and induced magnets.
P4.1c Be able to describe the characteristics of the magnetic field of a magnet, showing how
strength and direction change from one point to another including diagrams of magnetic field patterns around bar magnets to show attraction and
repulsion and also depict how the strength of the field varies around them.
Practical  plotting of magnetic fields around different shaped magnets.
P4.1d Be able to explain how the behaviour of a magnetic (dipping) compass is related to evidence
that the core of the Earth must be magnetic.
P4.1e Be able to describe how to show that a current can create a magnetic effect and describe
the directions of the magnetic field around a conducting wire.
Investigation of the magnetic field around a currentcarrying wire using
plotting compasses.
P4.1f Know that the strength of the field depends on the current and the distance
from the conductor.
P4.1g Be able to explain how solenoid arrangements can enhance the magnetic effect.
Investigation of the magnetic field around a currentcarrying solenoid using
plotting compasses.
Investigation of the factors that can affect the magnetic effect e.g. number of
turns, current, length and cross sectional area.
P4.2 Uses of magnetism
(GCSE Physics HT only)
Know that forces show the existence of fields and how
they interact with one another but here the force itself is discussed in more
depth and then quantified. These forces also lead to the use of magnetic fields
to induce electrical currents and the applications of this electromagnetic
induction in motors, dynamos and transformers.
You will study the manner in which electric and magnetic fields interact to
produce a force challenging. You may have difficulty with the right
angles and threedimensional requirements of Fleming’s lefthand rule  your
ability to visualise this will impact how you deal with this concept.
You may
find the action of a commutator difficult to apply in the D.C. motor.
The application of changing direction of field in the transformer is found
challenging by many learners and hence often leads to a superficial grasp of the
working of the transformer.
Be able to apply the following equations: (HT
only)
force on a conductor (at right angles to a magnetic field) carrying a
current (N) = magnetic flux density (T) x current (A) x length (m)
potential difference across primary coil (V) / potential difference across
secondary coil (V) = number of turns in primary coil / number of turns in
secondary coil
P4.2a (HT only) Be able to describe how a magnet and a currentcarrying conductor exert a force on one
another.
Demonstration of the jumping wire experiment.
P4.2b (HT only)
Be able to show that Fleming’s lefthand rule represents the relative orientations of the
force, the conductor and the magnetic field
P4.2c (HT only)
Be able to apply the equation that links the force on a conductor to the magnetic flux
density, the current and the length of conductor to calculate the forces
involved
P4.2d (HT only) Be able to explain how the force exerted from a magnet and a currentcarrying conductor is used to cause rotation in electric motors
including
an understanding of how electric motors work but knowledge of the structure of a
motor is not expected.
Practical  construction of simple motors.
P4.2e (HT only) Know that a change in the magnetic field around a conductor can give rise to
an induced potential difference across its ends, which could drive a current,
generating a magnetic field that would oppose the original change.
Examination of wind up radios or torches to investigate how dynamos work.
Demonstration of induction using a strong magnet and a wire using a zero point
galvanometer.
P4.2f (HT only) Be able to explain how this effect is
used in an alternator to generate a.c., and in a
dynamo to generate d.c. Research the structure of dynamos and compare with DC
motors.
P4.2g (HT only) Be able to explain how the effect of an alternating current in one circuit, in inducing a
current in transformers.
P4.2h (HT only) Be able to explain how the ratio of the potential differences across the two depends on the
ratio of the numbers of turns in each.
Practical  building of a stepup and stepdown transformer to investigate their effects.
P4.2i (HT only)
Be able to apply the equations linking the potential differences and numbers of turns in
the two coils of a transformer.
P4.2j (HT only) Be able to explain the action of the microphone in converting the pressure variations in
sound waves into variations in current in electrical circuits, and the reverse
effect as used in loudspeakers and headphones including
an understanding of how dynamic microphones work using electromagnetic induction
Examination of the construction of a loudspeaker.
Building of a loud speaker.
Topic 3 Electricity
and Magnetism (For GCSE Combined Science only, NOT GCSE Physics)
for OCR GCSE Gateway
Combined Science FT Paper 5 or HT Paper 11
This Combined Science Topic combines parts of Topic 3 and
Topic 4 in the separate science GCSE Physics course.
P3.1 Static and charge
(For GCSE Combined Science only)
This topic considers the interactions between matter and electrostatic
fields. These interactions are derived from the structure of matter which was
considered in the previous section. The generation of charge is considered.
Charge is a fundamental property of matter. There are two types of charge which
are given the names 'positive' and 'negative'. The effects of these charges are
not normally seen as objects often contain equal amounts of positive and
negative charge so their effects cancel each other out.
You should be aware of electron transfer leading to
objects becoming statically charged and the forces between them.
You should also be aware of the existence of an electric
field.
Common misconceptions You may have difficulty classifying
materials as insulators or conductors. You may find it difficult to remember
that positive charge does not move to make a material positive, rather it is the
movement ('removal') of electrons.
P3.1a Be able to describe that charge is a property of all matter and that there are positive and
negative charges. The effects of the charges are not normally seen on bodies
containing equal amounts of positive and negative charge, as their effects
cancel each other out. Practicals:
Use of charged rods to repel or attract one another.
Use of a charged rod to deflect water or pick up paper.
Discussion of why charged balloons are attracted to walls.
P3.1b Be able to describe the production of static electricity, and sparking, by rubbing
surfaces, and evidence that charged objects exert forces of attraction or
repulsion on one another when not in contact. Know and understand that static charge only builds up on insulators.
Demonstration of, and uses of a Van de Graaff generator.
P3.1c Be able to explain how transfer of
electrons between objects can explain the phenomena of
static electricity.
Use of the gold leaf electroscope and a charged rod to observe and discuss
behaviour.
P3.1d Know that current is a rate of flow of charge (electrons) and the conditions
needed for charge to flow
conditions for charge to flow including the source of potential difference and a closed
circuit.
P3.1e Know that current has the same
value at any point in a single closed loop
P3.1f Know and be able to use the relationship between quantity of charge, current and time
Know and be able to apply the equation: charge flow (C) = current (A) x time (s)
P3.2 Simple circuits
(For GCSE Combined Science only, NOT GCSE
Physics)
for OCR GCSE Gateway
Combined Science FT Paper 5 or HT Paper 11
Know that electrical currents depend on the movement of
charge and the interaction of electrostatic fields. The electrical current,
potential difference and resistance are all covered in this topic. The
relationship between them is considered and you will represent this, using
circuits.
You should have been
introduced to the measurement of conventional current and potential difference
in circuits.
You will have an understanding of how to assemble series and
parallel circuits and a basic understanding of how they differ with respect to
conventional current and potential difference.
You are expected to have an
awareness of the relationship between potential difference, current and
resistance and the units in which they are measured.
Common misconceptions
 the concept of potential difference may be very difficult to grasp. You may
find it difficult to understand the behaviour of charge in circuits and through
components and how this relates to energy or work done within a circuit
Know and be able to recall and apply the following
equations:
potential difference (V) = current (A) x resistance (Ω),
V = I x R
power (W) = potential difference (V) x current (A) = (current
(A))^{2} x resistance (Ω), P = V x I = I^{2} R
energy transferred (J) = charge (C) x potential difference (V)
energy transferred (J, kWh) = power (W, kW) x time (s, h)
P3.2a Be able to describe the differences between series and parallel circuits

position of measuring instruments in circuits and descriptions of the behaviour
of energy, current and potential difference
Practical  building of circuits to measure potential difference and current in both series
and parallel circuits.
P3.2b
Be able to represent d.c. circuits with the conventions of positive and negative terminals,
and the symbols that represent common circuit elements  diodes, LDRs and thermistors, filament lamps, ammeter, voltmeter, resistors
Practical building circuits from diagrams.
P3.2c Know that current (I) depends on both resistance (R) and potential difference
(V) and the units in which these are measured including
the definition of potential difference
Practical  recording of p. d. across and current through different components and calculate
resistances.
P3.2d Know and be able to apply the relationship between I, R and V, and that for some
resistors the value of R remains constant but that in others it can change as
the current changes. Investigation of resistance in a wire.
Investigation of the effect of length on resistance in a wire.
P3.2e Be able to explain that for some
resistors the value of R remains constant but that in others it can change as
the current changes
P3.2f Be able to explain the design and use of circuits to explore such effects
including components such as wire of varying resistance, filament lamps, diodes, thermistors and LDRs
P3.2g Be able to use graphs to explore whether circuit elements are linear or nonlinear.
Investigation of IV characteristics of circuit elements.
P3.2h Be able to use graphs and relate the curves
produced to the function and properties of circuit elements including
components such as wire of varying resistance, filament lamps, diodes, thermistors and LDRs
Use of wires, filament lamps, diodes, in simple circuits. Alter p.d. and keep
current same using variable resistor. Record and plot results.
P3.2i Be able to explain why, if two resistors are in series the net resistance is increased,
whereas with two in parallel the net resistance is decreased (qualitative
explanation only).
Investigation of the brightness of bulbs in series and parallel.
P3.2j Be able to calculate the currents, potential differences and resistances in d.c. series and
parallel circuits
including components such as wire of varying resistance, filament lamps, diodes,
thermistors and LDRs. Investigation of resistance of a thermistor in a
beaker of water being heated. Investigation of resistance of an LDR with
exposure to different light intensities. Investigation of how the power of a photocell depends on its surface area and
its distance from the light source.
P3.2k Be able to explain the design and use of such circuits for measurement and testing purposes
P3.2l Be able to explain how the power transfer in any circuit device is related to the potential
difference across it and the current, and to the energy changes over a given
time.
P3.2m
Be able to apply the equations relating potential difference, current, quantity of charge,
resistance, power, energy, and time, and solve problems for circuits which
include resistors in series, using the concept of equivalent resistance.
P3.3 Magnets and magnetic
fields (For GCSE Combined Science only,
NOT GCSE Physics)
for OCR GCSE Gateway
Combined Science FT Paper 5 or HT Paper 11
Having an understanding of the flow of charge
and its effects, we can now consider the links between movement of charge and
magnetism. You will investigate magnets and magnetic fields around magnets and
currentcarrying wires.
You should have been introduced to magnets and the idea
of attractive and repulsive forces.
You should have an idea of the shape of the
fields around bar magnets.
You are expected to have an awareness of the magnetic
effect of a current and electromagnets.
Common misconceptions  larger magnets will always be stronger magnets.
You may
have difficulty understanding the concept of field line density being an
indicator of field strength. You should know that the geographic and
magnetic poles are not located in the same place.
Be able to apply the following equations: (HT
only)
force on a conductor (at right angles to a magnetic field) carrying a
current (N) = magnetic flux density (T) x current (A) x length (m)
P3.3a Be able to describe the attraction and repulsion between unlike and like poles for
permanent magnets including diagrams of magnetic field patterns around bar
magnets to show attraction and repulsion.
Use of suspended magnets to show attraction and repulsion.
P3.3b Be able to describe the difference between permanent and induced magnets.
P3.3c Be able to describe the characteristics of the magnetic field of a magnet, showing how
strength and direction change from one point to another including diagrams of magnetic field patterns around bar magnets to show attraction and
repulsion and also depict how the strength of the field varies around them.
Practical  plotting of magnetic fields around different shaped magnets.
P3.3d Be able to explain how the behaviour of a magnetic (dipping) compass is related to evidence
that the core of the Earth must be magnetic.
P3.3e Be able to describe how to show that a current can create a magnetic effect and describe
the directions of the magnetic field around a conducting wire.
Investigation of the magnetic field around a currentcarrying wire using
plotting compasses.
P3.3f Know that the strength of the field depends on the current and the distance
from the conductor.
P3.3g Be able to explain how solenoid arrangements can enhance the magnetic effect.
Investigation of the magnetic field around a currentcarrying solenoid using
plotting compasses.
Investigation of the factors that can affect the magnetic effect e.g. number of
turns, current, length and cross sectional area.
P3.3h (HT only) Be able to describe how a magnet and a currentcarrying conductor exert a force on one
another.
Demonstration of the jumping wire experiment.
P3.3b (HT only)
Be able to show that Fleming’s lefthand rule represents the relative orientations of the
force, the conductor and the magnetic field
P3.3c (HT only)
Be able to apply the equation that links the force on a conductor to the magnetic flux
density, the current and the length of conductor to calculate the forces
involved
P3.3k (HT only) Be able to explain how the force exerted from a magnet and a currentcarrying conductor is used to cause rotation in electric motors
including
an understanding of how electric motors work but knowledge of the structure of a
motor is not expected.
Practical  construction of simple motors.
OCR A GCSE Grade 91 Gateway Science Suite
Specifications  syllabuses, past exam papers,
specimen practice question papers
PLEASE EMAIL ME IF ANY
LINKS SEEM BROKEN !!
OCR A GCSE Gateway Science Suite GCSE Physics
(Grade 91)
(see separate page for Physics Papers
2 and 4)
J249 Specification
http://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/234600specificationaccreditedgcsegatewaysciencesuitephysicsaj249.pdf
OCR A GCSE Gateway Science Suite GCSE Combined Science
A (Grade 91)
J250 Specification
http://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/234596specificationaccreditedgcsegatewaysciencesuitecombinedscienceaj250.pdf
Specimen papers  practice assessment materials
(see separate page for Combined Science
Physics Papers 6 and 12)
OCR A GCSE Gateway Science Suite GCSE Physics (Grade 91) (see separate page
for Physics Papers 2 and 4)
J249 Specification
http://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/234600specificationaccreditedgcsegatewaysciencesuitephysicsaj249.pdf
OCR Gateway Science GCSE Physics A Data sheet  Gateway Science Suite  Physics
A
OCR Gateway Science GCSE Physics A Sample assessment materials taster booklet
OCR Gateway Science GCSE Physics A FT Unit J249/01  Physics  Foundation tier
 Paper 1  Sample assessment material
OCR Gateway Science GCSE Physics A HT Unit J249/03  Physics  Higher tier 
Paper 3  Sample assessment material
OCR A GCSE Gateway Science Suite GCSE Combined Science A (Grade 91)
J250 Specification
http://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/234596specificationaccreditedgcsegatewaysciencesuitecombinedscienceaj250.pdf
Specimen papers  practice assessment materials (see separate page for Combined
Science Physics Papers 6 and 12)
OCR Gateway GCSE Combined Science A Data sheet  Gateway Science Suite 
Combined Science A  Physics A
OCR Gateway GCSE Combined Science A FT Unit J250/05  Physics  Foundation tier
 Paper 5  Sample assessment material
OCR Gateway GCSE Combined Science A HT Unit J250/11  Physics  Higher tier 
Paper 11  Sample assessment material 