Edexcel GCSE SCIENCES - chemistry 2 paper

ALL MY GCSE CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES

Revision summary help for the 9-1 Edexcel GCSE Combined Science 2nd chemistry exam paper 4 - learning objectives

Edexcel GCSE Grade 9-1 Combined Science 1SC0 Paper 4 Chemistry 2 - Edexcel Grade 9-1 GCSE Combined Science chemistry Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry", Topic 6 "Groups in the periodic table", Topic 7 "Rates of reaction and energy changes", Topic 8 "Fuels and Earth science "

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE Combined Science 1st chemistry paper 3

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE CHEMISTRY 1 paper 1

LINK for Edexcel  9-1 GCSE CHEMISTRY 2 paper 2

 For ALL other exam papers, use and bookmark the link below

INDEX for all links * PAST PAPERS

PLEASE READ CAREFULLY THE FOLLOWING POINTS before using my Edexcel 9-1 GCSE science pages

  1. ALL my unofficial GCSE (Grade 9-1) revision help summaries are based on the NEW 2016 official Edexcel (Grade 9-1) GCSE CHEMISTRY/combined science chemistry specifications.

  2. Make sure you know whether you are doing separate science Edexcel GCSE grade 9-1 CHEMISTRY OR Edexcel GCSE grade 9-1 Combined Science chemistry.

  3. Also, make sure you know whether you are entered for a higher tier (HT) or a foundation tier (FT) Edexcel GCSE science-chemistry course, so watch out for the (HT only) 'markers'.

  4. I hope my revision pages help as you get to know my website, its very big and not always easy to navigate, but it is no substitute for making good lesson notes, trying your best on homework questions, studying your textbook, doing past papers of Edexcel GCSE combined science/chemistry for exam question practice and, above all, attentive to your teacher's teaching!

  5. I know from feedback that my gcse science summary revision pages have proved useful but they do not guarantee a high grade, that all depends on you and the factors mentioned in point 4. above. Please note that my GCSE science revision pages are designed to be used for online convenience, so, beware, printouts could be quite long!
  6. Edexcel  GCSE grade 9-1 Combined Science Chemistry 2 PAST PAPERS and specimen practice paper questions

  7. 'Doc b's chemistry' is a big website so the Google [SEARCH] box at the bottom of each index or revision notes page can be VERY USEFUL - sometimes its better than the indexes for finding things!

  8. Links to specific GCSE chemistry notes and quizzes about the topic in question have been added, and from these pages, you may find other links to more useful material linked to the topic.



Syllabus-specification CONTENT INDEX of revision summary notes

Note: a C after the learning objective indicates it is for Edexcel GCSE Chemistry ONLY, NOT for Combined Science

Revision summaries for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 3 Chemistry 1 (separate page)

What's assessed in this paper?

SUMMARY Topic 1 – Key concepts in chemistry  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Chemistry 1 paper 3)

SUMMARY Topic 2 – States of matter and mixtures   (Edexcel Combined Science Chemistry 1 paper 3)1)

SUMMARY Topic 3 – Chemical changes  (Edexcel Combined Science Chemistry 1 paper 3)

SUMMARY Topic 4 – Extracting metals and equilibria  (Edexcel Combined Science Chemistry 1 paper 3)


Revision summaries for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 4 Chemistry 2 (this page)

What's assessed in this paper?

SUMMARY Topic 1 – Key concepts in chemistry (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Chemistry 2 paper 4)

SUMMARY Topic 6 – Groups in the periodic table  (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Chemistry 2 paper 4)

SUMMARY Topic 7 – Rates of reaction and energy changes  (Combined Science Chemistry 2 paper 4)

SUMMARY Topic 8 – Fuels and Earth Science (Edexcel GCSE Combined Science Chemistry 2 paper 4)



TOPICS for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 4 Chemistry 2

Note: a C after the learning objective indicates it is for Edexcel GCSE Chemistry ONLY, NOT for Combined Science

Topics common to all chemistry papers

 Formulae, equations and hazards

Students should:

0.1 Be able to recall the formulae of elements, simple compounds and ions

0.2 Write word equations

0.3 Write balanced chemical equations, including the use of the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq)

0.4 (HT only) Write balanced ionic equations

0.5 Be able to describe the use of hazard symbols on containers

(a) to indicate the dangers associated with the contents

(b) to inform people about safe-working precautions with these substances in the laboratory

0.6 Be able to evaluate the risks in a practical procedure and suggest suitable precautions for a range of practicals including those mentioned in the specification  

How to write word & symbol equations, work out formula and name compounds

Hazard warning symbols and QUIZ on hazard warning symbols

Ideas on experiment design and risk assessment

Multiple Choice Quiz on balancing Symbol Chemical Equations with numbers

Number fill Quiz on completing symbol equations (Q1 Q2 Q3)


Topic 1 - Key concepts in chemistry

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 3 chemistry 1, Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry")

(Topic 1 common to ALL chemistry papers)

Edexcel GCSE 9-1 Combined Science Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry" quiz questions content for chemistry 1/2: balancing equations, atomic structure, chemical calculations, periodic table, bonding and structure (higher/foundation tier)

for HT students: Topic 1 "Key Concepts in Chemistry" QUIZ (Edexcel GCSE chemistry-combined science)

for FT students: Topic 1 "Key Concepts in Chemistry" QUIZ (Edexcel GCSE chemistry-combined science)

HT = higher tier (harder - usually more theory & depth) and FT = foundation tier (easier)  1st drafts of Edexcel quizzes

Atomic structure

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry")

You should be able to ...

1.1 Be able to describe how the Dalton model of an atom has changed because of the discovery of subatomic particles

1.2 Be able to describe the structure of an atom as a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons in shells

1.3 Be able to recall the relative charge and relative mass of a proton, a neutron and an electron

1.4 Be able to explain why atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons

1.5 Be able to describe the nucleus of an atom as very small compared to the overall size of the atom

1.6 Be able to recall that most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus

1.7 Be able to recall the meaning of the term mass number of an atom

1.8 Be able to describe atoms of a given element as having the same number of protons in the nucleus and that this number is unique to that element

1.9 Be able to describe isotopes as different atoms of the same element containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei

1.10 Calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms given the atomic number and mass number

1.11 Be able to explain how the existence of isotopes results in relative atomic masses of some elements not being whole numbers

1.12 (HT only) Calculate the relative atomic mass of an element from the relative masses and abundances of its isotopes

Atomic Structure - nucleus, electrons, isotopes etc.

Multiple choice quiz on  Atomic structure, isotopes & electronic structure of atoms

Atomic Structure crossword puzzle * Answers

Gap-fill worksheet on Atomic Structure

Matching pair quiz on Atomic and electronic structure 1. fundamental particles

Matching pair quiz on Atomic and electronic structure 2. periodic table

The periodic table

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry")

1.13 Be able to describe how Mendeleev arranged the elements, known at that time, in a periodic table by using properties of these elements and their compounds

1.14 Be able to describe how Mendeleev used his table to predict the existence and properties of some elements not then discovered

1.15 Be able to explain that Mendeleev thought he had arranged elements in order of increasing relative atomic mass but this was not always true because of the relative abundance of isotopes of some pairs of elements in the periodic table

Periodic Table Notes - an overview with history section

1.16 Be able to explain the meaning of atomic number of an element in terms of position in the periodic table and number of protons in the nucleus

1.17 Be able to describe that in the periodic table

(a) elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number in rows called periods

(b) elements with similar properties are placed in the same vertical columns called groups

1.18 Identify elements as metals or non-metals according to their position in the periodic table and Be able to explaining this division in terms of the atomic structures of the elements

1.19 Be able to predict the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements in the periodic table as diagrams and in the form, for example, 2.8.1

1.20 Be able to explain how the electronic configuration of an element is related to its position in the periodic table

Periodic Table Notes - an overview

Matching pair quiz on Atomic and electronic structure 2. periodic table

Multiple choice quiz on the basics of the Periodic Table

(best tackled after most periodic table sections done)

Task sheet worksheet on Periodic Table history * (answers)

Basic Periodic Table Task sheet worksheet * (answers)

Gap-fill worksheet on the Periodic Table

Element Symbol-name QUIZ - easier-pictorial

Element symbol & name QUIZ harder - no pictures!

Structured question on the reactivity of elements and the periodic table and answers

Ionic bonding

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry")

1.21 Be able to explain how ionic bonds are formed by the transfer of electrons between atoms to produce cations and anions, including the use of dot and cross diagrams

1.22 Be able to recall that an ion is an atom or group of atoms with a positive or negative charge

1.23 Be able to calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in simple ions given the atomic number and mass number

1.24 Be able to explain the formation of ions in ionic compounds from their atoms, limited to compounds of elements in groups 1, 2, 6 and 7

1.25 Be able to explain the use of the endings –ide and –ate in the names of compounds

1.26 Be able to deduce the formulae of ionic compounds (including oxides, hydroxides, halides, nitrates, carbonates and sulfates) given the formulae of the constituent ions

1.27 Be able to explain the structure of an ionic compound as

(a) lattice structure a consisting of a regular arrangement of ions

(b) held together by strong electrostatic forces (ionic bonds) between oppositely-charged ions

Be able to represent three dimensional shapes in two dimensions and vice versa when looking at chemical structures

Introduction to Chemical Bonding

Ionic bonding and ionic compounds and their properties

Quiz on the Structure, Properties and Chemical Bonding of Materials

Covalent bonding

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry")

1.28 Be able to explain how a covalent bond is formed when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms

1.29 Be able to recall that covalent bonding results in the formation of molecules

1.30 Be able to recall the typical size (order of magnitude) of atoms and small molecules

Be able to relate size and scale of atoms to objects in the physical world.

Be able to estimate size and scale of atoms

Introduction to Chemical Bonding

Covalent bonding and small molecules and their properties

Atomic Structure - size comparison table

Quiz on the Structure, Properties and Chemical Bonding of Materials

Types of substances

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry")

1.31 Be able to explain the formation of simple molecular, covalent substances, using dot and cross diagrams, including:

(a) hydrogen, (b) hydrogen chloride, (c) water, (d) methane, (e) oxygen, (f) carbon dioxide

1.32 Be able to explain why elements and compounds can be classified as:

(a) ionic

(b) simple molecular (covalent)

(c) giant covalent

(d) metallic

and how the structure and bonding of these types of substances results in different physical properties, including relative melting point and boiling point, relative solubility in water and ability to conduct electricity (as solids and in solution)

Ionic compounds - structure and properties

Covalent small simple molecules - structure and properties

Macromolecules, giant covalent structures, polymers - structure and properties

Metals – structure and properties (including alloys)

Quiz on the Structure, Properties and Chemical Bonding of Materials

1.33 Be able to explain the properties of ionic compounds limited to:

(a) high melting points and boiling points, in terms of forces between ions

(b) whether or not they conduct electricity as solids, when molten and in aqueous solution

Ionic compounds - structure and properties

1.34 Be able to explain the properties of typical covalent, simple molecular compounds limited to:

(a) low melting points and boiling points, in terms of forces between molecules (intermolecular forces)

(b) poor conduction of electricity

Covalent small simple molecules - structure and properties

1.35 Be able to recall that graphite and diamond are different forms of carbon and that they are examples of giant covalent substances

Be able to represent three dimensional shapes in two dimensions and vice versa when looking at chemical structures, e.g. allotropes of carbon.

1.36 Be able to describe the structures of graphite and diamond

1.37 Be able to explain, in terms of structure and bonding, why graphite is used to make electrodes and as a lubricant, whereas diamond is used in cutting tools

Macromolecules, giant covalent structures, polymers - structure and properties for 1.35 to 1.37

1.38 Be able to explain the properties of fullerenes including C60 and graphene in terms of their structures and bonding

Fullerenes; bucky balls and carbon nanotubes and Graphene

1.39 Be able to describe, using poly(ethene) as the example, that simple polymers consist of large molecules containing chains of carbon atoms

Addition polymer structure - properties and uses including poly(ethene)

1.40 Be able to explain the properties of metals, including malleability and the ability to conduct electricity

1.41 Be able to describe the limitations of particular representations and models to include dot and cross, ball and stick models and two- and three-dimensional representations

1.42 Be able to describe most metals as shiny solids which have high melting points, high density and are good conductors of electricity whereas most non-metals have low boiling points and are poor conductors

Metallic bonding, properties and uses of metals

Be able to translate information between diagrammatic and numerical forms

Quiz on the Structure, Properties and Chemical Bonding of Materials

Calculations involving masses

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry")

1.43 Be able to calculate relative formula mass given relative atomic masses

Calculating relative formula/molecular mass (Mr) of a compound or element molecule

Type in answer quiz on relative formula mass

Multiple Choice quiz on relative formula mass

1.44 Be able to calculate the formulae of simple compounds from reacting masses and understand that these are empirical formulae

Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

Working out empirical formula from reacting masses type in answer QUIZ

Working out empirical formula from reacting masses multiple choice QUIZ

1.45 Be able to deduce:

(a) the empirical formula of a compound from the formula of its molecule

(b) the molecular formula of a compound from its empirical formula and its relative molecular mass

empirical formula and deducing molecular formula of a compound/molecule examples near top of page

1.46 Be able to describe an experiment to determine the empirical formula of a simple compound such as magnesium oxide

Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

Working out empirical formula from reacting masses type in answer QUIZ

Working out empirical formula from reacting masses multiple choice QUIZ

1.47 Be able to explain the law of conservation of mass applied to:

(a) a closed system including a precipitation reaction in a closed flask

(b) a non-enclosed system including a reaction in an open flask that takes in or gives out a gas

Law of Conservation of Mass and simple reacting mass calculations

Type in answer quiz on the law of conservation of mass

Multiple choice quiz on the law of conservation of mass

1.48 Be able to calculate masses of reactants and products from balanced equations, given the mass of one substance

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (NOT using moles)

Type in answer QUIZ on reacting masses

Multiple choice QUIZ on reacting masses

1.49 Be able to calculate the concentration of solutions in g dm–3

Concentration of solution in terms of mass and volume

1.50 (HT only) Be able to recall that one mole of particles of a substance is defined as

(a)  the Avogadro constant number of particles (6 x 1023 atoms, molecules, formulae, ions) of that substance

(b) a mass of ‘relative particle mass’ g

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

1.51 (HT only) Be able to calculate the number of:

(a) moles of particles of a substance in a given mass of that substance and vice versa

(b) particles of a substance in a given number of moles of that substance and vice versa

(c) particles of a substance in a given mass of that substance and vice versa

Introducing moles: The connection between moles, mass and formula mass - the basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

Introduction to moles type in answer QUIZ

Introduction to moles multiple choice QUIZ

1.52(HT only) Be able to explain why, in a reaction, the mass of product formed is controlled by the mass of the reactant which is not in excess

How much of a reactant is needed? calculation of quantities required, limiting reactant quantities

1.53 (HT only) Be able to deduce the stoichiometry of a reaction from the masses of the reactants and products

Reacting mass ratio calculations of reactants and products from equations (NOT using moles)

The basis of reacting mole ratio calculations (relating reacting masses and formula mass)

Practicals you may have encountered

Investigating the size of an oil molecule.

Investigating the properties of a metal, such as electrical conductivity.

Investigating the different types of bonding: metallic, covalent and ionic.

Investigating the typical properties of simple and giant covalent compounds and ionic compounds.

Classifying different types of elements and compounds by investigating their melting points and boiling points, solubility in water and electrical conductivity (as solids and in solution), including sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hexane, liquid paraffin, silicon(IV) oxide, copper sulfate, and sucrose (sugar).

See deduction exercise near the end of the Introduction to chemical bonding page

Determining the empirical formula of a simple compound.

Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

Working out empirical formula from reacting masses type in answer QUIZ

Working out empirical formula from reacting masses multiple choice QUIZ

Investigating mass changes before and after reactions (Law of conservation of mass practical).

Empirical formula and formula mass of a compound from reacting masses (easy start, not using moles)

Determining the formula of a hydrated salt such as copper sulfate by heating to drive off water of crystallisation.

Water of crystallisation - method and calculation

Unless otherwise stated, check out the links already quoted


The other Topics 6-9 for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Chemistry Paper 2 ONLY



Topic 6 Groups in the Periodic Table

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 6 "Groups in the periodic table")

Edexcel GCSE 9-1 Combined Science Topic 6 "Groups in the Periodic Table" quiz questions content: chemistry of group 1 alkali metals, chemistry of group 7 halogens, properties of noble gases, structure of the periodic table (Higher Tier HT/Foundation Tier FT)

HT Level: Topic 12 "Groups of the Periodic Table" QUIZ (Edexcel GCSE chemistry-combined science)

FT Level: Topic 12 "Groups of the Periodic Table" QUIZ (Edexcel GCSE chemistry-combined science)

HT = higher tier (harder - usually more theory & depth) and FT = foundation tier (easier)  1st drafts of Edexcel quizzes

Group 1 Alkali Metals

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 6 "Groups in the periodic table")

You should be able to ....

6.1 Be able to explain why some elements can be classified as alkali metals (group 1), halogens (group 7) or noble gases (group 0), based on their position in the periodic table

Periodic Table Notes - an overview, groups, periods, metals & non-metals

Multiple choice quiz on the basics of the Periodic Table

6.2 Be able to recall that Group 1 alkali metals: (a) are soft, (b) have relatively low melting points

6.3 Be able to describe the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water

6.4 Be able to describe the pattern in reactivity of the alkali metals, lithium, sodium and potassium, with water; and use this pattern to predict the reactivity of other alkali metals

6.5 Be able to explain this pattern in reactivity in terms of electronic configurations.

Group 1 Alkali Metals

Multiple choice quiz on the Group 1 Alkali Metals

Word-fill worksheet on the Group 1 Alkali Metals

Group 7 The Halogens

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 6 "Groups in the periodic table")

6.6 Be able to recall the colours and physical states of chlorine, bromine and iodine at room temperature

6.7 Be able to describe the pattern in the physical properties of the halogens, chlorine, bromine and iodine, and use this pattern to predict the physical properties of other halogens

6.8 Be able to describe the chemical test for chlorine

6.9 Be able to describe the reactions of halogens, chlorine, bromine and iodine, with metals to form metal halides, and use this pattern to predict the reactions of other halogens 

6.10 Be able to recall that the halogens, chlorine, bromine and iodine, form hydrogen halides which dissolve in water to form acidic solutions, and use this pattern to predict the reactions of other halogens 

6.11 Be able to describe the relative reactivity of the halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine, as shown by their displacement reactions with halide ions in aqueous solution, and use this pattern to predict the reactions of astatine

6.12 (HT only) Be able to explain why these displacement reactions are redox reactions in terms of gain and loss of electrons, identifying which of these are oxidised and which are reduced

6.13 Be able to explain the relative reactivity of the halogens in terms of electronic configurations.

Group 7 Halogens - physical and chemical properties

Multiple choice quiz on the Group 7 Halogens

A Group 7 "Halogens" task sheet worksheet * (answers)

Word-fill work sheet on the Halogens

The Halogens (matching pair quiz on their appearance)

Group 0 Noble Gases

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 6 "Groups in the periodic table")

6.14 Be able to explain why the noble gases are chemically inert, compared with the other elements, in terms of their electronic configurations

6.15 Be able to explain how the uses of noble gases depend on their inertness, low density and/or non-flammability

6.16 Be able to describe the pattern in the physical properties of some noble gases and use this pattern to predict the physical properties of other noble gases

Suggested practicals

Investigate displacement reactions of halogens reacting with halide ions in solution.

Group 0 Noble Gases

Multiple choice quiz on Group 0 The Noble Gases

Wordfill worksheet on the Noble Gases (answers)


Topic 7 Rates of reaction and energy changes

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 7 "Rates of reaction and energy changes")



Topic 7 Rates of reaction and energy changes

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 7 "Rates of reaction and energy changes")

Edexcel GCSE 9-1 Combined Science Topic 7 "Rates of reaction and energy changes" quiz questions content: factors effecting the rates of chemical reactions - temperature, concentration, catalysts, enzymes, explaining speed of reactions with the collision theory, energy changes - exothermic and endothermic reactions, (HT only) bond energy calculations (Higher Tier HT/Foundation Tier FT)

HT Level Topic 13 "Rates of reaction & energy changes" QUIZ (Edexcel GCSE chemistry-combined science)

FT Level Topic 13 "Rates of reaction & energy changes" QUIZ (Edexcel GCSE chemistry-combined science)

HT = higher tier (harder - usually more theory & depth) and FT = foundation tier (easier)  1st drafts of Edexcel quizzes

Rates of reaction

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 7 "Rates of reaction and energy changes")

You should be able to .... (all help links at the end after 7.8)

7.1 Core Practical: Investigate the effects of changing the conditions of a reaction on the rates of chemical reactions by:

(a) measuring the production of a gas (in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips)

(b) observing a colour change (in the reaction between sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid)

7.2 Suggest practical methods for determining the rate of a given reaction

7.3 Be able to explain how reactions occur when particles collide and that rates of reaction are increased when the frequency and/or energy of collisions is increased

7.4 Be able to explain the effects on rates of reaction of changes in temperature, concentration, surface area to volume ratio of a solid and pressure (on reactions involving gases) in terms of frequency and/or energy of collisions between particles

7.5 Be able to interpret graphs of mass, volume or concentration of reactant or product against time

7.6 Be able to describe a catalyst as a substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction without altering the products of the reaction, being itself unchanged chemically and in mass at the end of the reaction

7.7 Be able to explain how the addition of a catalyst increases the rate of a reaction in terms of activation energy

7.8 Be able to recall that enzymes are biological catalysts and that enzymes are used in the production of alcoholic drinks

Practical: Investigating the effect of potential catalysts on the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

What do we mean by the rate/speed of reaction? how can we measure it?

Examples of graphs of rate data, interpretation

Particle model of the collision theory of chemical reaction rate factors

Effect of changing reactant concentration in solution

Effect of changing pressure in reacting gases

Effect of changing particle size/surface area & stirring of a solid reactant

Effect of changing the temperature of reactants

Effect of using a catalyst in a chemical reaction

Catalysts and activation energy

Enzymes and Biotechnology

Multiple choice Quiz on the Rates of Chemical Reactions

Crossword on Rates of Reactions * Answers

Wordfill worksheet on Rates of Chemical Reactions

(1) matching pair quizzes on Rates of Chemical Reactions and (2)

Heat energy changes in chemical reactions

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 7 "Rates of reaction and energy changes")

(all help links at the end after 7.16)

7.9 Be able to recall that changes in heat energy accompany the following changes:

(a) salts dissolving in water

(b) neutralisation reactions

(c) displacement reactions

(d) precipitation reactions

and that, when these reactions take place in solution, temperature changes can be measured to reflect the heat changes

7.10 Be able to describe an exothermic change or reaction as one in which heat energy is given out

7.11 Be able to describe an endothermic change or reaction as one in which heat energy is taken in

7.12 Be able to recall that the breaking of bonds is endothermic and the making of bonds is exothermic

7.13 Be able to recall that the overall heat energy change for a reaction is:

(a) exothermic if more heat energy is released in forming bonds in the products than is required in breaking bonds in the reactants

(b) endothermic if less heat energy is released in forming bonds in the products than is required in breaking bonds in the reactants

7.14 (HT only) Calculate the energy change in a reaction given the energies of bonds (in kJ mol–1)

7.15 Be able to explain the term activation energy

7.16 Be able to draw and label reaction profiles for endothermic and exothermic reactions, identifying activation energy

Suggested practicals

Measure temperature changes accompanying some of the following types of change:

(a) salts dissolving in water

(b) neutralisation reactions

(c) displacement reactions

(d) precipitation reactions

Heat changes in chemical/physical changes - exothermic and endothermic

Calorimeter methods of determining energy changes and examples of experiments you can do

Reversible reactions and energy changes

Activation energy and reaction profiles

Catalysts and activation energy

Introduction to bond energy/enthalpy calculations

Energy transfer calculations from calorimeter results

Quiz on Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions


Topic 8 Fuels and Earth Science

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 8 "Fuels and Earth science")



Topic 8 Fuels and Earth Science

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 8 "Fuels and Earth science")

TOPIC QUIZ UNDER DEVELOPMENT

HT = higher tier (harder - usually more theory & depth) and FT = foundation tier (easier)  1st drafts of Edexcel quizzes

Fuels

You should be able to ....

8.1 Be able to recall that hydrocarbons are compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen only

8.2 Be able to describe crude oil as:

(a) a complex mixture of hydrocarbons

(b) containing molecules in which carbon atoms are in chains or rings (names, formulae and structures of specific ring molecules not required)

(c) an important source of useful substances (fuels and feedstock for the petrochemical industry)

(d) a finite resource

Fossil Fuels

Fractional distillation of crude oil & molecular properties related to uses of fractions

8.3 Be able to describe and explain the separation of crude oil into simpler, more useful mixtures by the process of fractional distillation

8.4 Be able to recall the names and uses of the following fractions:

(a) gases, used in domestic heating and cooking

(b) petrol, used as fuel for cars

(c) kerosene, used as fuel for aircraft

(d) diesel oil, used as fuel for some cars and trains

(e) fuel oil, used as fuel for large ships and in some power stations

(f) bitumen, used to surface roads and roofs

Fractional distillation of crude oil & molecular properties related to uses of fractions

8.5 Be able to explain how hydrocarbons in different fractions differ from each other in:

(a) the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms their molecules contain

(b) boiling points

(c) ease of ignition

(d) viscosity

... and are mostly members of the alkane homologous series

Fractional distillation of crude oil & uses of fractions

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products

3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

8.6 Be able to explain an homologous series as a series of compounds which:

(a) have the same general formula

(b) differ by CH2 in molecular formulae from neighbouring compounds

(c) show a gradual variation in physical properties, as exemplified by their boiling points

(d) have similar chemical properties (apart from alkanes, because of the same functional group)

Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Why so many series of organic compounds? - homologous series

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products

3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

8.7 Be able to describe the complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels as a reaction in which:

(a) carbon dioxide and water are produced

(b) energy is given out

Alkanes - saturated hydrocarbons, structure and reactions including combustion

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products

3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

8.8 Be able to explain why the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons can produce carbon and carbon monoxide

8.9 Be able to explain how carbon monoxide behaves as a toxic gas

8.10 Be able to describe the problems caused by incomplete combustion producing carbon monoxide and soot in appliances that use carbon compounds as fuels

Air pollution - incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide & soot for 8.8 to 8.10

3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

8.11 Be able to explain how impurities in some hydrocarbon fuels result in the production of sulfur dioxide

8.12 Be able to explain some problems associated with acid rain caused when sulfur dioxide dissolves in rain water

8.13 Be able to explain why, when fuels are burned in engines, oxygen and nitrogen can react together at high temperatures to produce oxides of nitrogen, which are pollutants

Air pollution - sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, acid rain for 8.11 to 8.13

3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

8.14 Be able to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen, rather than petrol, as a fuel in cars

Biofuels - biogas, biodiesel, gashol, alternative fuels - hydrogen

8.15 Be able to recall that petrol, kerosene and diesel oil are non-renewable fossil fuels obtained from crude oil and methane is a nonrenewable fossil fuel found in natural gas

Fossil Fuels

Fractional distillation of crude oil & molecular properties related to uses of fractions

3 linked easy Oil Products gap-fill quiz worksheets

8.16 Be able to explain how cracking involves the breaking down of larger, saturated hydrocarbon molecules (alkanes) into smaller, more useful ones, some of which are unsaturated (alkenes).

8.17 Be able to explain why cracking is necessary

Cracking - a problem of supply and demand, other products

Multiple choice QUIZ on Oil Products - hydrocarbon chemistry

Suggested practicals

Investigate the fractional distillation of synthetic crude oil and the ease of ignition and viscosity of the fractions.

Investigate the products produced from the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon.

Investigate the cracking of paraffin oil.

Earth and atmospheric science

(Exam revision summary for Edexcel GCSE 9-1 combined science paper 4 chemistry 2, Topic 8 "Fuels and Earth science")

You should be able to ....

8.18 Be able to recall that the gases produced by volcanic activity formed the Earth’s early atmosphere

8.19 Be able to describe that the Earth’s early atmosphere was thought to contain:

(a) little or no oxygen

(b) a large amount of carbon dioxide

(c) water vapour

(d) small amounts of other gases

... and be able to interpret evidence relating to this

8.20 Be able to explain how condensation of water vapour formed oceans

8.21 Be able to explain how the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was decreased when carbon dioxide dissolved as the oceans formed

8.22 Be able to explain how the growth of primitive plants used carbon dioxide and released oxygen by photosynthesis and consequently the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere gradually increased

8.23 Be able to describe the chemical test for oxygen

links for 8.18 to 8.23

Our atmosphere - composition, determining % oxygen, uses of gases in air

Recycling of gases - carbon cycle, global warming, oxygen balance and photosynthesis,

Past ancient atmospheres, changes due to man's activities

Evolution of atmosphere - changes over billions of years, origin of life

8.24 Be able to describe how various gases in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour, absorb heat radiated from the Earth, subsequently releasing energy which keeps the Earth warm: this is known as the greenhouse effect

8.25 Be able to evaluate the evidence for human activity causing climate change, considering:

(a) the correlation between the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, the consumption of fossil fuels and temperature change

(b) the uncertainties caused by the location where these measurements are taken and historical accuracy

8.26 Be able to describe:

(a) the potential effects on the climate of increased levels of carbon dioxide and methane generated by human activity, including burning fossil fuels and livestock farming

(b) that these effects may be mitigated: consider scale, risk and environmental implications

Greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, carbon footprint from fossil fuel burning for 8.24 to 8.26

Suggested practicals

Investigate the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Investigate the presence of water vapour and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Investigate the volume of air used up and products formed when candles are burned.

Carry out the test for oxygen.


PAST PAPERS   (Practice exam question papers for Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Combined Science Paper 4 Chemistry 2 for questions on Topic 1 "Key concepts in chemistry", Topic 6 "Groups in the periodic table", Topic 7 "Rates of reaction and energy changes", Topic 8 "Fuels and Earth science ")



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Edexcel GCSE Sciences (Grade 9-1) Level 1/Level 2 specifications syllabuses, specimen papers, past exam papers

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Specifications - syllabuses, past exam papers, specimen practice question papers

(see separate page for Combined Science Chemistry 1 Papers)

1SC0 syllabus  Edexcel_GCSE_L1-L2_Combined_Science.pdf

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