OCR GCSE SCIENCES A Gateway Science

ALL MY GCSE CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES

BEWARE - this page is for Y10 2016-2017 onwards only!

OCR Level 1/2 GCSE (9–1) in Chemistry A (Gateway Science) (J248) Foundation Tier Paper 2/Higher Tier Paper 4

 and OCR Level 1/2 GCSE (9–1) in Combined Science A (Gateway Science) (J250) FT Paper 4/HT Paper 10 Chemistry

OCR (9-1) Gateway GCSE CHEMISTRY A Chapters C4, C5 and C6

'Old' OCR Gateway GCSE sciences for Y11 finishing Y11 2016-2017

INDEX for all links

 The Google [SEARCH] box at the bottom of the page should also prove useful

These topic revision summaries below for the NEW GCSE sciences are all unofficial but based on the NEW 2016 official syllabus-specifications for Y10 students from September 2016 onwards

(HT only) means higher tier only (NOT FT) and (GCSE chemistry only) means for the separate science, NOT for GCSE Combined Science chemistry

Links to specific GCSE chemistry notes about the topic in question have been added, and from these pages, you may find other links to more useful material linked to the topic.


Summaries for GCSE Chemistry FT Paper 1/HT Paper 3

AND GCSE Combined Science FT Paper 3/HT Paper 9 (separate page)


What's assessed in this paper?

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C1: Particles:

Containing sections C1.1 The particle model, C1.2 Atomic structure

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C2: Elements, compounds and mixtures:

Containing sections C2.1 Purity and separating mixtures, C2.2 Bonding, C2.3 Properties of materials

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C3: Chemical reactions:

Sections C3.1 Introducing chemical reactions, C3.2 Energetics, C3.3 Types of chemical reactions, C3.4 Electrolysis


Summaries for GCSE Chemistry FT Paper 2/HT Paper 4

AND GCSE Combined Science FT Paper 4/HT Paper 10 (this page)

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C4: Predicting and identifying reactions and products:

Containing sections C4.1 Predicting chemical reactions

C4.2 Identifying the products of chemical reactions (GCSE chemistry only)

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C5: Monitoring and controlling chemical reactions:

Containing sections C5.1 Monitoring chemical reactions (GCSE chemistry only)

C5.2 Controlling reactions (Topic 5.1 Combined science)

C5.3 Equilibria (Topic 5.2 Combined science)

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C6: Global challenges:

C6.1 Improving processes & products,    C6.2 Organic chemistry (GCSE chemistry only)

C6.3 Interpreting & interacting with Earth systems


TOPICS for OCR GCSE Chemistry A FT Paper 2/HT Paper 4

AND GCSE Combined Science A FT Paper 4/HT Paper 10 (Gateway Science)


Topic C4 Predicting and identifying reactions and products

C4.1 Predicting chemical reactions

Models of how substances react and the different types of chemical reactions that can occur enable us to predict the likelihood and outcome of a chemical reaction. The current Periodic Table was developed based on observations of the similarities and differences in the properties of elements. The way that the Periodic Table is arranged into groups and periods reveals the trends and patterns in the behaviour of the elements. The model of atomic structure provides an explanation for trends and patterns in the properties of elements. The arrangement of elements in groups and periods reveals the relationship between observable properties and how electrons are arranged in the atoms of each element. You should be familiar with the principles underpinning the Mendeleev Periodic Table; the Periodic Table: periods and groups; metals and non-metals; the varying physical and chemical properties of different elements; the chemical properties of metals and non-metals; the chemical properties of metal and non-metal oxides with respect to acidity and how patterns in reactions can be predicted with reference to the Periodic Table. Don't confuse state changes and dissolving with chemical changes and realise that solid products of an oxidation reaction have more mass than the starting solid.

Periodic Table Notes - an overview, groups, periods, metals & non-metals

C4.1a Know the simple properties of Groups 1, 7 and 0 including physical and chemical properties.

Practical - displacement reactions of halogens with halides. for links see C4.1b below

C4.1b Be able to explain how observed simple properties of Groups 1, 7 and 0 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms (relate chemistry to ease of electron gain or loss) and predict properties from given trends down the groups e.g. physical property and chemical properties and reactivity trends.

Group 1 Alkali Metals

Multiple choice quiz on the Group 1 Alkali Metals

Word-fill worksheet on the Group 1 Alkali Metals

Group 7 Halogens - physical and chemical properties

Multiple choice quiz on the Group 7 Halogens

A Group 7 "Halogens" task sheet worksheet * (answers)

Word-fill work sheet on the Halogens

The Halogens (matching pair quiz on their appearance)

Group 0 Noble Gases

Multiple choice quiz on Group 0 The Noble Gases

Wordfill worksheet on the Noble Gases (answers)

Structured question on the reactivity of elements and the periodic table and answers

C4.1c (GCSE chemistry only)  Know the general properties of transition metals and their compounds and exemplify these by reference to a small number of transition metals. Properties to consider - melting point, density, reactivity, formation of coloured ions with different charges and uses as catalysts.

Practical - investigation of transition metals.

The Transition Metals eg iron and copper - their physical/chemical properties & uses

Multiple choice quiz on the Transition Metals and their Compounds

Word-fill worksheet on the Transition Metals

C4.1d/C4.1c Be able to predict possible reactions and probable reactivity of elements from their positions in the Periodic Table

Periodic Table Notes - an overview, groups, periods, metals & non-metals

Multiple choice quiz on the basics of the Periodic Table

Task sheet worksheet on Periodic Table history * (answers)

Basic Periodic Table Task sheet worksheet * (answers)

Gap-fill worksheet on the Periodic Table

Structured question on the reactivity of elements and the periodic table and answers

See also the links to Groups 1, 7 and 0 above for C4.1b

C4.1e/C4.1d Be able to explain how the reactivity of metals with water or dilute acids is related to the tendency of the metal to form its positive ion.

Practicals - reaction of metals with water and dilute hydrochloric acid.

C4.1f/C4.1e Be able to deduce an order of reactivity of metals based on experimental results.

Practical - displacement reactions involving metals and metal salts.

The Reactivity Series of Metals

Metal Reactivity Series Experiments-Observations

Structured question on the 'Reactivity of Metals' and answers


C4.2 Identifying the products of chemical reactions (GCSE chemistry only)

Know that types of substances can be classified according to their general physical and chemical properties. You will explore the tests that can be used to identify the products of reactions by looking at their physical and chemical properties. You should be familiar with cations and anions from your work on electrolysis. Common misconceptions - when a gas is produced the reaction has lost mass overall. You need to able to interpret charts, particularly in spectroscopy

C4.2a (GCSE chemistry only here, covered in Topic 3 for Combined Science) Be able to describe tests to identify selected gases oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and chlorine

C4.2b (GCSE chemistry only) Be able to describe tests to identify aqueous cations and aqueous anions - calcium, copper, iron (II), iron (III) and zinc using sodium hydroxide; carbonates and sulfates using aqueous barium chloride followed by hydrochloric acid; chloride, bromide and iodide using silver nitrate.

Practical - tests for cations using sodium hydroxide and tests for anions using silver nitrate and barium chloride.

C4.2c (GCSE chemistry only) Be able to describe how to perform a flame test. Practical - flame tests.

C4.2d (GCSE chemistry only) identify species from test results.

Practical - testing unknown solutions for cations and anions.

C4.2e (GCSE chemistry only) Be able to interpret flame tests to identify metal ions including the ions of lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium and copper

C4.2f (GCSE chemistry only) Be able to describe the advantages of instrumental methods of analysis eg greater sensitivity, accuracy and speed

C4.2g (GCSE chemistry only) Be able to interpret an instrumental result given appropriate data in chart or tabular form, when accompanied by a reference set of data in the same form

Summary of 'GCSE' tests for gases and ions including equations

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis


Topic C5 Monitoring and controlling chemical reactions

C5.1 Monitoring chemical reactions (GCSE Chemistry only, not Combined Science)

This topic tackles the relationship of moles to the concentration of a solution and the volume of a gas. It also tackles the calculation of the mass of a substance in terms of its molarity. You then look at using equations to make prediction about yield by calculations and to calculate atom economy. You should be familiar with the mole from topic 3 and know that it measures the amount of something. You should be familiar with representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations. Common misconceptions - the most common problem you are likely to have is understanding ratios in calculations. Don't confuse moles and mass, they are not the same thing. Appreciate phrases such as ‘1 mole is 12 g of carbon, ‘1 mole is the relative atomic mass in grammes’ or ‘1 mol = 12 g C’ equating amount of substance to mass, portion of substance, number of particles (Avogadro’s number) or number of moles. Calculations may involve numbers written in standard form when using the Avogadro constant. Know how to provide answers to an appropriate number of significant figures, convert units where appropriate particularly from mass to moles, and be able to change the subject of a mathematical equation

C5.1a (HT only) Be able to explain how the concentration of a solution in mol/dm3 is related to the mass of the solute and the volume of the solution. Practical - making standard solutions.

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

Introduction to moles type in answer QUIZ

Introduction to moles multiple choice QUIZ

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

Molarity type in answer QUIZ

Molarity multiple choice QUIZ

C5.1b Be able to describe the technique of titration.

Practical: acid - alkali titrations.

C5.1c (HT only) Be able to explain the relationship between the volume of a solution of known concentration of a substance and the volume or concentration of another substance that react completely together including titration calculations.

How to do titrations and calculations e.g. acid-alkali titrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

Titration type in answer QUIZ

Titration multiple choice QUIZ

C5.1d Be able to describe the relationship between molar amounts of gases and their volumes and vice versa.

Practical - measurement of gas volumes and calculating amount in moles.

C5.1e Be able to calculate the volumes of gases involved in reactions using the molar gas volume at room temperature and pressure (assumed to be 24dm3)

Moles and the molar volume of a gas, Avogadro's Law

Molar gas volume type in answer QUIZ

Molar gas volume multiple choice QUIZ

Reacting gas volume ratios, Avogadro's Law and Gay-Lussac's Law (ratio of gaseous reactants-products)

Reacting volumes type in answer QUIZ

Reacting volumes multiple choice QUIZ

C5.1f (HT only) Be able to explain how the mass of a solute and the volume of the solution is related to the concentration of the solution (GCSE chemistry here, covered in Topic 3.1 in Combined Science)

Concentration of solution in terms of mass and volume

Molarity, volumes and solution concentrations (and diagrams of apparatus)

Molarity type in answer QUIZ

Molarity multiple choice QUIZ

C5.1g Be able to calculate the theoretical amount of a product from a given amount of reactant.

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (not using moles)

Type in answer QUIZ on reacting masses

Multiple choice QUIZ on reacting masses

Mole ratio calculations - equation interpretation and construction of balanced chemical equations

Introduction to moles type in answer QUIZ

Introduction to moles multiple choice QUIZ

C5.1h Be able to calculate the percentage yield of a reaction product from the actual yield of a reaction.

% reaction yield definition and theoretical yield calculations

C5.1i Be able to define the atom economy of a reaction.

Atom economy definition and calculations

C5.1j Be able to calculate the atom economy of a reaction to form a desired product from the balanced equation.

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (NOT using moles) and brief mention of actual percent % yield and theoretical yield, atom economy

C5.1k (HT only) Be able to explain why a particular reaction pathway is chosen to produce a specified product given appropriate data eg such as atom economy (if not calculated), yield, rate, equilibrium position and usefulness of by- products

The Principles & Practice of Chemical Production - Synthesising Molecules


C5.2 (GCSE chemistry)/C5.1 (Combined Science) Controlling reactions

Know that the rate and yield of a chemical reaction can be altered by changing the physical conditions. You should be familiar with the action of catalysts in terms of rate of reaction. You should know the term surface area and what it means. Common misconceptions - misinterpreting rate graphs and think that catalysts in taking part in reaction and run out/get used up. You need to be able to draw and interpret appropriate graphs from data to determine rate of reaction, determining gradients of graphs as a measure of rate of change to determine rate.

All help links at the end of section C5.2

C5.2a/C5.1a Be able to suggest practical methods for determining the rate of a given reaction.  Rate of reaction experiments - disappearing cross experiment, reacting magnesium and acid or marble chip and acid.

C5.2b/C5.1b Be able to interpret rate of reaction graphs. 1/t is proportional to rate and gradients of graphs (not order of reaction).

Practical - marble chip and acid or magnesium and acid experiments either measuring reaction time or the volume of gas over time.

C5.2c/C5.1c Be able to describe the effect of changes in temperature, concentration, pressure, and surface area on rate of reaction.

Practical - varying surface area with marble chips and hydrochloric acid.

C5.2d/C5.1d Be able to explain the effects on rates of reaction of changes in temperature, concentration and pressure in terms of frequency and energy of collision between particles.

Practical - reaction of magnesium and acid with different temperatures of acid – measure reaction times.

C5.2e/C5.1e Be able to explain the effects on rates of reaction of changes in the size of the pieces of a reacting solid in terms of surface area to volume ratio.

C5.2f/C5.1f Be able to describe the characteristics of catalysts and their effect on rates of reaction.

C5.2g/C5.1g Be able to identify catalysts in reactions.

Practicals

Catalysis of hydrogen peroxide with various black powders including MnO2.

Catalysis of reaction of zinc with sulfuric acid using copper powder.

(I used to add a few drops of copper sulfate to the solution which forms a copper deposit on the zinc and it works a treat!).

C5.2h/C5.1h Be able to explain catalytic action in terms of activation energy reaction profile

C5.2i/C5.1i Know that enzymes act as catalysts in biological systems.

What do we mean by the rate/speed of reaction? how can we measure it?

Particle model of the collision theory of chemical reaction rate factors

Effect of changing reactant concentration in solution

Effect of changing pressure in reacting gases

Effect of changing particle size/surface area & stirring of a solid reactant

Effect of changing the temperature of reactants

Effect of using a catalyst in a chemical reaction

Catalysts and activation energy

Examples of graphs of rate data, interpretation

Enzymes and Biotechnology

Multiple choice Quiz on the Rates of Chemical Reactions

Crossword on Rates of Reactions * Answers

Wordfill worksheet on Rates of Chemical Reactions

(1) matching pair quizzes on Rates of Chemical Reactions and (mp2)


C5.3 (GCSE Chemistry)/5.2 (Combined Science) Equilibria

Know that in a reaction, when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the backwards reaction, the reaction in a closed system is said to be in equilibrium. You should be familiar with representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations. Common misconceptions - you may not recognise that when a dynamic equilibrium is set up in a reaction the concentration of the reactants and products remain constant, you may think that they are equal. Also, you might think a dynamic equilibrium as two reactions.

C5.3a/C5.2a Know that some reactions may be reversed by altering the reaction conditions.

C5.3b/C5.2b Know that dynamic equilibrium occurs in a closed system when the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal.

C5.3c/C5.2c (HT only) Be able to predict the effect of changing reaction conditions on equilibrium position and be able to suggest appropriate conditions to produce as much of a particular product as possible.

Know how to apply Le Chatelier's principle concerning concentration, temperature and pressure changes.

Reversible Reactions - experiments described and explained

Reversible reactions and chemical equilibrium (including Le Chatelier's Principle rules)

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia (application of rules to an important industrial process)


Topic C6 Global challenges

This topic seeks to integrate your knowledge and understanding of chemical systems and processes, with the aim of applying it to global challenges. Applications of chemistry can be used to help humans improve their own lives and strive to create a sustainable world for future generations, and these challenges are considered in this topic. Many concepts you have learned through your chemistry course are brought together to look at particular problems and their solution.


C6.1 Improving processes and products

Appreciate that historically new materials have been developed through trial and error, experience etc. but as our understanding of the structure of materials and chemical processes has improved we are increasing our ability to manipulate and design new materials. Industry is continually looking to make products that have a better performance and are sustainable to produce. This section also explores the extraction of raw materials and their use in making new products. You should be familiar with the properties of ceramics, polymers and composites. You also will have met the method of using carbon to obtain metals from metal oxides. Common misconceptions - you often think that chemical reactions will continue until all the reactants are exhausted and that equilibrium is a static condition.

C6.1a Be able to explain, using the position of carbon in the reactivity series, the principles of industrial processes used to extract metals, including extraction of a non-ferrous metal.

Practical extraction of copper by heating copper oxide with carbon.

Introduction to Metal Extraction

Introduction to oxidation and reduction theory

Extraction and Purification of Copper

C6.1b Be able to explain why and how electrolysis is used to extract some metals from their ores.

Practical - electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution and aqueous copper sulfate solution.

Introduction to electrolysis - electrolytes, non-electrolytes, electrode equations

Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine)

Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide (and other molten ionic compounds like NaCl)

Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution

Extraction of Aluminium

C6.1c (HT only) Be able to evaluate alternative biological methods of metal extraction including bacterial and phytoextraction.

Copper extraction by phytomining or bioleaching

C6.1d (GCSE Chemistry HT only) Be able to explain the trade-off between rate of production of a desired product and position of equilibrium in some industrially important processes eg the Haber process and Contact process.

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia

Contact Process for manufacturing sulfuric acid, the importance of sulphuric acid

C6.1e (GCSE Chemistry HT only) Be able to interpret graphs of reaction conditions versus rate.

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia

C6.1f (GCSE Chemistry HT only) Be able to explain how the commercially used conditions for an industrial process are related to the availability and cost of raw materials and energy supplies, control of equilibrium position and rate

The Principles & Practice of Chemical Production - Synthesising Molecules

C6.1g (GCSE Chemistry only) Be able to explain the importance of the Haber process in agricultural production.

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia - nitrogen fixation

C6.1h (GCSE Chemistry only) compare the industrial production of fertilisers with laboratory syntheses of the same products.

Practicals - preparation of potassium sulfate or ammonium sulfate using a titration method.

Manufacture and uses of fertilisers, preparation of ammonium salts

Making a soluble salt by neutralising a soluble acid with a soluble base (alkali)

C6.1i/C6.1d Be able to describe the basic principles in carrying out a life-cycle assessment of a material or product

C6.1j/C6.1e Be able to interpret data from a life-cycle assessment of a material or product.

C6.1k/C6.1f Be able to describe a process where a material or product is recycled for a different and explain why this is viable.

C6.1l/C6.1g Be able to evaluate factors that affect decisions on recycling.

Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industry - Economics & Sustainability, Life Cycle Assessment, Recycling

Products of the Chemical & Pharmaceutical Industries & Impact on Us and the Environment

Economic & environmental issues on mineral extraction & reasons for recycling and methods

C6.1m (GCSE Chemistry only) Be able to describe the composition of some important alloys in relation to their properties and uses - steel, brass, bronze, solder, duralumin.

Transition Metals eg uses of iron and copper plus mention of aluminium

Metallic bonding, properties and uses of metals including alloys

C6.1n (GCSE Chemistry only) Be able to describe the process of corrosion and the conditions which cause corrosion in iron and other metals

C6.1o (GCSE Chemistry only) Be able to explain how mitigation of corrosion is achieved by creating a physical barrier to oxygen and water and by sacrificial protection

Introduction to oxidation and reduction theory and application to 'redox' reactions

The corrosion of metals and the prevention of iron rusting

Electrolysis and electroplating

C6.1p (GCSE Chemistry only) Be able to compare quantitatively the physical properties of glass and clay ceramics, polymers, composites and metals (see links below)

C6.1q (GCSE Chemistry only) Be able to explain how the properties of materials are related to their uses and select appropriate materials given details of the usage required

Properties and uses of metals and Transition Metals

Properties and uses of addition polymers (thermosoftening)

Properties and uses of condensation polymers (thermosetting)

Notes on concrete, glass, clay ceramics, bricks etc.

Survey of properties related to uses of a wide variety of materials - metals, polymers, composites, ceramics

Sections for GCSE Combined Science only (GCSE Chemistry deals with these separately in Topic 6.2)

C6.1h Be able to describe the separation of crude oil by fractional distillation. Know the names of the fractions.

C6.1i Be able to explain the separation of crude oil by fractional distillation - relate to molecular size and intermolecular forces

C6.1j Be able describe the fractions as largely a mixture of compounds of formula CnH2n+2 which are members of the alkane homologous series.

C6.1k Be able to recall that crude oil is a main source of hydrocarbons and is a feedstock for the petrochemical industry.

C6.1l Be able to explain how modern life is crucially dependent upon hydrocarbons and recognise that crude oil is a finite resource.

C6.1m Be able to describe the production of materials that are more useful by cracking - including the conditions and reasons for cracking and some of the useful materials produced.

Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions

Alkanes - saturated hydrocarbons, structure and reactions including combustion

Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products - hydrocarbon chemistry


C6.2 Organic chemistry (GCSE Chemistry only) Sections of this are dealt with in 6.1 for Combined Science.

Appreciate that carbon chemistry is the basis of life on Earth. Organic chemistry is the basis of many of the materials we produce. Organic compounds are covalent in nature and react in a predictable pattern. Crude oil forms the basis of many useful by-products. You should be familiar with reactions and displayed formula. Common misconceptions - you tend not to bring the concepts from general Chemistry to your study of organic chemistry. You may have difficulty identifying functional groups and naming and drawing the compounds. Be able to represent three dimensional shapes in two dimensions and vice versa when looking at chemical structures.

C6.2a Be able to recognise functional groups and identify members of the same homologous series - homologous series of alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and carboxylic acids

Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of organic compounds? - homologous series

C6.2b Be able to name and draw the structural formulae, using fully displayed formulae, of the first four members of the straight chain alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and carboxylic acids.

Practical - use of models.

Alkanes - saturated hydrocarbons, structure and names

Alkenes - unsaturated hydrocarbons - structure and names

Alcohols - structures and names

Carboxylic acids - structure and names

C6.2c Be able to predict the formulae and structures of products of reactions of the first four and other given members of the homologous series of alkanes, alkenes and alcohols.

Reactions -  combustion; addition of bromine and hydrogen across a double bond; oxidation of alcohols to carboxylic acids using potassium manganate(VII).

Alkanes - saturated hydrocarbons, structure and reactions including combustion

Alkenes - unsaturated hydrocarbons - structure and reactions

Alcohols - structures including ethanol - manufacture, properties and reactions

Carboxylic acids - structure and reactions

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products - hydrocarbon chemistry

Multiple choice QUIZ on other aspects of Organic Chemistry

C6.2d Know the basic principles of addition polymerisation by reference to the functional group in the monomer and the repeating units in the polymer.

Addition polymers, plastics, uses and problems

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products - hydrocarbon chemistry

C6.2e (HT only) Be able to explain the basic principles of condensation polymerisation with reference to the functional groups of the monomers, the minimum number of functional groups within a monomer, the number of repeating units in the polymer, and simultaneous formation of a small molecule e.g. a polyester or polyamide, using block diagrams to represent polymers.

Comparing addition polymers & condensation polymers, fibres, thermosetting compared to thermosoftening polymers

C6.2f (HT only) Be able to describe practical techniques to make a polymer by condensation and addition.

Practical making nylon.

C6.2g Be able to deduce the structure of an addition polymer from a simple alkene monomer and vice versa using the following representation of a polymer [repeat unit]n

Addition polymers

C6.2h Know that DNA is a polymer made from four different monomers called nucleotides and that other important naturally-occurring polymers are based on sugars and amino-acids the. Know the names of the nucleotides

Natural Molecules - carbohydrates - sugars - natural polymers - starch and DNA

Amino acids - natural polymers - proteins/polypeptides

C6.2i Know that it is the generality of reactions of functional groups that determine the reactions of organic compounds.

Introduction to Organic Chemistry - homologous series - functional groups

C6.2j Be able to describe the separation of crude oil by fractional distillation. Know the names of the fractions

C6.2k Be able to explain the separation of crude oil by fractional distillation with reference to molecular size and intermolecular forces.

Fractional distillation of crude oil & molecular properties and uses of fractions

C6.2l Be able to describe the fractions as largely a mixture of compounds of formula CnH2n+2 which are members of the alkane homologous series

Alkanes - saturated hydrocarbons, structure and reactions including combustion

C6.2m Know that crude oil is a main source of hydrocarbons and is a feedstock for the petrochemical industry

C6.2n Be able to explain how modern life is crucially dependent upon hydrocarbons and recognise that crude oil is a finite resource.

Fossil Fuels

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products - hydrocarbon chemistry

3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

C6.2o Be able to describe the production of materials that are more useful by cracking. Know the conditions for cracking and reasons for cracking and some of the useful materials produced.

Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products - hydrocarbon chemistry

3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

C6.2p Know that a chemical cell produces a potential difference until the reactants are used up

C6.2q Be able to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen/oxygen and other fuel cells for given uses. Know the chemistry of the hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell.

Simple cells (batteries)

Fuel Cells e.g. the hydrogen - oxygen fuel cell


C6.3 (GCSE Chemistry)/C6.2 (GCSE Combined science) Interpreting and interacting with Earth systems

Appreciate as our understanding of the structure of materials and chemical processes has improved we are increasing our ability to interpret and understand biological and earth systems. Understanding how we interact with them is very important to our survival as a species. This section starts with the history of the atmosphere and moves on to how human activity could be affecting its composition. You should have some understanding of the composition of the Earth, the structure of the Earth, the rock cycle, the carbon cycle, the composition of the atmosphere and the impact of human activity on the climate. Common misconceptions - the atmosphere is large and that small increases of carbon dioxide or a few degree of temperature change do not make a difference to the climate, you may consider that global warming is caused by the ozone hole and that human activities alone cause the greenhouse effect.

C6.3a/C6.2a interpret evidence for how it is thought the atmosphere was originally formed - knowledge of how the composition of the atmosphere has changed over time

C6.3b/6.2b Be able to describe how it is thought an oxygen-rich atmosphere developed over time.

Past ancient atmospheres, changes due to man's activities

Evolution of atmosphere - changes over billions of years, origin of life

C6.3c/6.2c Be able to describe the greenhouse effect in terms of the interaction of radiation with matter within the atmosphere

C6.3d/C6.2d evaluate the evidence for additional anthropogenic (human activity) causes of climate change and be able to describe the uncertainties in the evidence base - the correlation between change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the consumption of fossil fuels

C6.3e/C6.2e Be able to describe the potential effects of increased levels of carbon dioxide and methane on the Earth’s climate and how these effects may be mitigated - consideration of scale, risk and environmental implications.

Recycling of gases - carbon cycle, global warming, oxygen balance and photosynthesis

Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning

C6.3f/C6.2f Be able to describe the major sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulates in the atmosphere and be able to explain the problems caused by increased amounts of these substances

Air pollution - sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, acid rain

Air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot

C6.3g/C6.2g Be able to describe the principal methods for increasing the availability of potable water in terms of the separation techniques - ease of treatment of waste, ground and salt water.

Water cycle, potable water, water treatment, pollution, tests for ions in water

C6.3h Know the importance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds in agricultural production.

C6.3i Be able to describe the industrial production of fertilisers as several integrated processes using a variety of raw materials eg the production of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate.

The Haber Synthesis of ammonia - nitrogen fixation

Manufacture and uses of fertilisers - NPK fertilisers-environmental problems


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