OCR GCSE SCIENCES A Gateway Science

ALL MY GCSE CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES

BEWARE - this page is for Y10 2016-2017 onwards only!

OCR Level 1/2 GCSE (9–1) in Chemistry A (Gateway Science) (J248) Foundation Tier Paper 1/Higher Tier Paper 3

 and OCR Level 1/2 GCSE (9–1) in Combined Science A (Gateway Science) (J250) FT Paper 3/HT Paper 9 Chemistry

OCR (9-1) Gateway GCSE CHEMISTRY A Chapters C1, C2 and C3

'Old' OCR Gateway GCSE sciences for Y11 finishing Y11 2016-2017

INDEX for all links

 The Google [SEARCH] box at the bottom of the page should also prove useful

These topic revision summaries below for the NEW GCSE sciences are all unofficial but based on the NEW 2016 official syllabus-specifications for Y10 students from September 2016 onwards

(HT only) means higher tier only (NOT FT) and (GCSE chemistry only)  means for the separate science, NOT for GCSE Combined Science chemistry

Links to specific GCSE chemistry notes about the topic in question have been added, and from these pages, you may find other links to more useful material linked to the topic.


Revision summaries for GCSE Chemistry FT Paper 1/HT Paper 3

AND GCSE Combined Science FT Paper 3/HT Paper 9 (this page)

What's assessed in this paper?

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C1: Particles:

Containing sections C1.1 The particle model,   C1.2 Atomic structure

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C2: Elements, compounds and mixtures:

Containing sections C2.1 Purity and separating mixtures,   C2.2 Bonding,   C2.3 Properties of materials 

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C3: Chemical reactions:

Sections C3.1 Introducing chemical reactions,   C3.2 Energetics

C3.3 Types of chemical reactions,    C3.4 Electrolysis


Summaries for GCSE Chemistry FT Paper 2/HT Paper 4

AND GCSE Combined Science FT Paper 4/HT Paper 10 (separate page)

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C4: Predicting and identifying reactions and products:

Containing sections C4.1 Predicting chemical reactions

C4.2 Identifying the products of chemical reactions (GCSE chemistry only)

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C5: Monitoring and controlling chemical reactions:

Containing sections C5.1 Monitoring chemical reactions (GCSE chemistry only)

C5.2 Controlling reactions (Topic 5.1 Combined science)

C5.3 Equilibria (Topic 5.2 Combined Science)

Revision SUMMARY of Topic C6: Global challenges:

C6.1 Improving processes and products,    C6.2 Organic chemistry (GCSE chemistry only)

C6.3 Interpreting & interacting with Earth systems


TOPICS OCR GCSE Chemistry A FT Paper 1/HT Paper 3

AND GCSE Combined Science A FT Paper 3/HT Paper 9 (Gateway Science)

Topic C1: Particles


C1.1 The particle model

Appreciate you can use a particle model to explain the different states of matter. A simple particle model can be to used to represent the arrangement of particles in the different states of matter and to explain observations during changes in state. It does not, however, explain why different materials have different properties. This explanation is that the particles themselves and how they are held together must be different in some way. Elements are substances that are made up of only one type of atom and atoms of different elements can combine to make compounds. You should be familiar with the different states of matter and their properties. You should also be familiar with changes of state in terms of the particle model. You should have sufficient understanding of the particle model to be able to apply it to unfamiliar materials and contexts. Common misconceptions -  the idea that matter is continuous eg the space between gas particles is filled or non-existent, or that particles expand when they are heated. You also need to appreciate the concept of changes in state being reversible. Other problem concepts might be when you represent three dimensional shapes in two dimensions and vice versa when looking at chemical structures e.g. allotropes of carbon.

C1.1a Be able to describe the main features of the particle model in terms of states of matter and change of state

C1.1b Be able to explain in terms of the particle model the distinction between physical changes and chemical changes

C1.1c Be able to explain the limitations of the particle model in relation to changes of state when particles are represented by inelastic spheres (e.g. like bowling balls). Appreciate that it does not take into account the forces of attraction between particles, the size of particles and the space between them.

Practical - observations of change of state with comparison to chemical changes.

States of Matter - particle theory - gas, liquid & solid properties-behaviour, state changes

Multiple choice quiz on States of Matter (gases, liquids & solids) and State Changes


C1.2 Atomic structure

An atom is the smallest component of an element that gives an element its property. These properties can be explained by models of atomic structure. Current models suggest that atoms are made of smaller sub-atomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. The models suggest that atoms are composed of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. The nucleus is composed of neutrons and protons. Atoms of each element have the same number of protons as electrons. Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons. Atoms of the same element will have the same number of protons but may have different numbers of neutrons. Common misconceptions: understanding the concept of isotopes due to the fact you may think that neutral atoms have the same number of protons and neutrons. You may find it difficult to distinguish between the properties of atoms and molecules. Another common misconception is that a positive ion gains protons or a negative ion loses electrons i.e. that there is a change in the nucleus of the atom rather than a change in the number of electrons. Be able to relate size and scale of atoms to objects in the physical world and be able to estimate size and scale of atoms and nanoparticles  

C1.2a Be able to describe how and why the atomic model has changed over time including the models of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Geiger and Marsden.

C1.2b Be able to describe the atom as a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons, with the nuclear radius much smaller than that of the atom and with most of the mass in the nucleus

C1.2c Know the typical size (order of magnitude) of atoms and small molecules - the concept that typical atomic radii and bond length are in the order of 10-10m

C1.2d Know the relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons

C1.2e Be able to calculate numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions, given atomic number and mass number of isotopes. Know the definitions of an ion, atomic number, mass number and an isotope and the standard notation to represent these terms.

Atomic Structure - nucleus, electrons, isotopes, history etc.

Multiple choice quiz on  Atomic structure, isotopes

Atomic Structure crossword puzzle * Answers

Gap-fill worksheet on Atomic Structure

Matching pair quiz on Atomic and electronic structure 1. fundamental particles


Topic C2 Elements, compounds and mixtures

C2.1 Purity and separating mixtures

Know in chemical terms elements and compounds are pure substances and mixtures are impure substances. Chemically pure substances can be identified using melting point. Many useful materials that we to use today are mixtures. There are many methods of separating mixtures including filtration, crystallisation, distillation and chromatographic techniques. You should be familiar with the concept of pure substances. You should have met simple separation techniques of mixtures. Know about the identification of pure substances in terms of melting point, boiling point and chromatography. Common misconceptions don't confuse the word pure and with natural (untampered with). Don't think that when a substance dissolves that the solution is pure and not a mixture.

C2.1a Be able to explain what is meant by the purity of a substance, distinguishing between the scientific and everyday Be able to use of the term ‘pure’. Practical on purifying compounds.

Filtration, evaporation, crystallisation, drying and decantation

these techniques are used as 'purifying' procedures e.g. in preparing salts

C2.1b Be able to use melting point data to distinguish pure from impure substances. Practical - measurement of melting point.

Definitions and criteria in chemistry eg atom, molecule, formula, element, compound, mixture, pure, impure etc.

C2.1c Be able to calculate relative formula masses of species separately and in a balanced chemical equation. Know the definition of relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass and relative formula mass

What is relative atomic mass? (Ar) and calculating relative atomic mass

Calculating relative formula/molecular mass (Mr) of a compound or element molecule

Type in answer quiz on relative formula mass

Multiple Choice quiz on relative formula mass

C2.1d Be able to deduce the empirical formula of a compound from the relative numbers of atoms present or from a model or diagram and vice versa

Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting (examples near top of page)

empirical formula & molecular formula of a compound/molecule (examples near top of page)

C2.1e Be able to explain that many useful materials are formulations of mixtures including alloys.

Metals – structure and properties (including alloys)

The Transition Metals - alloys and aluminium

Introduction to formulations and examples explained

C2.1f Be able to describe and exemplify the processes of filtration, crystallisation, simple distillation, and fractional distillation - know the techniques of filtration, crystallisation, simple distillation and fractional distillation.

Practicals - separation of mixtures, purification of compounds and distillation of mixtures

C2.1g Be able to describe the techniques of paper and thin layer chromatography - practical exercise using these techniques.

C2.1h Know that chromatography involves a stationary and a mobile phase and that separation depends on the distribution between the phases - identification of the mobile and stationary phases

C2.1i Be able to interpret chromatograms, including measuring Rf values know and use of the Rf formula.

C2.1j Be able to suggest suitable purification techniques given information about the substances involved

C2.1k Be able to suggest chromatographic methods for distinguishing pure from impure substances including paper, thin layer (TLC) and gas chromatography. Practical - using chromatography to identify mixtures of dyes in an unknown ink.

Links for C2.f to C2.1k

Distillation - Simple and Fractional Distillation 

Paper & thin layer chromatography (tlc) and gas chromatography (gc, glc)

Filtration, evaporation, crystallisation, drying and decantation


C2.2 Bonding

A simple electron energy level model can be used to explain the basic chemical properties of elements. When chemical reactions occur, they can be explained in terms of losing, gaining or sharing of electrons. The ability of an atom to lose, gain or share electrons depends on its atomic structure. Atoms that lose electrons will bond with atoms that gain electrons. Electrons will be transferred between the atoms to form a positive ion and a negative ion. These ions attract one another in what is known as an ionic bond. Atoms that share electrons can bond with other atoms that share electrons to form a molecule. Atoms in these molecules are held together by covalent bonds. You should be familiar with the simple (Dalton) atomic model. Common misconceptions - appreciate that the nucleus of an atom does not change when an electron is lost, gained or shared, its sometimes difficult to predict the numbers of atoms that must bond in order to achieve a stable outer level of electrons, don't think chemical bonds are physical things made of matter (they are forces between particles). Don't think that pairs of ions such as Na+ and Cl are molecules. Be aware of the 3D nature of bonding and therefore the shape of molecules. Be able to estimate size and scale of atoms and nanoparticles and be able to represent three dimensional shapes in two dimensions and vice versa when looking at chemical structures e.g. allotropes of carbon. You may also have to translate information between diagrammatic and numerical forms.

C2.2a Be able to describe metals and non-metals and be able to explain the differences between them on the basis of their characteristic physical and chemical properties including physical properties, formation of ions and common reactions e.g. with oxygen to form oxides.

C2.2b Be able to explain how the atomic structure of metals and non-metals relates to their position in the Periodic Table

C2.2c Be able to explain how the position of an element in the Periodic Table is related to the arrangement of electrons in its atoms and hence to its atomic number - reference to group number and period number.

Atomic Structure - electronic structure

Periodic Table Notes - an overview, groups, periods, metals & non-metals

C2.2d/C2.2f Be able to describe and compare the nature and arrangement of chemical bonds in:

(i) ionic compounds,  (ii) simple molecules, (iii) giant covalent structures, (iv) polymers (v) metals

 You should have make some ball and stick models of molecules.

Ionic compounds - structure and properties

Covalent small simple molecules - structure and properties

Macromolecules, giant covalent structures, polymers - structure and properties

Metals – structure and properties (including alloys)

Addition polymer structure - properties and uses including poly(ethene)

C2.2e/C2.2g Be able to explain chemical bonding in terms of electrostatic forces and the transfer or sharing of electrons

Introduction to Chemical Bonding and links above

C2.2f/C2.2h Be able to construct dot and cross diagrams for simple covalent and binary ionic substances

Ionic bonding and ionic compounds and their properties

Covalent bonding and small molecules and their properties

C2.2g/C2.2i Be able to describe the limitations of particular representations and models to include dot and cross diagrams, ball and stick models and two and three dimensional representations.

C2.2h/C2.2d Be able to explain how the reactions of elements are related to the arrangement of electrons in their atoms and hence to their atomic number

C2.2i/C2.2e Be able to explain in terms of atomic number how Mendeleev’s arrangement was refined into the modern Periodic Table

Periodic Table Notes - an overview, groups, periods, metals & non-metals, history


C2.3 Properties of materials

This section explores the physical properties of elements and compounds and how the nature of their bonding is a factor in their properties. You should know the difference between an atom, element and compound. Common misconceptions - you have a limited understanding of chemical reactions, for example substances may explode, burn, contract, expand or change state.

C2.3a Know that carbon can form four covalent bonds

C2.3b Be able to explain that the vast array of natural and synthetic organic compounds occur due to the ability of carbon to form families of similar compounds, chains and rings.

Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of organic compounds?

C2.3c Be able to explain the properties of diamond, graphite, fullerenes and graphene in terms of their structures and bonding.

Covalent bonding and giant structures and their properties and uses

Fullerenes; bucky balls and carbon nanotubes and Graphene

C2.3d Be able to use ideas about energy transfers and the relative strength of chemical bonds and intermolecular forces to explain the different temperatures at which changes of state occur

States of Matter - particle theory - gas, liquid & solid properties-behaviour, state changes

but the same points are made on the chemical bonding pages via the links listed in C2.3f

C2.3e Be able to use data to predict states of substances under given conditions using data such as temperature and how this may be linked to changes of state

States of Matter - particle theory - gas, liquid & solid properties-behaviour, state changes

C2.3f Be able to explain how the bulk properties of materials (ionic compounds; simple molecules; giant covalent structures; polymers and metals) are related to the different types of bonds they contain, their bond strengths in relation to intermolecular forces and the ways in which their bonds are arranged. You should recognise that the atoms themselves do not have the bulk properties of these materials

Ionic bonding and ionic compounds and their properties

Covalent bonding and small molecules and their properties

Covalent bonding and giant structures and their properties and uses

Metallic bonding, properties and uses of metals

Polymer structure

C2.3g (GCSE chemistry only)  compare ‘nano’ dimensions to typical dimensions of atoms and molecules

C2.3h (GCSE chemistry only) Be able to describe the surface area to volume relationship for different-sized particles and be able to describe how this affects properties - practical on dissolving tablets.

C2.3i (GCSE chemistry only) Be able to describe how the properties of nanoparticulate materials are related to their to uses

C2.3j (GCSE chemistry only)  Be able to explain the possible risks associated with some nanoparticulate materials

General introduction to nanoscience and commonly used terms explained

Nanochemistry - an introduction and potential applications

Uses of Nanoparticles of titanium(IV) oxide, fat and silver


Topic C3 Chemical reactions

C3.1 Introducing chemical reactions

A chemical equation represents, in symbolic terms, the overall change in a chemical reaction. New materials are formed through chemical reactions but mass will be conserved. This can be explained by a model involving the rearrangement of atoms. Avogadro gave us a system of measuring the amount of a substance in moles. You should be familiar with chemical symbols and formulae for elements and compounds, representing chemical reactions using formulae and knowledge of conservation of mass, changes of state and chemical reactions. You may have to do calculations with numbers written in standard form when using the Avogadro and be able to convert units where appropriate particularly from mass to moles.

C3.1a Be able to use chemical symbols to write the formulae of elements and simple covalent and ionic compounds

C3.1b Be able to use the names and symbols of common elements and compounds and the principle of conservation of mass to write formulae and balanced chemical equations and (HT only) half equations

Calculating relative formula/molecular mass (Mr) of a compound or element molecule

Type in answer quiz on relative formula mass

Multiple Choice quiz on relative formula mass

How to write word & balance symbol equations, work out formula and name compounds

Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations

Type in answer quiz on the law of conservation of mass

Multiple choice quiz on the law of conservation of mass

C3.1c Be able to use the names and symbols of common elements from a supplied Periodic Table to write formulae and balanced chemical equations where appropriate including the first 20 elements, group 1, 7, and 0 and other common elements included within the specification.

How to write word & symbol equations, work out formula and name compounds

Element Symbol-name QUIZ easier-pictorial  or  harder-no pictures!

Group 1 Alkali Metals - chemical properties

Group 7 Halogens - chemical properties

C3.1d Be able to use the formula of common ions to deduce the formula of a compound

Ionic compounds section on working out formulae (section near end of page)

C3.1e (HT only)  Be able to construct balanced ionic equations

How to write word & balance symbol equations, work out formula and name compounds

C3.1f Be able to describe the physical states of products and reactants using state symbols (s, l, g and aq)

In most equations I've included the state symbols for solid, liquid, gas and aqueous solution (dissolved in water)

C3.1g/C3.1h (HT only) Know and be able to use the definitions of the Avogadro constant (in standard form) and of the mole including the calculation of the mass of one atom/molecule

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass), Avogadro constant

Introduction to moles type in answer QUIZ

Introduction to moles multiple choice QUIZ

C3.1g Be able to describe tests to identify selected gases - oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and chlorine (Combined Science only in Topic 3.1, covered in Topic 4.2 for GCSE chemistry)

Summary of 'GCSE' tests for gases and ions including equations

C3.1h/C3hi (HT only) Be able to explain how the mass of a given substance is related to the amount of that substance in moles and vice versa

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass

Introduction to moles type in answer QUIZ

Introduction to moles multiple choice QUIZ

C3.1i/C3.1i Know and be able to use the law of conservation of mass.

Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations

Type in answer quiz on the law of conservation of mass

Multiple choice quiz on the law of conservation of mass

Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

Working out empirical formula from reacting masses type in answer QUIZ

Working out empirical formula from reacting masses multiple choice QUIZ

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (NOT using moles)

Type in answer QUIZ on reacting masses

Multiple choice QUIZ on reacting masses

Mole ratio calculations - equation interpretation and construction of balanced chemical equations

C3.1j/C3,1l Be able to explain any observed changes in mass in non-enclosed systems during a chemical reaction and be able to explain them using the particle model

Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (NOT using moles)

Type in answer QUIZ on reacting masses

Multiple choice QUIZ on reacting masses

C3.1j (HT only) Be able to explain how the mass of a solute and the volume of the solution is related to the concentration of the solution (Combined Science only in Topic 3, covered in Topic 5.1 for GCSE chemistry)

Concentration of solution in terms of mass and volume

C3.1k/C3.1m (HT only) Be able to deduce the stoichiometry of an equation from the masses of reactants and products and be able to explain the effect of a limiting quantity of a reactant.

C3.1l/C3.1n (HT only) Be able to use a balanced equation to calculate masses of reactants or products.

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (NOT using moles)

The basis of reacting mole ratio calculations based on equations

How much of a reactant is needed? calculation of quantities required, limiting quantities


C3.2 Energetics

Chemical reactions are accompanied by an energy change. A simple model involving the breaking and making of chemical bonds can be used to interpret and calculate the energy change. You should be familiar with exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions. Common misconceptions - energy is lost or used up rather than energy is transferred, thinking that energy is released when bonds break and do not link this release of energy with the formation of bonds and don't that eg a candle burning is endothermic because heat is needed to initiate the reaction. You are expected to be able to calculations involving energy changes.

C3.2a Be able to distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions on the basis of the temperature change of the surroundings - practical measuring the temperature change in reactions.

C3.2b Be able to draw and label a reaction profile for an exothermic and an endothermic reaction including activation energy, energy change, reactants and products.

C3.2c Be able to explain activation energy as the energy needed for a reaction to occur.

C3.2d (HT only) Be able to calculate energy changes in a chemical reaction by considering bond making and bond breaking energies

Heat changes in chemical/physical changes - exothermic and endothermic

Calorimeter methods of determining energy changes and examples of experiments you can do

Activation energy and reaction profiles

Introduction to bond energy/enthalpy calculations

Energy transfer calculations from calorimeter results

Multiple choice quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions


C3.3 Types of chemical reactions

Chemical reactions can be classified according to changes at the atomic and molecular level. Examples of these include reduction, oxidation and neutralisation reactions. You should be familiar with combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation and displacement reactions. You should be familiar with defining acids and alkalis in terms of neutralisation reactions eg reactions of acids with alkalis to produce a salt and water and reactions of acids with metals to produce a salt and hydrogen. Common misconceptions - hydrogen ions in an acid are still part of the molecule, not free in the solution. pH is often misunderstood and alkalis are seen as less corrosive than acids. A big misconception is that the strength of acids and bases and concentration mean the same thing - they do NOT, so take care on these ideas.

C3.3a Be able to explain reduction and oxidation in terms of loss or gain of oxygen, identifying which species are oxidised and which are reduced including the concept of oxidising agent and reducing agent.

Introduction to oxidation and reduction and their application to redox reactions

C3.3b (HT only) Be able to explain reduction and oxidation in terms of gain or loss of electrons, identifying which species are oxidised and which are reduced.

Introduction to oxidation and reduction and their application to redox reactions

C3.3c Know that acids form hydrogen ions when they dissolve in water and solutions of alkalis contain hydroxide ions.

pH scale, indicator colours, ionic theory of acids, alkalis (bases) & neutralisation

C3.3d Be able to describe neutralisation as acid reacting with alkali or a base to form a salt plus water.

Practical - production of pure dry sample of salt.

Everyday examples of acid-alkali chemistry - examples and uses of acids and alkalis (pH quoted too)

pH scale, indicator colours, ionic theory of acids, alkalis (bases) & neutralisation

Making a soluble salt by neutralising a soluble acid with a soluble base (alkali)

Making a soluble salt by from an acid with a metal or insoluble base – oxide, hydroxide or carbonate

C3.3e Recognise that aqueous neutralisation reactions can be generalised to hydrogen ions reacting with hydroxide ions to form water.

pH scale, indicator colours, ionic theory of acids, alkalis (bases) & neutralisation

C3.3f Know that carbonates and some metals react with acids and write balanced equations predicting products from given reactants.

Reactions of acids with metals/oxides/hydroxides/carbonates and neutralisation reactions

C3.3g (HT only) Be able to use and explain the terms dilute and concentrated (amount of substance) and weak and strong (degree of ionisation) in relation to acids - ratio of amount of acid to volume of solution.

More on Acid-Base Theory and Weak and Strong Acids

C3.3h Know that relative acidity and alkalinity are measured by pH

pH scale, indicator colours, ionic theory of acids, alkalis (bases) & neutralisation

C3.3i (HT only) Be able to describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of the effect of the concentration of hydrogen ions on the numerical value of pH (whole numbers only) and pH of titration curves.

Practical on neutralisation reactions.

Changes in pH in a neutralisation reaction

C3.3j (HT only) Know that as hydrogen ion concentration increases by a factor of ten the pH value of a solution decreases by a factor of one.

C3.3k Be able to describe techniques and apparatus used to measure pH.

Practical - determining pH of unknown solutions.

pH scale, indicator colours, ionic theory of acids, alkalis (bases) & neutralisation


C3.4 Electrolysis

Decomposition of a liquid during the conduction of electricity is a chemical reaction called electrolysis. This section explores the electrolysis of various molten ionic liquids and aqueous ionic solutions. You should be familiar with ionic solutions and solids. Common misconceptions - ionic solutions conduct because they are able to use of the movement of electrons. Another common misconception is that ionic solids do not conduct electricity because electrons cannot move.

Introduction to electrolysis - electrolytes, non-electrolytes, electrode equations

C3.4a Know that metals (or hydrogen) are formed at the cathode and non-metals are formed at the anode in electrolysis using inert electrodes and be familiar with the terms cations and anions

Electrochemistry-Electrolysis Notes Index (lots of examples)

Introduction to electrolysis - electrolytes, non-electrolytes, electrode equations

Summary of electrode half-equations and products

Summary of electrolysis products from various electrolytes

Electrolysis of acidified water (dilute sulfuric acid) and some sulfate salts and alkalis

C3.4b predict the products of electrolysis of binary ionic compounds in the molten state compounds such as NaCl.

Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide (and other molten ionic compounds like NaCl)

C3.4c Be able to describe competing reactions in the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of ionic compounds in terms of the different species present.

Practical - the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and copper sulfate solution using inert electrodes

Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine)

Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution

C3.4d Be able to describe electrolysis in terms of the ions present and reactions at the electrodes

Electrochemistry-Electrolysis Notes Index (lots of examples)

C3.4e Be able to describe the technique of electrolysis using inert and non-inert electrodes.

Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution (inert or copper electrodes) and electroplating


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